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\'"r> V " ,. 









XJ \\A ^ '^^' A \ < -• 



-— -., r 



<^1 E U R P E, 



PAST AND PRESENT 



A COMPREHENSIVE MANUAL 



OF 



EUROPEAN GEOORAPHT AND HISTORY; 



SEPARATE DE8C1iIFTI0V8 AND STATISTICS OF EACH STATE, 



A COPIOUS INDEX, 



FAODJTABXCI BXVBUEirai TO XVSBT ESSmTIAL VAOT IN 

AND PSnOUIT 8TATB OF NDBOPB. 



BY FRANCIS H. UNGEWITTER, LL.D., 



NEW YORK: 
GEO. P. PUTNAM, 156 BROADWAY, 

AND « ROW LANE, CUBAPSIDB, LONDON. 

1850.. 



EDtered, socordii^ to Act of Con giC M, in the year 1850, 

BY 6. P. PUTNAM, 

In the Clerk^ Oflloe of the Dtilrfet Ck>art for the Boathem EHstriet of New York. 




THOKAf B. fMITH, mEBOTTPBR, 
916 WILLIAM fTEBBT) R. T. 



s 



PREFACE. 



-»♦♦■ 



As antbor of several extensive geographical works, 
which have been successfully published in Q-ermanyi 
my native countryi I have ventured to prepare this vol- 
mne with the view of oflforing to the American public a 
guide in European G-eograjdiy and History. 

It is superfluous to say that the value of such a work 
depends entirely upon its authenticity and accuracy: 
and that these qualities are, especially in Germany, es- 
sential to success. In endeavoring to avoid all superficial 
and unfounded statements, I have hoped also to steer 
clear of pedantry and prdixity. For such a volume, in 
the present state of pqmlar infcnrmatioii, I should not 
have felt justified in using any other than original and 
autbentio materials. 

Fortunately, materials of this kind are not at all lack- 
ing in Europe. First, in most European countries an 
ojfidal alnumac is published every year, which c«Hitains 
more or less oopwos statistioal parti^nEilais to be lelied 



iv PREFACE. 



on. Secondly, a census is taken in certain periods, not 
restricted to the population only, but extended to a great 
variety of other statistical matters. Thirdly, there is 
scarcely a European state without its special geographi- 
cal and historical description^ written by a native scholar. 
Beside these abundant materiab, the official parliamen- 
tary reports and documents in many states furnish au- 
thentic statements with regard to the public finances, 
the army, the navy, etc. Moreover, I have visited most 
of the European countries, and have thus been enabled 
to fill up deficiencies almost inevitable with him who 
knows a people or a country merely by books. 

The index, annexed to this volume, and oontaining 
nearly ten thousand names, will, enaUe the reader to find 
readily any essential fact connected with European geog* 
raphy or history. The table of contents, prefixed to the 
volume, gives at once a clear view of all those fiffcy-six 
states, which constitute Europe in a political sense. 

The arrangement with reference to the mountain 
ranges, rivers, lakes, etc., of all Europe, by compressing 
them within the compass of one c(»nmon description, will 
perhaps meet with the approbation of the reader ; tedi- 
ous repetitions being avoided in this way. Beside this, 
the introduction contains a general, yet condensed history 
of Europe. 

Concerning the description of each of these fifty-six 
European states, the order observed is thus: firsts the 
statements about - area and popufailpoEi^ aurfaoe, aoil. 



PREFAOE. T 

natural products, irmnufaotares, oommeroe and trade, 
public finances, form cxf government, strength of tiie 
army and (with maritime states) of the navy, and the 
orders of honor ; secondly ^ the history ; and thirdly ^ the 
topography of the state. 

Tmsting that the public will kindly make allowance 
for my want of an elegant English style, the more so 
as until the last year I never had any suitable oppor- 
tunity to improve in it practically, I sincerely wish, that 
for the rest tins volume may answer every reasonable 
expectation on the part of the reader. 



F. H. UNGEWTTTER. 



Vmw ToBS» Jmm 86IA, 1850. 



CONTENTS. 



^»» 



rAss 

nSTTRODlTOTION, OR GENERAL VIEW OP EUROPE, 1 

Hie Mountain Ranges of Etorope, •'i 

Inland Seai, Bays, Soonda, Straits • 

Lakes of Europe, 10 

Rivers of Europe,.... 12 

Iiidependent States of Europe, 81 

SOCIAL AND POLinOAL HISTORY OP EITROPE, 28 

PORTITGAL, 62 

History of Portugal, 67 

SPAIN, 76 

History of Spain, 84 

ITALT,..' 99 

1. The Kingdom of Sardinia, 108 

2. The Kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, 116 

8. Hie Duchy of Parma, 116 

4. The Duchy of Modena, 117 

6. The Qrand-Duchy of Tuscany, (indudiog Lucca) 120 

6. The States of the Church, 127 

7. The Republic of San Karino, 186 

8. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 187 

9. Malta, U9 

SWITZERLAND IW 

Hiitory of Switnrland, IM 



OONTENTa 



FRANCE, 170 

History of France, 179 

The Provinoes of Isle de France, Normandy, Ficardy, 182 

Hie Prorinoee of Artoia, French Flanders, Champagne, 189 

The Provinces of Lorraine and Alsace, « 198 

Hie Provinces of Bmgundy and Franche Comti, 199 

The Proyinoes of Boarboniaais, Nivemais and Berry, 208 

The Provinces of Qrlfianais, Touraine and Anjou, 206 

The Provinoes fsi Maine, Perche and Brittany, 207 

The Provinces of Poitou, Aunis, Angotunais, La Marche, 210 

The Provinoes of limousin, Auvergne and Lyoonais« 218 

The Provinces of Gnyenne and Gascony, 214 

The Provinces of Navarre, B6am, Foiz and Ronssillon, 218 

Hie Provinces of Languedoe and Dauphiny, 219 

Hie Provinoes of Provence, Avignon and Corsica, 228 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 227 

British Histcry 282 

A, The Kingdom of England, 284 

B. Hie Kingdom of So^dand, 248 

a The Kingdom of Ireland, 2M 

THE NETHERLANDS 201 

L The Kingdom of the Netherlands, 286 

2. The Kingdom of Belgium, 276 

GERMANY, 2S4 

1. German Provinces of Austria, 809 

2. German Provinces of Prussia, 810 

8. The Kingdom of Bavaria, 811 

4. The Kingdom of Wirtemberg, 829 

6. The Grand-Dodiy of Baden, 887 

6-7. Hm Principalities of HohenioUem, 847 

& The PrindpaUty of liecfatenstein, 860 

9. The Grand-Duchy of Hesse 861 

10. Hie Landgraviate of Hesse 868 

11. The Doefay of Nassau, 860 

12. Hie Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg, and Duchy of limborg,. . . . 866 

18. The Eleetorate of Hesse, 868 

14. Hie Principality of Waldedc, 876 

16. Hie Kingdom of Sazooy, 876 

16. Hie Grand-Dochy of Saze-Weimar» 886 

17. The Duchy of Saxe-Meinhigeo, 889 



OONTBNTB. 



18. llMBuchjof Sazft-OoVar^-Gotha, 892 

19. The Buchy of Saxe-Alteobiirg, 896 

20-21. The Prindpalities of Beusa, 89*7 

22-28. The P^iDcipalities of Schiironbuiig, 899 

24-25. The Duchies of Anhftlt, 402 

26. The Grand-O'ucfay of Mecklenburg Sefawerin, 406 

21 The Qraod-Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 410 

28. The Duchies of Uolstein and Laoeoburg, 412 

29. The Grand-Duchy of Oldenburg, 420 

80. The Principality of Lippe-Detmold, 427 

81. The Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe, 428 

82. The Kingdom of Hanover, 480 

88. The Duchy of Brunswick, 444 

84. The Ftee City of Hamburg, 448 

86. The Free City of Lubec, 451 

86. The Free City of Bremen, 458 

81. The Free Oity of Frankfort^ 464 

THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA, 467 

History of Prussia, 462 

THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, 601 

1. The German Provinces of Austria, 608 

2. The Kingdom of Galicia, 618 

8. The Kingdom of Hungary, 620 

4. The Grand-Duchy of Transylyania, 580 

6 . The Military Frontier, 638 

6. The Kingdom of Dalmatia 534 

7. The Kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, 536 

DENMARK, 643 

1 . The Danish Islands, 64 9 

2. Jutland, 562 

8. The Duchy of Sleswick, 664 

4. The Faroe Isles, 667 

6. Iceland, 669 

SWEDEN AND NORWAY, 662 

A, The Kingdom of Sweden, 667 

B. The Kingdom of Norway 676 

RUSSIA IN EUROPE, 679 

1. Gre«t Russia, 690 



OONTBNTB. 



8. little Rnaniw 6M 

8. The Baltic PlroTiDoes, 696 

4. Hie Qrand-Duchy of FiiOaiid, 698 

6. West, or Poliflii Buwia, 600 

6. Hie Kingdom of Poland, 608 

7. The Kingdom of Kiwan, 607 

8. The Kingdom of AatradiaD, 608 

9. Sooth RuHia, 610 

THE IONIAN ISLANDS, 614 

Histoty of the Ionian IslandB, 616 

GREEGB, 617 

Hittory of Greece, 619 

EUROPEAN TURKEY, 694 

1. Roumelia, 628 

2. Bulgaria, 689 

8. Macedonia^ 680 

4. Thessalia, 681 

6. The Islands, 681 

6. Albania, 688 

1. Bosnia, 688 

8. Tributary Provinces, 684 

Servia. 684 

WaOachia, 686 

Moldayia,. 686 



EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



INTRODUCTION: GENERAL VIEW OF EUROPE. 

Area op Europe : 8,816,986 square miles. 
Population op Europe : 262,800,000 infaabitanta. 

1. Before enteriDg npon the subject, it may be remarked that 
most of the statistical statements in this work, especially those 
concerning the population of states, cities, towns, etc., correspond 
with the official and other authentic reports from the beginning 
of the year 1848. The political revolutions which since have 
occurred in most of the European countries, have in many in- 
stances changed the state of things, caused numerous emigrations, 
and, at all events, prevented a careful investigation in statbtical 
matters. Moreover, a census is in Europe nowhere taken annu- 
ally, but, for instance, in Franco every fiflh, in Germany every 
third year, and so on. However, the statements in this work 
being thoroughly authenlicj they will afiford a sure stand-point 
with regard to all future events, until matters and things are 
completely settled again in Europe. 

2. The above-stated area of 3,816,936 square miles, is distrib- 
uted as follows : — 

Germany 244,876 square zmleB. 

ThePruBdanproriiicetofPnnniaandPoeeii, 86,608 " <* 

Hungary, Galida, etc, . . 164^621 ** 



EITROPB, PAST AND PRESENT. 



AfM ind Population of each country. 



Italy, 


119,706 square milea. 


Switserland, 


16,816 


u « 


Holland and Belginm, . 


24,644 


« II 


France, . ... 


204,826 


u m 


Spain and Portugal, 


216,429 


t* m 


British Islands (indading Guemsej', 


etc), 117,921 


u u 


Denmark (including Iceland), 


49,927 


tt « 


Sweden and Norway, . 


293,280 


4 


Russia (in Europe), 


2,099,908 


tt M 


Ionian Tslanda, .... 


1,108 


« < 


U'reece, ...... 


19,149 


M « 


Turkey (in Europe), 


209,422 


M « 



Total, 



8,816,986 



«< 



Thus, the extent of Europe is almost equal to that of the 
United States, and of Mexico, put together. 

3. The population of Europe, is distributed as follows : — 



Germany, 

The Pirussian provincee of Prussia and Posen, 

Hungary, Galicia, etc, 

Italy, . 

Switzerland, . 

Holland and Belgium, 

France, . 

Spain, . 

Portugal, 

British Islands (including Guernsey, 

Denmark (indudiog Iceland), 

Sweden and Norway, 

Russia (in Europe), 

Ionian T^l^'^^'f^ 

Greece, . 

Turkey (in Europe), 

Total,. 



etc) 



42,000,000 inhabitants 

8,865,000 
20,082,000 
24,578,100 

2,400,000 

7,568,000 
86,401,000 
12,000,000 

8,760,000 
28,500,000 

1,800,000 

4,650,000 

62,000,000 

220,000 

1,000,000 
12,600,000 



« ^ 

u ■ 

u 

« 

II 
« 
II 

« 

II 

M 
II 
M 
« 



262,299,100 



GEKEEAL VIEW OF EUROPE. 



DeiMtty of Popolatioih-^Boaiidartea— dlnate. 



Thifl makes a popalation of about 70 inhabitants to a square 
mile — ^the highest ratio in any divbion of the world. For Asia 
(including the Indian Archipelago) has only 32, Africa has 13, 
America (L e., North and South America) has but 3, and Aus- 
tralasia and Polynesia have no more than 1 inhabitant on a 
square mile. If the United States, whose extent (including 
Texas, but excluding California) is estimated at 2,620,000 square 
miles, and where, npnn an average, at present only 9 souls live on 
a square mile, were as thickly settled as Europe, they would 
have a population of 183,400,000 inhabitants ; and not less than 
801,720,000, if the proportion were like that of Holland and 
Belgium, where the population is 306 to a square mile. 

4. The most northerly point of the European continent is 
JSbrth Cape (which belongs to Norway), N. lat. 71° 11' ; and its 
most southerly point is Gibraltar, N. lat. 36° 7'. Thus these 
parallels correspond with those of the northern part of Hudson's 
Bay, and of Hillsboro, or Louisburg, in North Carolina. The 
distance between North Cape and Gibraltar, is 2,424 miles. The 
most easterly point of Europe is Caiha/rinburg (at the frontier of 
European Russia and Siberia), long. 60^ 40' E. from Greenwich ; 
and its most westerly point is Ca/pe Roxani (belonging to Portu- 
gal), long. 9° 31' W. from Greenwich ; and the distance between 
these two extreme points, is 3,370 miles. 

5. Europe is bawnded on the north by the Arctic, and on the 
west by the Atlantic Ocean. On the east the Ural Mountains^ 
the Ural River, the Bosphorus, the Dardanelles, and the Archi- 
pelago, form the boundaries towards Asia; and on the south, 
Europe is separated from Asia by the Blaok Sea, and from Africa 
by the Mediterranean Sea. 

6. The climate is generally much warmer than in the same 
parallels in America and Asia, and the difference is equivalent to 
eight or ten degrees of latitude. This may be accounted for b^ 



EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



SurflMie^— MountatiiB : Al|M~Pyreii6ei. 



the almost universal onltiyation of the soil in Borope, and by the 
absence of those eztensiye forests, which are to be found in 
America and Siberia. 

7. In the north (with the exception of European Russia) and 
in the south, the surfobce is generally mountainous ; but in the 
middle parts of Europe, plains, here and there intersected by ranges 
of low mountains and hills, are prevailing. From the mouths of 
the Rhine, an immense plain runs through Holland, the north of 
Germany, the provinces of West and East Prussia, Poland, and 
Russia, to the Ural Mountains ; and its highest elevation, near 
the sources of the Volga, Dnieper, and Don, is 1,064 feet Other 
plains of smaller extent are to be found in Hungary, Wallachia, 
Lombardy, France, &c. The mountainous regions of the Euro- 
pean continent, occupy together an area of about 979,800 square 
miles. The most remarkable mountain ranges of Europe are the 
following : — 

a. The Alps, the principal diaia of mountains in Eorope, oocupying an 
area of nearly 74,560 square miles, run from Uie coast of the Mediterranean 
Sea, at the boundary between France and Italy, through Savoy, Switzerland, 
TttoI, and other provinces of Austria, to the western parts of Turkey, at a 
distance of about 650 milee. Several regions of them have particular names, 
as, MariHms Alps (nearest to the coast), Ccttian Alja (with the Pelvouz de 
Yallouise), Gray Alpt (between Savoy and Piedmont), Pennine Alps (with 
the Mont Blanc), Lepontine Alps (with the Mount Rosa), etc The highest 
peaks of the Alps, are: the Mont Blane (in Savoy, 15,668 feet high). Mount 
Jtoea (in Savoy, but near the frontier of Switzerland, 15,527 1), Fintteraar' 
hem (in Switzerland, 14,825 £), Peiwntx de ValiauiM (on the French territory, 
14,044 £X Jvnfffrau (or Virgin, 18,780 £), Sdireckhom (18,810 f-^the two 
latter in Switceriand), OrOeM (in Tjfol, 18,065 £), WaUmann (in Bavaria» 
9,150 t\ and Terfflau (in Garinthia, 10,194 £ high). 

5. The Pteknkes separate France from Spain, running in an almost westerly 
direction from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, to that of the Bay of Biscay. 
Hie highest peaks of this mountain range, are: the Maladetta (11,486 £), 
ifofU Per4» (10,482 £), and Pi(o Las Posete (10,584 £) on the Spanish side, 



GENERAL VIEW OF EFROPB. 



MouDtalu : Blenm NeTada^AppenlDe»--OvpafthiaiM, etc 

and the Marbori (10,874 £), Vtgnemale (10,850 £), PioUmg (9,972 £), and 
(kangcu (8,800 £) oo the French side. 

c The SiKRSA Nkyada, the principal mountain range of Spain, covers chiefly 
fliat port of the country commonly called Upper Andalusia, or the province 
of Oranada. Its highest peaks are the Oumbre de Mvlhacm (11,678 £), and 
Pieacho de Vdeta (11,200 £). One branch of the Sierra NeTada, running in 
the direction of Cadiz, and ending in Cape Trafidgar, is partly named Alpth 
jarroMj partly Sierra de Rondo, Parallel with the Sierra Nevada, and in the 
direction of Algarve (the southern province of Portugal), runs the Sierra 
Morenoy which, in Portugal, bears the name of Sierra Monehique, Other 
mountain ranges in Spain, are the Cemtahrian and Iberian Mountaine, the 
Sierra de Cuenatj Sierra de Ouadarama, and Sierra de Oitadalupe. 

d The Apbhninis akirt the Qulf of Genoa, and run south-east to the south 
eiztremity of Italy. They bear particular names, according to their local 
poaitioD. lAgurian Apenninee (with the Monte Oimone^ in the Duchy of 
Hodena, 6,778 feet high), Etrueean Apenninee^ Reman Apennines (with the 
Monte di Sibylla, 7,088 £), Neapolitan Apennines, and Abruzzi (in the 
Dorthem part of the kingdom of Naples, with the Oran Saeeo d^Italia, 9,577 
£ high). The volcano Mount Venmus, near Naples, is 3,982 feet high. On 
the island of Sicily are, besides the volcano Mount Etna or Monte OibeUo 
(10,870 £ high), to be noted the CdUata beUata (8,699 £), Ouceio (8,829 t\ 
and Seudery (3,190 £) ; on the ishmd of Sardinia, the Gennargentu (5,680 t), 
and OiyatUinu (8,744 £) ; and on the island of Corsica, the Monte Rotondo 
(8,500 £), Pagalia Orba (8,100 £), and Ointo (7,900 £). 

e. The Carpatbes, forming the boundary between Hungary and Galida, 
ran in a south-easterly direction from the sources of the Oder River to the 
Danube. The western part bears the particular name of the Beekidet, the 
middle part that of the Carpathes Proper or Tatra Mountains, and the south* 
east part, comprising Transylvania, Upper Hungary, and the north of Walla- 
chia, is called the Highland JErdely. The highest peaks of the Carpathian 
Mountains are, the Ruska Poyana (9,912 £), Oailuripi (9,000 £), Zomnitzer 
SpUxe (Peak of Lomnitx, 8,816 £), and Krivan (7,818 £). The highest peak 
of the Beskides in particular, is the Babia Oura, which rises to 6,420 feet 

/. The SoAMDmAViAN Mountains form, for a great part, the boundary be* 
tween Sweden and Norway, where they are called Kdlen (literally, the Keel). 
Near Roeraas, in Norway, the chief branch of the range, running south>west^ 
the name of Ikftre-fidd (Qeld has the sigoificatlon of Alpine raqge)^ 



EUROPE, PAST AlO) PRESENT. 



M oiinUlna : In Turkey, Fnnoe, Germany. 



and its highest peak is here the SkagatUdtind (8,400 f). Other peaks of the 
Skaodinavian Mountains, are the Snothatia (8,122 f.), and SvliUlma (6,340 £). 

g. The Balkan or Haemua, numing east through the midst of Turkey, rises 
to the height of no more than 8,000 feet, and is thoroughly covered with 
extensive forests. Among its five passes, those of Schumla are renowned in 
military history^ Another mountain range in Turkey, and partly in Qreeoe, 
is the PtiMlus, rising to the height of more than 6,000 feet, and some of its 
divisions are called the .Soro, Metgovo, and Agrapha Mountaifu. 

h. In France are, besides the Pyrenees, to be noted : the JuaA MomrrADiB, 
forming the boundary between France and Switzerhmd (with the Reeulei, 
6,280 £, and Grand Cohmbury 6,220 £, on the French side ; and with the 
2>o/«,6,14T t^Mont Tendre, 6,170 £, Chasseron, 4,9*76 £, Oretix du Vent, 4,612 
£, and Tke de Hang, 4,884 £, on the side of Switserland); the Skvknnbs, 
commencing near the east end of the Pyrenees, and running north, form the 
dividing ridge between the valleys of the Rhone and Loire (their highest 
summits are, the Mezin of 6,162 £, Zogirt of 6,684 £, Tarare of 4,860 £, and 
PU€U of 8,696 £ in height) ; the Modmtains or Auvebone, branching from the 
Sevcnnes and running north-west, form the dividing ridge between the valleys 
of the Loire and the Garonne ; their principal part is known by the name of 
Mont Dare, and their highest peaks, commonly called Ptiy, are : Pug de 8aneg 
(6,888 £), Pug de JD6tM (4,648 £), and Plomb de Cantal (6,'718 £) ; the Vosgxs, 
running parallel with the Rhine, separate the provinces of Lorraine and Alsace, 
and rise to 4,400, 4,800, 8.900, and 8,100 feet, in the BaUon de ShU, TiU 
d^Ottrtj Ballon d Alsace, and Grand Donnon (branches at the north end of 
the Vosgea, bear the names of MonU de FaueUle and ffardt Mountains, the 
Utter with the Mont de Tonnire, 2,086 £ high) ; the Cote n'Oa (in the prov- 
ince of Burgundy), and Morwan Mountains (on the hig^ road between Paris 
and Lyons), rise to 1,842 and 2,000 feet; lastly, the AanaNNES, running firom 
the northern parts of Champagne to Luxemburg, are woody hills rising to 
1,800 feet, and part of them are called the Argonnes, 

i The highest mountain range in the north of Germany, are the SuDcm, 
or Budetic Mountains, along the Bonthem frontier of Silesia, with different 
divisions and names. The Sudetie Mountains proper form the boundary 
between Austrian Silesia and Moravia (with the Altvater 4,640 £, and the 
Great Sehneeberg or Snow-peak, 4,400 £ high). The Riesengebirge, or Gianii 
Mountains, form the boundary between Silesia and Bohemia, (with the Riesent 
or Seknsskoppe, 6,066 £, the Great Stwrmhaube, 4,640 £, LittU Sturmhaube 



GENERAL VIEW OF EUROPE. 



Mountains aTGemuuij. 



4,400 U and Oreat Rod, or Wheel, 4,707 f.), and the LiuaHan MountaifU 
(with the Jttehken, 8,140 £, and Lauteke, 2,460 £), form the boundary between 
Luaatia and Bohemia. Other diyisions of the Sndetes are : the Moravian 
Mbuntaina^ (between Moravia and Bc^miaX the Hahditehwerdt McwnJtain* 
(in SilesiaX the EvUnrOtifnrge, or Owl Moontains, (with the Hohe BuU, 8,082 
£, in Silesia), and Heuaeheuer Chbir^, or Hajbam Moontains (partly in 
Silesia, partly in Bohemia). Between Broalau and the Eulen-Oebirge, riaes 
the Zobtenberg to 2,280 feet 

j. Other mountain ranges in Germany, are : the Boehmkewald Mountaifu, 
which form the boundary between Bohemia and Bararia, and rise to 4,000 
and 4,600 £ ; the Ebzoebirob, or Ore Mouniaina, which form the boundary 
between Bohemia and Saxony, and rise to 8,870 £ (in the Sonnemrirber^ 
8,782 £ {Kleine or LUtU FiekUlherg\ and 8,721 £ {Oroue or Oreai Ftehtd- 
berg); the FiOHnL-GxBnGB, in the north-east pert of Bavaria, with the 
Sckneeberg, 8,221 £, and Ocliaenkopff 8,123 £ ; the Black Fobbst {Schtoart" 
waid), partly belonging to Wirtemberg, but chiefly occupying the southern 
part of Baden ; it is covered with gloomy pine forests (hence its name), and 
its middle elevation is between 8,000 and 8,500 fieet ; although the Ftldberg 
and Belehen (both in Baden), rise to 4,650 and 4,897 feet ; the Alp (whidi 
has nothing in common with the Alps in Switzerland and Italy), in Wirtem- 
berg« where it is commonly called Swabian Alp (with the Ober-Ifohenberg, 
8,160 £, Sehafbergy 8,121 £, and PUUtenberg, 8,100 £X and partly Rauhe 
(rough) Alp, and then running north-east through Bavaria, by the name of 
Franeonian Alp; the Odknwald, branching jfrom the Black Forest and 
running north through Hesse Darmstadt (with the ICatxenbuekel, 2,160 £# 
and MaUheHy or MdiboaUy 1,600 £) ; parallel with it runs on its western side 
the so-caUed Bergatrasse, between Frankfort and Heidelberg; the SpiaaABT, 
between Ascfaafi^burg and Wurtsburg, in Bavaria, with an elevation not 
exceeding 1,900 feet, and having in its neighborhood the inferior ranges of the 
Hau-Odnrg«t and the Steigerwald; the Rhobn-Gbsibox, on the north-west 
boundary of Bavaria, with the JBfoly Kreuaberg (2,856 £X Bammerafdd (2,840 
£), and Beierherg (2,264 f ) ; to the westward, in Hesse Darmstadt, is to be 
noted the range of the Vogeltberg, with an elevation of 2,888 feet; the 
THuaiNOxawALD {Forest of 77mringia)y forming the boundary between 
Bavaria and the Saxon Duchies, with the Beerberg (8,064 £), Schneekopf 
(8,048 £), Inselsberg (2,865 £), and Kiekelhahn (2,643 £); its eastern extrem- 
ity is called the Frankemoald ; the Haktz, a more or less isolated mountain 



8 etteope; past and present. 

MoontaiBB of Great Britain, Iceland, Romla. 

range, oocapyiog the south of Hanover, part of Brunswick, and part of the 
Prussian province of Saxony ; it has its highest elevation in the Bracken or 
BlockAerg (8,600 £), and that part situated on the west side of the Brocken 
48 called Upper ffartx, and the other part is called Lower HarU ; the Huks- 
BUCKEN, or Mitndtruek (dog's back), a rough and woody table-land between 
Treves and Coblenta, rising to 2,268 feet in the Jdarkopf; the Eifsl, between 
Aix la Chapelle and Treves, rising to 2,260 feet ; the Taunus, in Nassau, with 
the Cfreut Fddberg (2.606 £), and Alikdnig (2,400 f.); the Westerwald^ 
partly in Nassau, partly in the Prussian province of Westphalia ; its north- 
west slope is £Drmed by the SUbengebirgef or Seven HUU, on the right bank 
of the Rhine, opposite to Bonn ; the Osnino, or Teutoburger Wald, in Lippe- 
Detmold ; the WxsEBOSBiRaE, or Weeer Mounicdns, along the Weser River. 
Other inferior or hilly ranges, are : the JSabiehUwdd, near Caasel, the SoUinr 
get Wald, the I>eUter, and Suntel, in Hanover. 

k. The principal mountain ranges in Great Britain, are : the GaAXPiAN 
Hills (with the Ben Zawert, 4,051 £, Ben Nevis, 4,879 f, and Cairngorm, 
4,060 £), running from the head of the frith of Clyde, north-east through the 
centre of Scotland ; and the Cheviot Hills, on the southern boundary of 
Scotland. The highest peaks in England are, the Whamtide (4,052 £), and 
JngMtorough (8,081 £), and, in Wales, the Snowdon (8,568 £), and Coder Idri* 
(8,560 £> 

/. Iceland — ^this rocky island on the borders of the frigid zone, is almost 
entirely covered with volcanoes, among them the celebrated Mount HedOf 
rising to 6,210 feet The highest peaks of the island are, the Oeto/efe-Joehd 
(6,240 £), and the Oester^oekul, or E^ffafiaile-Joekul (5,794 £). 

m. In European Ruma is only to be noted the Taubio Mountains, in 
Crimea, rising to 4,740 feet in the Tiehadyrdagh. The WoUhomiky Forest, 
between St Petersburg and Moscow, is nothmg else but a ridge of low hiUa, 
not ezceediiig 1,000 £ in height ; although the Volga and other mighty rivers 
have their sources here. The Ural and Caucasus Mountains belong to Asiatic 
Russia. 

8. The Northern and Atlantic Oceans, by which Europe is 
bounded on the north and west, penetrate in many parts of the 
continent^ thus forming a great number of peninsulas, bays, and 
inland seas. The most remarkable of the latter, formed by the 



GENERAL VIEW OF EUROPE. 



Inland Bev, Bays, BoandB, Stralta. 



Arctic Oeeajij is the White Sea, which penetrates the northern 
coast of Russia to the extent of 276 miles. 

The principal inland seas, bays, etc., formed by the Ailantie 
Ocean, are the following: — 

The North Sea, which separates the British Islands from the 
European continent, and has an extent nearly equal to that of 
Germany. A branch of the North Sea, called Skagerack^ and 69 
miles wide, separates the Danish peninsula of Jutland from 
Norway ; the then following Caitegat (about 140 miles long and 
70 wide), separates Jutland from Sweden; and the following 
three channels, or straits, lead from the Gattegat into the Baltic 
Sea, vis. : the Oeresoundy commonly called Sound (between Zealand 
and Sweden), the Ghreai BeU (between Funen and Zealand), and 
the LiUle BeU (between Sleswick and Funen). 

The Baltic Sea, with an extent of 1 35,680 square miles, and 
surrounded by Sweden, Russian, Prussian, German, and Danish 
oountries, is, between Ystad and the island of Rugen, only 53 
miles wide. Two gulfs set up from the Baltic : the Gvtf if 
Bothnia, between Sweden and Finland, and the Cfu^ of Finland^ 
between Finland and Esthland. Inferior to them in extent is the 
Gulf of Riga, before the mouth of the Duna River. Between 
Tilsit and Memel is the Curische Haff, or Sea, almost entirely 
enclosed by a long and small tongue of land, with a narrow pass- 
age into the Baltic. Other seas of the same kind, are the Fre»h 
Haff, before the mouths of the Pregel and other rivers, and the 
Great and Little Haff, before the month of the Oder. 

A great inland sea, or bay, in the north of Holland, is the 
Zuyder Zee, 90 miles long, and 45 miles wide. Far inferior to it 
in extent is the DoUart, before the mouth of Ems River. 

The Strait of Dover, separating England from France, is about 
27 miles wide ; and the well*known English Channel, is, upon an 
average, 70 miles wide. 

1* 



10 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Beuf CbaoDelfl, Stralte, Lakes. 

St, Georges Channel separates Ireland from England and 
Wales ; at its south end is to be noted the Bristol Channel, be- 
fore the mouth of Severn River, and at its north end the North 
Channel, which separates Ireland from Scotland. 

Between the French peninsula of Bretagne, and the northern 
coast of Spain, is the Bay of Biscay, about 345 miles wide. 

A narrow passage, connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the 
Mediterranean Sea, is the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates 
Spain from Africa. 

The Mediterranean Sea, separating Europe from Africa, and 
on the east bordered by Asia, has an extent of 1,01 1,750 square 
miles, and is 2,415 long, while its breadth is very different 
Before the mouth of the Rhone, is the ChUf of Lyons, and before 
the city of Qenoa, the GtUf of Genoa, The Strait of Bonifacio 
separates the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, and the Strait of 
Messina separates the island of Sicily from continental Italy. 
At the south-east extremity of Italy, is the Gulf of Taranto ; 
&rther to the east, the Strait of Otranto separates Italy from 
Turkey, and connects the Ionian Sea (between the Ionian 
Islands and Sicily) with the Adriatic Sea, which latter separates 
Italy from Dalmatia, and whose extent is estimated at nearly 
63,900 square miles. The Grecian Archipelago separates Greece 
and European Turkey from Asia Minor, and is connected by the 
Dardanelles Strait, the Sea of Marmora, and the Bosphorus Straits 
with the Black Sea, the extent of which is computed at 182,1 15 
square miles. The Strait of Jenikale connects the Black Sea 
with the Sea of Azof, before the mouth of the Don. 

9. The most remarkable lakes are in the north of Europe, and 
in the region of the Alps. 

In Russia are to be noted : Lake Ladoga^ east of the Qolf of Finland, and 
in the neighborhood of St. Petersburg ; its extent^ computed at 6,220 square 
milBBp exceeds that of the kingiom of Saxony ; Lake Onega, east of the former. 



GENERAL VIEW OF EUROPE. 11 



with an extent of 4,260 square mfles ; LakB Jlmen, 28 miles long and 20 wide, 
in the proyinoe of Novogorod ; Lake Saima, about 40 miles long and wide, in 
Finland. 

In SwxDKN, which abounds in lakes, are to be noted : Lake WeMr, not 
yery fitf from Gottenburg, with an extent of 2,180 square miloe ; Lake Wetter, 
in the midst of the country, celebrated for its romantic environs, and remark- 
able by lis extraordinary depth, is 100 miles long, and between 14 and 28 
miles wide ; Lake Jfaelar, near Stockholm, contains about 1,300 islands and 
islets, with many handsome mansions and castles on them ; Lake Hjelmar, in 
the neighborhood of the former, 46 miles long and 20 wide; Lake Star 
(literally, Oreat Lake), in the province of Jemtland, and Lake BUja, in the 
province of Dahurne. 

In KoEWAY, are Lake Mjoe (north of Christiana, 88 miles long and 11 
wideX and LakeFaemund (at the frontier of Sweden, about 40 miks long). 

On the boundary of Swttzebland and Gkuiant, is the Lake of Conttanee, 
87 miles long and about 9 wide. Three bays set up from it, and are called 
Ueberlingetty Lower j and ZdUr Lakee, 

On the conjQnes of SwrrxERLAND and Satot, is the Lake of Geneva, 42 
miles long and 7 wide. 

In SwirzEKLAirn are to be noted : the Lake of Neufekatei, 18 miles long 
and about 5 wide, in the canton of Nenfchatel ; Lake of Bid, in the canton of 
Bem; Lake of Than, in the canton of Bern; Lake of Luseme, in the centre 
of Switzerland ; Lake of Zurich, surrounded by the cantons of Zurich, St. 
Gall, and Schwytz- and Lake of Lugano, in the canton of Tesino. 

The most remarkable lakes of Italy are : Lake Maggvore, in Lombardy 
and Piedmont, 87 miles long and about 8 wide ; Ldk» Como, in Lombardy, 
S2 miles long; Lake di Oarda, east of the former ; Lake of Perugia, in the 
States of the Church. 

In HuMOA&T, are the Lake of BalcUon, or Platten-See (in Lower Hungary, 
46 miles long), and Lake of Neuaiedt, near the frontier of Austria. 

In GxRXANT are to be noted : the Lakee of Omunden, of Otnach, of Cla- 
genfitrt, and of Cirknit*, in Austria; the Lakee of Ohietn, of Star^nberg, and 
of Tegem, in Bavaria; of Muritz, ScHwerin, and Malchin, in Mecklenburg; 
of Ploen, in Holstein, and Lake of Madue, in Prussia. 

In Holland is the Haarlem Lake, covering a tract of 88,000 acres. 

In ScoTLAin> are to be noted : the Loeh Lomond (28 miles long and 9 



12 EUROPS, PAST AND PRKSENT. 

Rlren. 



-wide), Zoeh Nesi (20 mQes long), and Zoeh Awe; in Ireland, Lough. N^eaph 
(18 milee long) ; and in England, Lake Winander (14 miles long). 
In the other ooontries of Europe, are no remarkable lakes to be found. 

10. Among the rivers of Europe, ranks, foremost, the Volga; 
next in length is the Danube; then follow the Dnieper^ Don^ 
Rhiiie, etc. We describe the course and tributaries of the prin- 
cipal rivers of Europe in the following order : — 

Through RcBSLA ilow: the Yoloa, having its head in the Wolchonsky Forest 
(see § 7, m.), and a length of course of 2,106 miles, and emptying by about 
70 outlets into the Caspian Sea. Its chief branches are the Oka, Sura, 
Mologa, Kottroma, WeUuga, and JTamo. 

The DNOPEa (the JBorysthenes of the ancients), haviog its sources in the 
proyince of Smolensk, and a length of course of 1»209 miles, and emptying, in 
the neighborhood of Odessa, into the Black Sea.' formiog there the Gulf of 
Liman. Its chief branches are the BereHna,Pripet^ Bog, DettM, and Sor 
mara (the latter is by the Cossacks called the Holy River), 

The Don (in ancient times Tanaie) : its sources in the neighborhood of 
Tula, its length of oourse 1,081 miles, emptying into the Sea of A2o£ Its 
chief branches are the Choper and Dotiex. 

The Dniebtke (in ancient times called Tyrae, or DanaUrie) : its sources in 
the Carpathian Mountains^ not fieir from Lemberg ; its length 606 miles, and 
emptying into the Black Sea, near the mouth of the Dnieper. 

The Kuban (by Herodotus called Hypania, by Ptolemy Vardanen, and by 
the Genoese, in the middle ages, Copa) \ its sources in the Oaucasas Mountains ; 
its length 473 miles, and emptyiog by one outlet into the Sea of Azof, and by 
another into the Black Sea. 

The Terek, haviog its sources in the Caucasus Mountains, and emptying 
into the Caspian Sea. 

The Psiscboea: its sources in the Ural Mountains; its length 690 miles; 
its mouth in the Arctic Ocean. 

The MxzxN : its sources in the province of Wologda ; its length 652 miles ; 
its mouth in the White Sea. 

The Dwina : its head in the province of Wologda ; its length 736 mile^ ; 
its mouth in the White Sea. Its chief branches are the Wytedt^gda, IHnega 
and J^^/tgn. 



GENERAL VIEW OF EUROPE. li 



Biren. 



The Onega, hayuig its soorces in the province of Olonets, and emptying into 
the White Sea. 

The Kkmi, haying its sources in Finland, and emptying into the Gulf of 
Bothnia. 

The Newa, issuing from the Lake Ladoga, and emptying into the Gulf of 
Finland, has a length of only 89 miles, but is at Si Petersburg £rom 1,800 to 
2,400 feet wide. 

The DuNA, risiag near the sources of the Volga, has a length of 644 miles^ 
and flows, below Riga, into the Gulf of Riga. 

The ToaxEA, emptying into the Gulf of Bothnia, forms the boundary 
between Jiuuia and Sweden^ 

The NisMRK rises in the Russian province of Minsk, has a length of 580 
miles, and crossing Pruaticiy where it receives the name of Mmnti., empties 
into the Curische Haff (see § 8). 

PoLANo and Prussia are crossed by the Vistula, which rises at the frontier 
of Austrian Silesia, has a length of 681 miles, is in Prussia from 1,000 to 
2,000 feet wide, and empties into the Baltic Sea by two outlets, of which the 
eastern is called Nogai, The chief branches of the Vistula are the Bug^ San, 
Wieprz, DrewenZy Osm^ PiUca^ and MotUau, 

Through Prussia flow : the Prbgel, in East Prussia, empties into the Fresh 
Haff [see § 8]. 

The Passarob, in East Prussia, empties into the same Haff 

The Peesantk and the Rbga, in Pomerania, emptying into the Baltic Sea. 

The Oder, which rises in the Sudetic Mountains, at the frontier of Moravia, 
crosses Silesia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania, and empties, below Stettin, 
into the Great Hafl^ which, by the Peene, Swine, and IHvenow, is connected 
with the Baltic Sea. Its leogth is 6 1 6 miles. The chief tributary of the Oder 
b the Warike, into which flows the NeUe. Other branches are the Opp4i, the 
Silenany and the JJutatian Neiste, the OhlaUf Kaitbaehy Sober, OUa, Klod' 
niU, McUapane, and Stober, 

In Sweden are to be noted : the Clara river which has its sources in the 
DovreQeld, flows through the Wener Lake after which it is called the Gotha 
river, and empties, below Gottenburg, into the Cattegat Its whole length is 
822 miles. 

The Dal river, which rises in the province of Dalame, and empties into 
the Gulf of Bothnia. 



M EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Eivera. 

In NoEWAT are to be noted: the Qlommen, which rises in Dovrefjeld, and 
empties into the Oattegat 

The LouYBN : sources in Dovrefjeld, and mouth in the Skager Rack. 

Denmark has no remarkable river, besides the Gdden, in Jutland, where it 
empties into the Cattegat 

The Eider, which has ever formed the boundary bettaeen Denmark and 
Germany since the days of Charlemagne, has its source in Hobtein, and 
empties into the North Sea. 

In Great BarrAiir and Ireland are to be noted : the Thames and Humbee 
(formed by the united rivers (hue and TVent)^ emptying into the North Sea» 
and the Severn, which flows into the Bristol Channel, — in England. 

The Tat and the Forth, emptying into the North Sea, and the Clyde, 
which flows into the North Channel, — in Scotland. 

The Shannon and Barrow, in Ireland, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. 

In Spain are to be noted : the Ebro, which has its sources in the Canta- 
brian Mountains, forming then the boundary between Old Castile and the Baa- 
cyan provinces and Navarre, and crossing Aragon and Catalonia, empties into 
the Mediterranean Sea. Its length is' 406 miles, and its chief branches are 
the Aragon, OaUego, and Segro. 

The QuADALAviAR, which rises in the province of Arragon, and crossing the 
province of Valencia, empties into the Mediterranean Sea. likewise, into 
the latter flow the Xucar and the Sbgura. 

The Guadalquivir, which rises on the boundary of Jaen and Murda, and 
empties into the Atlantic Ocean, a few miles north of Cadiz. Its length is 
800 miles. 

Spain and Portugal are crossed by : the Taous, which rises at the frontier 
of Aragon and New Castile, crosses the latter province, Estremadura, and 
Portugal, where it is called T^'o, and empties, below Lisbon, into the Atlantic 
Ocean. Its length is 652 miles. 

llie DuERO (in Portugal called Douro) rises between Saragossa and Bur* 
gos, crosses Old Castile, Leon, and Portugal, and empties into the Atlantic 
Ocean. Its length is 478 miles. 

The MiNHO, which has its sources in the Spanish province of Galicia, fbrms 
the boundary between the latter and Portugal, and empties into the AUantic 
Ocean. 

The GuADiANA, which has its sources in the southern part of New Castile, 
forms the boundary between the Portuguese province of Algare and the Span* 



GENERAL YISW OF EUROPE. 16 

RlTera. 

J 

lah proTinoe of Serflla, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Its length is 
488 miles. 

In Italy are to be noted : the Po, the chief river of Italy, has its sources 
en the Gottic Alps, crosses Piedmont and Ijombordy, has a length of 405 
miles, and empties hy several outlets into the Adriatic Sea. Its chief branches 
are the TaiKxrOy Serivia, Dora Riparia, Dora BtUtea, Sena, Tleino, Adda, 
OffliOy and Mineio, 

The Adige, having its sources in Tyrol, and a length of 221 miles, empties 
into the Adriatic Sea. 

The TAGLiAjfEMTO, PiAVX, s&d Bjelemta, in Lombardy, flow into the Adriatic 
Sea alsa 

The AaNO (in Tuscany), the Yoltuuno (in Naples), and the Tiber and 
Oariguano (rising in the States of the Church), flowing west, and emptying^ 
into the Mediterranean Sea. 

In TuBEET are : the Mabissa, having its sources in the Balkan, a length of 
248 mUes, and its mouth in the Archipelago. The Kaeasu or Mesto^ the 
Stsomza or Struma (by the ancients called 8trymon\ and the Yabdae (Axius 
fay the ancients), have their mouths in the Archipelago also ; while the Danr 
end Nabemta (partly crossing Dalmatia) empty mto the Adriatic Sea. 

In FaANOE are to be noted : The Seine, having its sources in Burgundy, 
near IMjon, a length of 442 miles, and emptying into the English Channel 
Its chief branches are the Marne, Oise^ Aube, TonrUy and Sure. 

The Loire, the largest river in France, rising in the Sevennes, crossing the 
centre of the country, having a length of 607 miles, and emptying into the 
Atlantic Ocean, below Nantes. Its chief branches are the Allitr, Cher, 
Indre, Vienne, Sevre J^antaise, ArrouXfNUvre, and Mayenne. 

The Garonne, rising in the Pyrenees, having a length of 416 miles, and 
emptying into the Atlantic Ocean, below Bordeaux, where it receives the 
name of Gironde, Its chief branches are the Dordogne, Tarn, Lot, and Oer9. 

The Rbone, having its sources at the foot of the St Gotthard, in Switzer- 
land, flowing through the Lake of Geneva, then crossing tJie southern prov- 
inces of France, and emptying into the Mediterranean Sea, west of Marseilles. 
Its outlets form a delta, called Camargue; its length is 460 miles, and its 
chief branches are the Saone, lUre, Drome, Durance, Ardeehe, and Oard 

Other rivers are : the Var, Herault, and Aude, emptying into the Medi- 
terranean Sea ; the Somme, and O&ne, emptying into the English Channel ; 



16 EUROPE, PAST AJSm PRESESTT. 

BiTen. 

and the Vilainx, S^tbx Nioetaisb (lato which flows the Vendee), Cuamskte, 
and Adour, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. 

Through France, Belqium, and Holland flows ; the Mkuse, which rises at 
the frontier of Champagne and FrancheOomt€, crosses Lorrame and Cham- 
pagne, then the eastern part of Belgium, receives below Gorkum in Holland 
the name of Menee, but above Rotterdam is called Meuee agam, and empties 
into the North Sea. Its chief branches are the Sombre, Ourthe, and JRoer. 

Through Belgium and part of Holland flows : the Scbeldt, which rises 
near the frontier of France and Belgium, runs through the west of Belgium, 
by Ghent and Antwerp, and dividing, forms a delta at its mouth. One outlet^ 
which runs northward into the North Sea, is called £!ast Sehddty and the 
other, running southward, is called West Scheldt The chief tributaries of the 
Scheldt are the Searpe, Lye, Dender, and Rupel. 

From Switzerland, through Germany, into Holland, runs (he Rhine, 
which has its sources on the east side of Moimt St Gotthard, in the canton 
of Gristms, forms the boimdary between Switzerland and Tyrol, flows through 
the Lake of Constance, divides France and Germany, is in the neighborhood 
of Spire 3,000, and below Mentz 2,600 feet wide, and divides within the 
boundary of Holland into several branches, called TFoo/, Yeself Leek, and Old 
J^ne. Its length is 874 miles. Its principal tributaries are the Maytte 
(rising at the Fichtelgebirge ; see § 7, j.), and the MoeeUe (rising in the Vosges, 
at the frontier of Lorraine and Alsace). Other branches of the Rhine are, 
namely : the Neekar (having its sources in the Black Forest), the Nahe, Lahn^ 
Siefff Wupper, RuhYf and Lippe. 

Through Germant, Hunoart, and Turkey flows : the Danube, having its 
sources at Donaueschingen, in Baden, crossing the middle parts of Bavaria, 
the archduchy of Austria, Lower and Upper Hungary, dividing the Turkish 
provinces of Bulgaria and Wallachia, and emptying into the Black Sea. Its 
length is 1,868 miles, and its chief branches are : the Jller, Leeh, liar, Intif 
Altmuhl, Naby and Begen (in Bavaria) ; the Traim, JSSns, March, and TVaaen 
(in Austria) ; the Wdag, Neiiroy Gran, TJutee, Leitha, Raab, Drave, and Save 
(in Hungary) ; the Morawa, AltUa, Sereth, and Pruth (in Turkey). 

In Germany are to be noted : the Elbe, rising in the Giant Mountains, 
crossing Bohemia, Saxony, and Prussia, forming the boundary between Hano- 
ver and Mecklenburg and Holstein, and emptying into the North Sea ; its 
length being 718 miles. Its chief branches are: the Moldau and Sger (in 
Bohemia) ; the Black EleUr and SaaU (in Prussia) ; the Midde (in AnhalL 



GENERAL VIEW OF EUROPE. 17 

Natural ProdiieUoiw. 

Des«au) ; the Eaod (in Prussia); the Bmmau, LvhB, and Bekmnge (in Han- 
over) ; the AUter (in Hamburg) ; and the Stoer (in HoLstein). 

The Wesee, formed by the junction of the Werra and Fulda, near Munden 
(in Hanover), divides Oldenburg and Hanover, and enters the North Sea near 
the Elbe. Its length is 258 miles ; and its chief branches arc the Aller 
(whose principal branch is the Leine), the Wwnme or Lennn, (}ee$U, and 
HunU 

The Em, rising in the Teutoborger Wald (see § 7, j.\ and emptying into 
the Dollart (see § 8). Its chief Ixanch is the Haatte, 

The Trave, rising in Holstein, and entering the Baltic Sea below Lubec. 
its chief branch is the SUckeniU, 

The Wasnow, in Mecklenburg, entering the Baltic Sea below Rostock. Its 
only branch is the Kebd. 

1 1. Europe abounds in a variety of useful juUnral productions. 
As for minerals, no other division of the world has so niany iron, 
lead, copper, tin, quicksilver, salt, and coal mines ; whereas, pre- 
cious metals are more abundant in America, Asia, and Africa. 
The Russian gold and silver mines, are situated in Asia. Hun- 
gary and Transylvania have the richest gold mines in Europe. 
Silver is chiefly found in the Garpathic, Ore, Hartz, and Scandi- 
navian Mountains ; copper, in Sweden, Norway. Russia, Hungary, 
and England ; iron, in Sweden, Russia, Austria^ France, Prussia, 
England, and Belgium ; tin, in England. Lead is very generally 
diffused in Europe ; but quicksilver is obtained exclusively from 
the mines of Almaden, in Spain ; of Idria, in Austria ; and of 
Wolfstein, in the Palatinate of Bavaria. The most noted coal 
mines are near Newcastle, in England ; yet this mineral is also 
found, in almost inexhaustible quantities, in France, Belgium, and 
Germany. Galicia, Hungary, and Transylvania, abound in rock 
salt ; and the salt mines of Wieliczka, in Galicia. are the most 
noted in the world. Nowhere are found so many mineral springs 
as in Europe. The staple agricultural products of Europe, are 
wheatj rytj ha/rUy, and oals. Maize is cultivated in the south of 



18 EUBOPJ^ PAST Am> PRESENT. 

Natural ProducUoiifr~Aniiiiahi— Racee of Men. 

Europe, and rice only in Lombardj, and Turkey. The potato is 
very common in Europe; and the highest degree of latitude, 
where it thrives, is the 60th. In the cultivation of the vi7ie 
(from 48° and 49° of latitude down to the southern extremity of 
Europe), olive (chiefly in France and Italy), and chestnuUy Europe 
excels ; and this division of the world is, at the same time, the 
only one where the forests are regularly managed. With regard 
to animals, horses (the finest breed in England and Germany), 
cattle (the finest in Switzerland, Germany, Great Britain, and 
Holland), sheef (of various breeds, but the finest in Germany, 
Spain, and England), hogs, and other valuable domestic animals 
are found in great perfection throughout Europe, nearly to the 
parallel of 60°. MtUes are reared in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and 
in the south of France. The ferocious and other wild animals of 
Europe, are generalUy less in number than those of some of the 
other quarters of the earth. The wolf and bear are still found 
in Russia, Sweden, and in the mountainous regions of France ] 
elks, in some parts of Sweden, Russia, and East Prussia ; the 
wild ox (in ancient times, very common in Germany) is still pre- 
served in the forest of Bialowioza, in Lithuania. The largest 
bird of Europe, is the great bustard {ptis tarda.) Silkworms are 
most abundant in Italy. 

12. Nearly all the Europeans belong to the Caucasian race. 
Only a few tribes in Russia are Mongolians. With respect to their 
origin, the Europeans form three great divisions : the Gernuines^ 
Slavonians, and Romanians, {a.) The Germane s are to be con- 
sidered as descendants of Gomer (Gen. x. 2), or of the Kimres, 
who at first lived in the countries near the mouths of the Dnieper 
and Dniester, whence they afterwards moved to the north and 
north-west, and peopled the Scandinavian peninsula, the present 
kingdom of Denmark, Germany, etc. The old Goths were like- 
wise Germanes. Thus, to the great family or tribe of the Ger- 



GENERAL TIETVr 09 EtTROPE. 19 

RacM or Men— Religion. 

manes belong the Chrmans proper^ most of the Swiss, and part 
of the ET^lishj the Dutch, the FUmiThgs (in Belgium), the Danes, 
Icelanders, Norwegians, and Swedes, {b.) The Slavonians (or 
rather Slaves, but in another sense than those who are in bondage), 
in anoient times called Sa/rvuUes, are probably descendants of 
Magog and Madai, (Gen. x. 2), or of the Scythians and Medes. 
In the beginning they lived in the country between the Bon, 
Volga, and the Caucasus Mountains, and in the course of time 
spread oyer the present Bussia and Poland, and westward to the 
Elbe River. To the great family or tribe of the Slavonians, 
belong the Rtissians, Poles, Servioms, Bosnians, Bulgarians, Croats, 
Slavonians proper, Bohemians, etc. (c.) The Romanians are de- 
scendants, partly of the ancient Iberians, Gauls, etc., partly of the 
ancient Romans and Greeks, and partly of the Germanes ; and the 
Italians, French, Spaniards, Portuguese, and part of the Swiss, 
belong to this great family, or tribe. Besides these three great 
divisions, there are still found descendants of the ancient Celts, 
or Gaels, in Ireland and Wales, and the highlands of Scotland ; 
and Basques, or descendants of the Iberians, in Biscay, and the 
neighborhood of Bayonne, in France. The Twrks belong to the 
Tarta/r tribe ; the Magya/rs, in Hungary, are probably descend- 
ants of the ancient Scythians, and lived, until the close of the 
ninth century of' the Christian era, in the vicinity of the Ural 
River; and the Greeks are descendants partly of the ancient 
Greeks, but chiefly of Slavonian tribes. The descent of the Jews 
18 universally known. 

13. With the exception of about 7,000,000 Mohammedans, 
3,000,000 Jews, and a few Pagans among the Samojedes and 
Kalmucs, all the Europeans are Cheistians. Of these, nearly 
133,000,000 are Roman Catholics (occupying the Pyrenean pe- 
ninsula and Italy, and prevailing in France, Ireland, Belgium, 
Poland, Austria, and Bavaria), more than 59,000,000 are attached 



80 BUBOPB, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Civilluttoii— SctoDoe and Arts. 

to the Greek Church (chiefly in Bussia, and moreover prevailiDg 
in Turkey, Greece, and the Ionian Islands), and about 58,000,000 
are Protestants (almost exclusively occupying the Scandinavian 
peninsula and Denmark, and prevailing in Great Britain, Prussia^ 
Holland, Finland, in the Baltic provinces of Russia, and in most 
of the German states). 

14. All Europeans are civilized, except the Laplanders, Samo 
jedes, some Kalmuo tribes, and the Gipsies (the latter chiefly in 
Hungary, Russia, Spain, and England), who are to be regarded 
as half-civilized ; and as civilization has prevailed among them for 
many hundred years, Europe is not only the most enlightened, but 
also the best cultivated grand division of the earth. By its emi- 
grants, America, and civilized countries of other parts of the 
world, have been peopled. Husbandry is at the highest pitch of 
improvement in England, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Switzer- 
land, and Lombardy. In manufactures and commerce. Great 
Britain excels all other empires ; but in the former, or at least 
in many branches of manufactures, France, Belgium, and Ger- 
many rival it The states of Europe, next after Great Britain in 
commercial importance, are : France, Russia, Germany, Austria, 
Holland, etc. The improvement of all the sciences, and the 
finest productions of genius, belong exclusively to the Europeans. 
In almost all European countries, numerous universities, colleges, 
and other schools, provide for every branch of learning ; and, on 
the other hand, the fine arts have their chief seat in Europe. All 
the great painters, sculptors, artists in music, architects, and 
poets of ancient and modem times, were Europeans.* There are 
to be found, it is true, huge monuments of ancient architecture 
in Africa, Asia, and America, but compared with the sublime 



* These remarks are intended to include the deteendantt of Europeans in 
the United States and elsewhere. 



GENERAL VIEW OP EUROPE. 21 



Independent fittatea. 



works of the ancient Greeks and Romans, with the Gothic build- 
ings of the middle ages, and even with the performances of mod- 
em architects in Europe, they must yield the palm to them. 
Most of the European countries are noted for their excellent 
roads (aboye all England), and only Turkey and Hungary are 
without them. Cana]s are most numerous in England, and, as 
for the European continent, in Russia, Holland, Belgium, France, 
and Sweden. Besides this, England is crossed in almost every 
direction by rail-roads, which are now also to be found in every 
country of the continent. 

15. Europe comprises 55 independent staUs, of which 33 belong 
to Germany, (exclusive of Prussia and Austria, the grand-duchy 
of Luxemburg, and the duchies of Holstein and Lanenburg), 7 
to Italy, and 2 to the Netherlands (Belgium and Holland being 
called thus in a general signification). If we mark Germany, 
Italy, and the Netherlands with the name of countries, we may 
say that Europe comprises 16 countries, of which 14 are at the 
same time states, or political bodies. 

These 16 European countries are the following: — 1, Russia; 
2, Swdden and Norway ; 3, Denmark ; 4, Great Britain and Ire- 
land ; 5, Portugal ; 6, Spain ; 7, France ; 8, the Netherlands ; 
9, Germany; 10, the kingdom of Prussia; 11, the Austrian em- 
pire; 12, Switzerland ; 13, Italy; 14, the Ionian Islands; 15, 
Turkey ; and 16, Greece. 

Of those 55 staiesy 8 have a refpuhUcan, and the remaining 47 
a mona/rchic form of government. 

The 7 repuMics are : France, San Marino, the Helvetic and 
the Ionian Republics, and the free German cities, Hamburg, Bre- 
men, Lubeo, and Frankfort. 

Among the 47 monarchic states are— 

3 Empires : Austria, Russia, and Turkey (for the Grand Sig- 
nior is in some respect considered as successor of the ancient 



S9 EUROPE, PAST AKB PRESEHl. 

IndependoDt States. 

Greek emperors, and, partly for this reason, entitled emperor by 
the Europeans). 

15 Kingdoms : Prussia, Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Great 
Britain and Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Two Sicilies, Sar^ 
dinia, Holland, Belgium, Bayaria, Saxony, Hanoyer, and Wur- 
temberg. 

7 Grand Duchies: Tuscany, Saxe Weimar, Mecklenburg — 
Schwerin, Mecklenburg — Strelits, Oldenburg, Hesse — ^Darm- 
stadt, and Baden. 

9 Duchies : 3 Saxon, 2 Anhaltian, Brunswick, Nassau, Modena^ 
and Parma. 

10 Frincipalities : 2 Reussian, 2 Lippian, Hohensollern — Heoh- 
\igen, HobeDEollem — Sigmaringen, Schwartzburg — Rudolstadt, 

Schwartiburg — Sondershausen, Waldeck, and Liechtenstein : (the 
other principalities in Europe are not independent). 

1 Eleciorale: Hesse — Gassel. 

1 Landgraviate : Hesso — Homburg. 

1 Ecclesiastical State : the States of the Church. 

The oldest republic in Europe is San Marino, (from 469 
A. D.); the oldest empire is the Turkish (from 1453; the 
Russian dates from 1721, and the Austrian from 1804) ; the 
oldest kingdoms are Spain, Denmark, and England ; the oldest 
grand duchy is Tuscany, and the oldest duchy is Brunswick. 

Russia comprises the most extensiye territory, the principality 
of LiechieHstein is the smallest state in population, and iSa» Mch 
rino the smallest in extent among the European states. 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL mSTORT OF EUROPE. 

The history of Europe can, as a general historical sketch 
of all the European states, of course, not go &rther back than 
to the time of the migraiion ofnalions, or to that of the dissolu- 
tion cf the western Roman empire ; because until that time most 
of the European countries were constituent parts of the Boman 
empire, while the rest were then still in a too barbarous stage of 
society to form a proper subject of political history. We will 
only add, that at the time of the Christian era, the Roman em- 
pire comprised the whole south of Europe, all France, England, 
the greatest part of the Netherlands, Switzerland and the south 
of Germany, Hungary, Turkey, and Greece, beside many other 
nations and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. 

1. In the fourth century after Christ, the Goths (see In trod. 
^12) occupied the north-east of Europe, the Visigoths were 
settled in Dacia (Moldavia and Wallachia) and west of the 
Dnieper ; and the Ostrogoths east of the Dnieper river. The 
Goths were the first among all the Germanic tribes, who adopted 
Christianity. Between the Yolga and Don rivers lived the 
Alans. 

2. Meanwhile the Htjns, whose primitive seat was near the 
northern boundary of China, had moved onward to the west ; in 
375, they attacked and pressed forward the Alans, and then both 
nations pressed on the Goths. In this way commenced the great 



24 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The AtoiM — ^VumIaIs — ^Burgandian*— Saxona. 

migration offuUions into the several parts of the Roman empira 
In 378 the Visigoths, conjointly ?rith the Huns and Alans^ in- 
vaded Thracia, and defeated the Roman emperor Yalens at 
Adrianople. Afterwards Alaric^ king of the Visigoths, was in- 
vested with the government of lUyrioum (Dalmatia and tKe 
southern provinces of- Turkey), and in 403 he invaded Italy, 
threatened Rome twice with destruction, and in the year 410 he 
took the city and gave it up to plunder. He shortly after died, 
and his successor, Athaulf, making peace with emperor Hono- 
rius, conducted his Visigoths to Gaul or France (in the year 412), 
and in 414 to Spain^ where the Visigoths soon became the ruling 
nation, and founded an empire which comprised Aquitania (Gruy* 
enne, Gascogne, and Languedoc, in France) also, and whose capi- 
tal was Toulouse. 

3. About the same time, other Germanic tribes, the Alans^ 
Vandals, BurgundianSj and Sueves (ancestors of the Suabians in 
Wi/rtemberg), had moved on in the same direction, and, crossing 
VAe Rhine (in 406), settled themselves permanently in various 
parts of the Roman empire. The Vandals had their primitive 
seat in the north of Germany, between the Elbe and Vistula 
rivers, and in the first half of the 4th century transferred it to 
Pannonia (Bosnia and parts of Hungary). The Burgundians, 
at first residing in the vicinity of the Vandals, were compelled 
by the Gepides (a Gothic tribe) to move from the mouth of 
the Vistula into Germany, and afterwards into Switzerland 
and the south-eastern provinces of the present France. The 
SuEVEs had their primitive seat near the Elbe and in the middle 
parts of Germany, and many of them joined afterwards the 
Alans and Vandals on their march to the south-west of Europe. 

4. In 426, the last Roman troops withdrew from Briiannia^ 
or England, which since was invaded and ravaged by the ancient 
Scots. The Britons, therefore, asked the assistance of two tribes 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL BISTORT. 26 

The Henill~(Odoacer}'-OitroKotlM~(Theodorlc)— FraDks. 

of people from Germany, called Saxons (oocnpying the present 
kingdom of Hanover and the duchy of Holstein) and Angles 
(in the present duchy of Sleswiok). These people readily com- 
plied with the request, and in 449 went over to Britain ; they 
drove back the Scots, but instead of then returning to Germany, 
they took possession of the country. Britain was afterwards 
divided by them into seven small kingdoms, called the Saxon 
Hepta^rchy. The Britons partly retired into Wales, partly emi- 
grated to Armorica (in France), which since received the name 
of Bretagne, or Brittany. 

5. At the same time the HanSy now ruled by an enterprising 
king, AuilHy re-appeared on the European theatre of war. At 
the head of 700,000 men, Attila marched from Hungary into 
Crermanj, ravaging and plundering everywhere, and then invaded 
Gaul, or France, which he was about to conquer likewise. But 
in a bloody battle at Chalons on the Marne, in 451, he was de- 
feated, whereupon he invaded Italy, and died (in 452). After 
his death the ties of his empire loosened, and the Huns them- 
selves dispersed by degrees among other nations. 

6. In the year 476, almost the last independent part of the 
Western empire, or Italy, with Rome itself, was entirely subju- 
gated by OdoaceTy the leader of another northern tribe, called 
the HenUi ; and it remained under this dominion for 1 4 years. 

7. Meanwhile the Ostrogoths (see ^ 1 of the History) had 
transferred their seat into Pannonia (Bosnia) and Thracia, and 
were on good terms with the rulers of the Eastern empire at 
Constantinople. Theodorky king of the Ostrogoths, now made 
to emperor Zeno the offer of conquering Italy for him. His 
proposal being agreed to, Theodoric emigrated with all the Os- 
trogoths to Italy, defeated in 490 Odoacer in three battles, made 
himself master of the whole country, and was by emperor Anas- 
taaosy snoeessor of Zeno, acknowledged as la/tig of Bdly, But 

2 



26 EITROPE, PAST AND PRESEailT. 



MeroTlnglMi Dynasty, fowided by Olorls In GmiL 



after his death, which ooourred in 526, emperor Justinian (who 
reigned from 527 to 565), anxions to realise his claims on Italy, 
sent thither two eminent commanders, Belisarius and Narscs, 
who, after a struggle of eighteen years, snooeeded in their task, 
and made of Italy a province of the Eastern empire. The 
Eastern and Western empires were thus reunited, but only for 
a short period, as we soon shall see. 

8. It is now time to cast a look at Gaul, or Pranee. This 
latter name the country derived from the Franks, a German 
tribe, who, between the third and fourth centuries, or in the 
period from 237 to 375, got possession of the northern part of 
Gaul It is said, their first king here was Pharamond, who died 
in 428. His grandson Meroveus, who died in 458, was the 
founder of the dynasty of the Merovingians, reigniug in France 
for about three hundred years. But the most eminent of the 
Merovingians was Clovis, who drove the Romans out of Franoe 
(in 486), subdued the Armoricans in Bretagne, subjected the 
Burgundians (see ^ 3) to tribute, wrested consideraUe tracts of 
land from the Visigoths in the south of Franoe (see ^2), and 
extended his conquests northward to the Bhine. Clovis, having 
married a Christian princess, and attributing his success to the 
God whom she worshipped, determined to become a Christian 
himself, and in 496, he, with three thousand of his subjects, was 
baptized and anointed as king of the Franks, at Rheims, by the 
bishop Remigius. After his death (which occurred in 511), 
France was divided among his four sons. This impolitic proceed* 
ing proved fatal to the common interest ; the more so, as it was 
followed by subsequent divisions. At last, after the deaUi of 
king Charibert, of Paris, or since the year 569, Franoe, or rather 
the Prankish empire, was divided into three distinct states, vis. : 
Austrasia^ or the eastern empire (comprising the north-east of 
Gaul and the southern half of Ckrmany, between Tyrol and the 



800IAL AND POLITiCAL BISTORT. 



The M^fonsHlomiM In Fnaoe.— CMoftaglaii DtimsCj. 



forest of Tbariogia, and between the Bhine and the Inn riven); 
Neusiriaj or the western empire (eomprising the north-west of 
GanL between the Waal and Loire rivers) ; and Burgundy^ or the 
sottthern empire (comprising Provence, parts of Aqoitania, parts 
of Switzerland and Alsace). The capital of Austrasia was 
Metz^ that of Nenstria Soissans^ and that of Bnrgundj Orleans, 
In the banning of the 7th century, the Frankish king used to 
invest eminent men with the superintendence of the domuns and 
fiefe of the crown, and with the command of the royal military 
forces. These men, endowed with great power, were called 
Majores-damus ; one of them had the superintendence in Aus- 
trasia, another in Neustria, and a third in Burgundy. The last 
kings of the Merovingian dynasty being weaklings, and not much 
better than mock-kings, the Majjores-domus came soon to be con- 
sidered as the actual rulers. In 687, Fepin ofHerslall (the latter 
name was derived from his estate near Liege), Major-domus of 
Austrasia, was invested with the superintendence in the other 
Frankish kingdoms too, and from that time assumed the title of 
« duke and prince of the Franks." He was succeeded in his dig- 
nity by his son Charles Ma/rtdL^ renowned for his brilliant and 
decisive victory over the Moors or Arabs, between Tours and 
Poitiers, in 732. The son and successor of Charles Martell was 
Pepin the lAUle^ who was indeed but a very small man, but had a 
mighty spirit in his little body, and moreover an enormous deal 
of strength. The weakness and inaptitude of the Merovingian 
kings having become now too obvious, the last of them, Childeric 
IIL, was, in 752, by an assembly of the states of the empire 
held at Soissons, declared to have forfeited his throne, and was 
exiled to a monastery ; while Pepin the Little was elected king 
of the Franks, and anointed by the bishop Bonifacins. With 
him began the sway of the dynasty of the Carlomngians (which 



SB EUROPE^ PAST AND PRESENT. 



The Lorabardfl— >VfBlgotbt~Moora. 



name was derived from Pepin's son, Charles the Ghreat, or Oharie- 
magne). 

9. The Greek emperors exercised their sway in RaZy only for 
fourteen years. The Lokbakds (a Sucvian or German tribe, at 
first haying their seat near the middle coarse of the Elbe), who 
had once already been called on for assistance by the imperial 
governor Narses, returned to Italy in 568, headed by their val- 
iant king Alboii^ wrested the northern part, since called Lom- 
bardy, from the Greeks, and got possession of most of the other 
parts of the Italian peninsula. They even threatened Rome, but 
pope Stephen III., calling on the Frankish king, Pepin the Little, 
for help, the latter defeated the Lombards, and compelled them to 
cede to the holy seat the maritime country on the Adriatic Sea, 
which they lately had conqueredt In this way the pop^s temporal 
poioer'WBa established, and the foundation laid of what is now called 
the States of the Church. This occurred in 755. In 774 new 
differences between the pope and the Lombards brought on the 
intervention of Charlemagne, who vanquished the Lombards 
completely and embodied their kingdom with that of the Franks. 
Lower Italy (comprising the continental part of the present 
kingdom of Naples) and the Island of Sicily remained under the 
sway of the Greek emperors until -842, when this island and 
Calabria came into the possession of the Arabs. 

10. The Vtsigolks had since their inroad in SptUn (see ^ 2) 
established their power there permanently, and extended it in 
the course of time over all parts of the peninsula. Their capital 
and royal residence was Toledo since 531. But as soon as the 
wars with other tribes and nations had ceased, there arose civil wars 
and other intestine commotions, which caused one party to call 
on the Moors or Arabs (who then had conquered the whole north- 
em ooast of Africa) for assistance. The latter acted the same 
part as the Saxons and Angles had done in Britain. Soaroely 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL HI8T0EY. 99 

aiaTe>—Croirtca fieyviana, eta 

had they set their foot on the Spanish ground, in 711, when they 
attacked the Yisigoths and defeated them oompiotely in a hattle 
at Xeres de la Frontera, which lasted nine days. The fate of Rod- 
eric, the last king of the Visigoths in Spain, was never known j 
bis horse and weapons were found near the field of battle, but his 
body was nowhere to be seen. Pelagio^ a prince of the blood* 
royal, took command of the Goths who had not been slain by the 
Moors, led them into the mountainous region of Asturias, and 
founded there a little kingdom, the boundaries of which his sue- 
oessors enlarged in the course of time. But for the present, and 
for the next centuries, the Moors possessed the greatest part of 
the Pyrenean peninsula. 

11. During the migration of nations, many countries in tho 
east of Europe were depopulated, and this circumstance gave oc- 
casion to the Slaves (see Introduction, ^12, &), to more farther 
to the west, and occupy the abandoned seats. The main body 
of the Slaves remained in Russia and Poland, but some tribes 
peopled Bohemia, others settled themselves in the German coun- 
tries bordering on the Baltic Sea ; while lower Hungary and 
Austria were occupied by the Avares (who had their primitive 
seat between the Black and Caspian Seas), Dalmatia, and other 
countries in the vicinity, by the Croales and Servians^ and Bul- 
garia by the Bulgarians (a Tartar tribe, who in the 5th century 
had emigrated from their primitive seat between the Volga and 
Ural rivers). About the Magyars, see Introduction, ^ 12. 

12. The European territory of the Eastern empire, or of the 
Roman emperors residing at Constantinople, had, by all these 
oiroumstances, been greatly reduced ; nevertheless, it yet ranked 
highest among the Christian kingdoms by its civilization, wealth, 
and flourishing commerce. Constantinople was then the largest 
and handsomest city in Europe, and the imperial court displayed 
mach splendor and luxury, though the history of this court pre* 



80 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Scandinavian*— Nonnaot— CharlemagDe. 

seats a series of eruelties and infamous actions, seldom or never 
heard of in other ooantries. 

13. The ScandiTUivian cowUries^ or Sweden, Norway, and Den- 
mark, were, if not first, yet chiefly peopled hy the German trihe 
of Goths, who immigrated there ahout the Christian era. In 
the eonrse of time those countries beoame, in a certain degree, 
oyerpopulated, which gave rise to the famous naval expeditions 
of the NonMANS, who after the 9th century invaded the shores 
of England, Germany, Holland, Belgium, and France, every- 
where plundering and ravaging. They proved themselves to be 
as daring freebooters, as they were gallant warriors, and aoted 
an important part in the political afiEairs of several European 
countries in the west and south. 

14. Ghaelemaone (see ^ 8), who was born in 742, reigned 
from the year 768 to 814, and in this whole period he was almost 
continually at war. In 774 he wrested the kingdom nf Half 
fix>m the Lombards (see ^ 9), and added its crown to that which 
he wore already as king of the Franks. Meanwhile the long- 
nourished hostile sentiments between the Franks and their next 
neighbors in the north, the Saxons, had finally led to an erup- 
tion, which was followed by a war of more than thirty years. 
Charlemagne was indeed in this war the aggressor ; but beside 
his anxious desire to introduce Christianity among the pagan 
Saxons, he had well-founded political reasons to act as he did. 
For the Saxons bad made frequent inroads into his empire, and 
moreover being a very valiant and enterprising people, it waa 
to be feared they would sooner or later try to conquer it, or 
at least wrest some provinces from it. Thus the war commenced 
against them in 772, and lasted, though with some intervals, 
until 804, when a final treaty of peace was concluded, according 
to which the Saxons acknowledged the sovereignty of Charle- 
magne, and adopted the Christian fSuth. In one of those inter* 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY. SI 

Ulvision of llie Empire of CliiirleiDagne — Germaay. 

vab, in 778, the Moorish governor of Saragosaa requested Charle* 
magne to lend him bis assistanee against the Emir Abderrahman. 
Acoordingly, a Frankish army was sent to Spain, and this cam- 
paign terminated in the annexation of all the oonntrj north of 
the £bro to the Frankish empire. This new acquisition was 
ealied the Spanish mark (margrayiate). A war against the 
Danes was in 810 terminated bj a treaty of peace, which stipu- 
lated that the Eider river was to be considered as the boundary 
between the Danes and Franks ; and indeed this river has since 
continually been the boundary between Denmark and Germany. 
To secure the boundaries in the east and south-east, Charlemagne 
founded there several margraviates, for instance; the Avarian 
mark (comprising what is now called the arch-duchy of Austria) 
against the Avares (see ^11); Friaulj etc. In the year 800 
when Charlemagne happened to be at Rome, the pope (who for 
many substantial services, was highly indebted to him) placed 
the imperial croum upon his head, and thus, as it were, revived the 
Wesiem Raman Empire. Charles the Great died in the year 
814 at Aix-la-Ghapelle, and was succeeded by his son Louis^ snr- 
named the Fioiu, who was in point of mental power almost the 
reverse of his fiitber. Louis the Pious died in 840, and left h'"" 
dominions to his three sons, Louis, Charles, and Lothaire, wb* 
divided them by a treaty, concluded at Verdun in 843, in tl« 
following manner : 

Zauis (since surnamed the Crerman) acquired Crermany, whio^ 
since that time has ever been separated from France, and whera 
after the death of the last descendant of Louis (which occurred 
in 911) an elective monarchy was established, and so it continued, 
even so late as the year 1806. Louis the German had shortly 
before his death inherited the rights to the imperial crown^ as 
well as to Jialy^ Burgundy, part of Switzerland^ to Alsace^ Lor* 
rmuj etc., and entailed these rights on his descendants and sue- 



32 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

France— Kingdom of Italy — EDglaod. 



3essors to the German crown, l^hey were realized for the first 
lime by bis grandson Arnulph (reigning in the period from 887 
to 899), who not only was crowned as Koman-Oerman emperor, 
out also brought the kingdom of Italy and Burgundy into a po- 
dtical connection with Germany. 

Charles (sumamed the Bald) acquired France, which was 
ruled by his descendants until the year 987, when the Capdians 
supplanted the race of the Carlovingians. 

Lothaire acquired the imperial crown and the hngdom of 
Italt, and besides this a long tract of land situated between 
France and Germany, viz. Provence^ Dauphiny^ Burgundy^ Al- 
sace, Lorraine and the Netherlands. But his race became extinct 
even so early as the year 875 ; and thus the German kings, his 
nearest relations, became the heirs of his rights. 

15. As for England (see ^ 4), all the seven kingdoms of the 
Saxon Heptarchy were united into one, under the government 
of Egbert^ King of Wessex. This occurred in the year 827. 
Egbert was therefore the first King of England — a name de- 
rived from that of AngUa, the home of the Angles, and sub- 
.stituted for the former name of Britannia by Egbert. During 
his reign, and for many years afterwards, the Normans (see ^13) 
a[iade frequent incursions into England, and sometimes overran 
the whole country. King Alfred the Great (who reigned from 
the year 871 to 901) opposed them with good success, but a hun- 
dred years after his death the Normans again broke into Eng- 
land, and were now completely victorious, so that in the period 
iVom 1016 to 1042 three Danbh kings governed the country in 
succession (Swen, Canute, and Hardicanute). In the year 1042, 
the Normans or Banes were driven out of England, and another 
Saxon King, Edward II., sumamed the Confessor, was placed 
upon the throne. Meanwhile the Normans had settled in France, 
and acquired there (at the end of the 9th century) a large tract 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY. St 



Nonnaii Oonqnefli of EngUtnd— Hoore In Bpaln. 



of land, since called Normandy. William duke of Normandy, 
who was related to King Edward, made claim to the English 
throne, and after Edward's death, which occurred in 1066, he in- 
Taded England, at the head of sixty thousand men, defeated his 
rival Harold (son of the mighty Count Godwin ; for Edward had 
left no children) in the battle of Hastings (on the 14th of Oct 
1066), and became King of England. He was now called Wil^ 
liam the Conqueror^ and is the ancestor of the still reigning royal 
family of Oreat Britain. 

16. The Moors in Spain (see ^10) were in the beginning ruled 
by governors of the Caliphs then reigning at Damascus (the seal 
of the latter not being transferred to Bagdad until the year 754) ; 
but in 756 the Arabian prince Abderrahman founded an inde- 
pendent empire in Spain, and took his seat in Cordova (north-east, 
and 120 miles distant from Cadiz), which soon rose to be a splen- 
did city, and at one time numbered 1,000,000 inhabitants. The 
Moorish empire was at that time separated from that of the 
Christians by the Duero. Concerning the Christian empire, the 
little kingdom of Asturias, founded by Pelagic (see ^ 10), was 
since its first enlargement called the Kingdom of Leon, The 
Spanish viark, conquered by Charlemagne (see ^ 14), having 
meanwhile been divided into two counties, Barcelona and 
Navarre, and the count of Navarre having since assumed the 
royal title, there were now two Christian kingdoms in Spain ; 
which, in the course of time, brought into existence the kingdoms 
of Aragon, CastUe, Galicia, the principality of Catalonia, etc. 
Portugal, being first a province of the united kingdoms of Cas- 
tile and Leon, became in 1139 an independent kingdom. The 
power of the Moors in Spain was more and more restricted by 
the conquests of the Christian kings, till in 1492 Granada, the 
last Moorish possession on the Pyrenean peninsula, was conquer- 
ed by the Queen Isabella of Castile, and King Ferdinand^ of 



U EUROPE^ PAST AND PKESEMT. 



FenttoMMi and iBabelte-SodeU in Ite Middle 



Angon. At tliis time the kingdom of Angon oompriaed not 
only Aragon, but the whole north-eftat put of Spain, while the 
kingdom of Castile oomprised all other parts ; and as Ferdinand 
and Isabella were united by marriage, all Spain oame after their 
death under the sway, first of their daughter Johanna (or rather 
their son-in-law Philip), then of their grandson, the oelebrated 
Eang Charles I. (or Charles Y. as emperor of Germany), who 
entailed the Spanish erown on his descendants. 

17 This sketch of the poHtioal history of Europe will suffiee for 
the present ; and deferring the further particulars of it to the his- 
torical introduction of each separate state, we shall now give a 
eondensed description of the slate <f European culture in ike mid- 
dle ages. 

Had the time of blooming and vigor of the Roman empire last- 
ed forever, there is no doubt but Roman culture would at last 
have prevailed throughout Europe. But the migration of nations 
(see ^ 2), and with it perpetual wars, interfered and destroyed 
almost the last remains of it. Thus a commencement was to be 
made anew. But a quiet and peaceful development being impos* 
sible at that time, matters went on in the following succession : 

1. Improvement of warlike or military conditions. 

2. Agriculture. 

3. Foundation of new towns and cities. 

4. Commercial intercourse and rudiments of industry. 

5. A more general efficiency and propagation of Christianity, 
and subsequently the extension of the clerical power. 

6. The foundation of universities and the generalization of 
other schools. 

7. The gradual improvement of sciences and fine arts. 

8. Fresh life and activity in commercial and industrious enter- 
prises, generated by the Crusades. 

9. Origination of free citizens and corporations. 



SOCIAL AKD POLITICAL HISTORY. U 

Social Progress in the Middle Ages. 

10* New progress of ficiences and fine arts. 

1 1. The inYention of gunpowder and of the art of printing ; the 

Reformation and the discovery of America^ and of the passage bj 
sea to India ; and the immense social and intellectual revolu- 
tions brought on by these events, whose consequences are still 
apparent. 

In the period from the latter time of the migration of nations 
until the crusades, Italy (as the former millennial seat of the 
Roman empire), Spain (as the seat of the industrious and intel- 
ligent Moors since the 8th century), and the Eastern empire (as 
retaining the remains of Roman culture) were to be considered 
as illuminated directly, and the other European countries as il- 
luminated indirectly^ by the beams of the sun of culture. Mean- 
while the progress of culture went on in the above indicated man- 
ner. Thus we shall begin with the 

{a.) Improvement of warlike or military conditions ;— of course 
only with reference to the Germanic -tribes (see §^ 1, 2, 3, etc.), 
as all other European nations (with the exception of the Romans) 
lived at that time in a state of complete barbarity. Among the 
Germanic tribes it was the custom and practice to wage war in 
tiffo different ways : viz., either to call to arms aU freedom war- 
riors under the command of dukes elected by each tribe (this way 
was less frequent, and chiefly used in defensive wars) ; or to 
select warriors of profession out of those freeborn men, who were 
upon terms of a particular political dependence with the com- 
mander-in-chief. With this war&re the feudal system was 
closely connected. As soon as a foreign country was conquered} 
either the whole (as in the case of the Saxons in England, and of 
the Lombards in Italy), or some part of it (sometimes one third, 
but most frequently two thirds) was divided between the king (as 
commander-in-chief) and his military retinue ; each member of 
Uie latter receiving a lot, called AUodium^ which as a patrimonial 



36 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESEAT. 

Feudal System — Agriculture — Bundnge. 

estate was at his free disposition. The king, receiving a far 
greater lot than any member of his retinue, used to confer parts 
jf it, bj the name of fees (in Latin feuda or benefida)^ on single 
members of this retinue in usufruot for lifetime. The feofifees, 
called vassals^ were bound to faith and homage towards the 
feofier, and to warfare in case of war. In this way all allodial 
proprietors became gradually feudal tenants also. The feoflPer 
was under the obligation to protect hb vassal, and for this reason 
many allodial proprietors, being incompetent to their own pro- 
tection, conferred their estate upon any powerful neighbor, and 
received it back again from him as a fee. At first the fees were 
not transmissible by inheritance, but in the course of time the 
heritable quality was partly conceded, partly usurped ; and since 
that time, only in case of felony the fee was allowed to be with- 
drawn. Considering the peouliar condition of society in the 
middle ages, it cannot be denied that the feudal system was 
quite adapted to it, and afforded many advantages. 

(b,) AgriaiUure, formerly in a more or less fiourishing state 
throughout most of those European countries that were under 
the Roman sway, but since the beginning of the migration of 
nations almost totally neglected (except in the Eastern empire), 
made but poor progress in the period from the year 476 till 752 
(when the sway of the Carlovingians commenced), because the 
freeborn men being for the most time engaged in war&re, gave 
themselves seldom the trouble to cultivate the soil, which thus 
was chiefly tilled by the bondsmen or serfs. Bondage or servUude 
Iiad from the earliest time been in practice not only among the 
Germanes, but also among the Slavonians (see ^ 12 of the Intro- 
duction), and has not, in most of the countries where it existed, 
been abolished before the last and the present centuries. It may 
indeed be called a kind of slavery, but in various respects it dif- 
fers from proper slavery, which was in use among the ancient 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY. 87 



FoondatioB uf Towns and Cities. 



Romans, Greeks, etc., and is still in use among the Mohammedans 
and other peoples ! — In the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries agriculture 
was in the Christian countries of Europe promoted chiefly bj the 
endeavors of the monks ; and since the beginning of the crusades 
(at the end of the Uth century), when many bondsmen entered 
the armies of the cross, in order to partake of their privileges of 
personal freedom, agriculture and other branches of husbandry 
became more and more the occupation of free farmers, and at the 
same time attained a higher degree of importance. In the East- 
ern empire the culture of silk-worms was introduced during the 
reign of Justinian I. (527-565). The Moors in Spain managed 
the cultivation of the soil in an exemplary manner ; and even 
steep and sandy hills were by their perseverance transformed 
into fertile arable land. The meadows of Andalusia were never 
parched by the scorching sun, as the Moors took care to keep 
them humid by irrigating canals. Along the Guadalquivir river 
were situated more than 12,000 flourishing villages, and the 
township of Seville alone contained not less than 100,000 villages 
and farms. 

(c.) In speaking of the fimndcUion cf towns and cities since the 
commencement of European culture in general, we of course have 
only in view those countries which but then emerged from their 
state of barbarity, and where hitherto the people had more or less 
been accustomed to live in huts lying scattered about in the 
woods or open field. This was the custom among the ancient 
Germans (for the towns and cities on the left bank of the Khine 
had been founded by the Romans), among the Poles, Magyars, 
Britons, and in general among all the northern nations of Eu* 
rope. In the north and north-east of Europe, the foundation of 
towns and cities, in the style of those in the southern ooun tries, 
did not take place before the middle of the 1 3th century, and the 
few existing ones were not endowed with municipal laws beforr 



88 £UBOPE» PAST AND PBSSBKT. 

Boe«kllde— Moaoow — ^Loodoo — Conntontinople. 

that time. In Sweden the city of Bjoerkoe^ on an island of the 
lake Maelar, (eee ^ 9, of the Introduction), was indeed, even so 
early as in the first half of the 9th century, dbtinguished by its 
numerous population, its riches and power ; but the country in 
general had but few towns of any importance. RoeskUde, the 
capital of Denmark until the year 1443, was founded at a very 
early period, and had since the 11th century a population of 
100,000 inhabitants, and not less than 27 magnificent churches 
and monasteries ; but this was rather an exception from the rule. 
Moscow in Russia may have been founded in the 9th century, but 
it is more probable that its foundation did not take place before 
the middle of the 12th century. In 13p7 the first palace of 
stone was built here. The first foundation of London was laid 
by the Romans even so early as the year 52 ; in the beginning 
of the 7th century it was, says a contemporary, '' a commercial 
town frequented by many nations by sea and by land ;" and since 
the 11th century, the commercial intercourse was still more ac- 
tive here ; yet until towards the end of the 12th century most of 
the houses here were built of wood and thatched, till in 1189 
King Richard L ordered all houses with more than two stories to 
be built of stone, and roofed with tiles or slates. In Germany^ 
the lack of cities or fortified towns was first felt when the fierce 
Magyars or Huns (as they commonly were called, and from which 
name originated that of the Hungarians) made their plundering 
incursions at the end of the 9th, and in the beginning of the 
10th century ; and not until now most of the principal towns in 
the interior of Germany were founded. CofutajUinopU was at 
that time not only the emporium, but also in other respects the 
most important city of Europe. Besides this capital, the Eastern 
empire had many other fine cities ; while in IkUp those which had 
been founded by the ancient Romans, were multiplied by new 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL HISTORT M 



ComnMrelal iDteraouiw— Indaatfy. 



ones, fbr instance, by Venice. Likewise in Spain and in some 
parts of JFrancCy there were many cities of early origin. 

(d,) In the period from the 5th to the latter half of the 8th 
century, the commercial interooarse as well as the industry, was 
in general very insignificant, and almost entirely confined to Cohf' 
staniinopUj where industry was considerably promoted by the 
luxury of the magnificent imperial court, and an important trade 
was at that time carried on with several maritime countries on 
the Mediterranean Sea. In the next period until the beginning 
of the crusades or of the 12th century, the Moors in Spain ox- 
celled all other nations of Earope in point of manufactures and 
other branches of industry. Their woollen cloth, silk-stufiis, em- 
broideries in gold and silver, Morocco-leather, hardware, their ex* 
oellent workmanship in arms, etc. found everywhere in £urope 
as well as in Africa and Asia, a lucrative market In the art of 
dyeing, the Moors were eminently skilled. Likewise the work- 
ing in the Spanish gold and silver mines was managed by them 
with ability and circumspection, and added greatly to their 
wealth. In other countries of Europe in the latter period, the 
commercial preponderance of Constantinople gradually went over 
to the Italian sea-towns of Venice, Fisa, Genoa and Amayi (the 
last-named town is situated in the vicinity of Naples). These 
towns had risen to be independent commercial states, while in 
other western countries of Europe (with the exception of the 
Arabian part of Spain) the commercial intercourse was almost 
confined to trade by barter, or provision only for the daily supply. 
But now the circumstances there were more favorable. Indian 
and Levantine goods were sent from Constantinople by way of 
the Danube river up to Raiisbon (on the Danube), which was at 
that time the most considerable aod populous city of Germany, and 
mediated the intercourse not only between the eastern and west- 
em countries, but also between the north-east part of Europe and 



40 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ChriB'Janltj^MonaBtlc Life. 

Italy. In France the southern cities, above all Marseilles, traded 
with the Levant, while those of the north carried on commerce 
chiefly with England. Even the Slavonian tribes in the vicinity 
of the Elbe River and on the Baltic Sea, especially the citizens of 
Julin (on an island at the mouth' of the Oder Biver ; it was de- 
stroyed in 1170), kept up a commercial intercourse with neigh- 
boring countries. The increasing number of towns and cities, 
the establishment of fairs, and the discovery of gold and silver 

mines in the Uartz (see ^ 7, k. Introd.) and in other parts of 
Germany were promoting the industry in those quarters. 

(e.) A tnore general efficiency and propagaiion of Christianity 
was almost impossible during the troubles and disturbances in 
the period of the migration of nations. Yet a roundabout ground 
of it was laid by the transplantation of monastic life from the 
dioceses of the oriental church to those of the occidental. This 
was effected by St. Benedict of Nursia, who in 529 founded a mon- 
astery on Mount Gassino, near Naples, that gave rise to the es- 
tablishment of monasteries in other countries of Europe. These 
institutions were not only the seminaries for nearly all those 
heroes of the faith, who in the earlier time of the middle ages, as 
missionaries, propagated Christianity among the pagan tribes of 
Europe, frequently at the risk of their lives ; but may likewise 
be considered as the only nurseries and preservers of classical 
literature and of sciences in general in those dark ages. With- 
out the monasteries, even genuine manuscripts of the Holy Bible 
might be very rare. That monks deserved well for their cultiva- 
tion of the soil, has already been mentioned ; and moreover they 
were engaged in handiwork, in the instruction of youth, in writ- 
ing chronicles, in copying classical manuscripts, etc. Before the 
time of Charlemagne, the pope, as the visible head of the occiden- 
tal church, had but little influence or authority in temporal mat- 
ters ; but since he had placed the imperial crown npon the head 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL BlffTOKY. 41 



Papal Power— InatracUoii of the People. 



of this king (see ^ 14), he assumed the privilege of crowning all 
his successors, and sabseqnently (in the next period until the 1 1 th 
century) the supreme legislative power in ecclesiastical matters, 
the supreme judicial power in the same matters and in all causes 
concerning the clergy, and the right of pronouncing the interdict 
(a papal prohibition to the clergy to celebrate the holy offices) 
against whole districts and even countries, and the aiuUheMa 
against persons, in cases of transgressions against the church. 
But the preponderance of the papal authority dated from the 
time of Pope Gregory VIl. (1073-1085) and of the crusades 
(from the end of the 11th to that of the 13th century). The 
popes now went so far as to declare that God had given them all 
the kingdoms of heaven and earth ; they actually dethroned kings, 
treated them as their vassals, and continued for more than three 
hundred years to exercise an almost undisputed sway over both 
kings and peoples of the Christian world. It was about the pe- 
riod of the reign of InnocefUus III. (1198-1216) that the power 
of the pope was at its highest pitch. But after Boniface VIII. 
(1*294-1303) had been deeply humbled, and treated with con* 
tempt by King Philip IV. of France, the papal power went rap- 
idly to decay. 

[f) It cannot be denied that the Roman Catholic church hns 
done liar more for promoting knowledge and instruction than the 
oriental church, especially in the middle ages. Yet many kings 
were not behind in their endeavors, among them Charlemagne, 
who established a great number of schools and interested himself 
even personally in the progress of the pupils. In the preceding 
period, the objects of instruction in the higher schools consisted 
of the so-called seven liberal arts, viz. study of the classical liter' 
ature, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and 
music. The best schools of this kind were at that time those of 
Cambridge, York and Canterbury in England, from whence set- 



4% VUBOFE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 



Sehook— Univenltiea. 



0Diifio knowledge gradually spread over the European oontinent 
In the EoMtem empire the Boman literatare had lost its strength* 
ening freshness hj the prevalence of a depraved taste ; all attain- 
ments in literature and science were nearly concentrated in Con- 
stantinople ; yet until the reign of Justinian I. (527-565) there 
was still a renowned academy at Athen& The Moors in Spain^ 
so distinguished in other hranches of human exertions, excelled 
also in the cultivation of sciences, especially in the ^riod from 
the 8th to the 12th century. Cordova was the seat of literary 
institutions, academies and numerous common schools. The 
academies were celebrated, and much resorted to from other 
countries. Both Christians and Jews attended the instruction 
in matters of philosophy, medicine, mathematical and physical 
sciencea In the last-named period (752-1100) France^ Ger- 
many and Switzerland were possessed of excellent cloister, cathe- 
dral and episcopal schools in Paris and Normandy^ at Corvey^ 
Fuida^ Faderbom and Hildesheim, and at Si. Gall. About the 
same time the first universities of Europe were founded. The 
most celebrated among them were those of Salerno (in, the vicin- 
ity of Naples), of Bologna (in the States of the Church), and of 
Paris. The object of instruction in the first was principally med" 
icine^ in the second jurisprudence, and in the third theology and 
philosophy. At the medical faculty or seminary of SalemOj 
founded in the beginning of the i2th century, and endowed with 
the privileges of a university in 1 150, it was chiefly Arabian pro- 
fessors who directed the instruction. In 1119, or about that 
time, the university of Bologna took its rise ; but its glory dates 
from the professorship of the celebrated legist Irnerius (tll40) ; 
in 1158 it was endowed with the privileges of a university by 
Emperor Frederick I. About the year 1200, when another re- 
nowned professor, named Azso, illustrated this university, it was 
frequented by 10,000 students. It must be remarked here, thai 



SOCIAL AND POLinOAL HISTORY. 4ft 

Uolveriitiea^Lilefmry Productiou. 

mttny of the latter were indeed youth ; yet the greatest part of 
those stodents oonsisted of men of rank, or who filled high offices. 
For them was the knowledge of the Raman law (which was ex- 
plained here, and which had become the common law in most of 
the European countries) indispensable ; and as at that time the 
art of printing was not yet invented, and thus the study of 
books impossible, it was a matter of course, that they betook 
themseWes to universities. The title of Doctor came first in use 
at the University of Bologna. Never did any university maintain 
its renown so long, nor influence church and state to such a de- 
gree as that of PaH$, Though the opinion that its origin might 
be dated from the days of Charlemagne, is untenable, yet it orig- 
inated at a very early period, perhaps in the beginning of the 
iOth century. In the 12th century this university numbered 
among its professors several men distinguished for their attain- 
ments in literature and science, of whom Peter Lombardua 
(+1 164), a disciple of Abelard, was the most celebrated. His 
" iibri sententiarum," comprise a theological system that for cen- 
turies vindicated its authority among the theologians. The uni- 
versities of 02ford and Cambridge are of so early origin too, that 
the period of their foundation cannot be stated with certainty. 
Before the end of the 13th century, there had been founded uni- 
versities at Padttc^ Naples^ R^gio^ Rome and TVeviso ; at Monl' 
peUieTy Orleans and Toulouse ; and at ScUamanca in Spain. 

(g,) The literary production in the western countries of Eu- 
rope during the period from the 5th to the latter half of the 8th 
century, oonsisted only of philosophical and church historical 
works, and were entirely written in Latin. Beda Venerabilis, 
author of a history of the Christian church in England, intro- 
duced first the Christian chronology into the western countries 
of Europe. In this period too, the first essays in the art of 
painting (wholly neglected since the first period of the Rorna*^ 



44 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Litenuy Prodactlons— Fine Arts— Archttectnre. 



emperors) were made, and a transition from ancient to modem 
architecture was eflfected by the Gothic style (inyented by the 
Ostrogoths, but in the course of time much improved and brought 
to its high state of grandeur), and likewise by the tasteless Lorn- 
bardic style mingled with that of the Byzantines. In the 
£astem empire the Latin language prevailed until the latter 
half of this period, when it began to be supplanted by a corrupt- 
ed Q-reek dialect Literary productions at that time were 
rather insipid, and poetry was almost confined to the epigram. 
The church of St. Sophia, built in Constantinople during the 
reign of Justinian I. (527-563), was considered as a pattern 
of the early Christian architecture, the peculiar properties of 
which were the form of a cross, the cupola and the semicircular 
arch resting on cubical capitals. It was not until the 9th century 
that the arts of painting and sculpture began to be improved in 
the Eastern empire. — In the next period (752-1100) it was 
chiefly the Moors in Spain who excelled in poetry. The ballad 
was devised by them. Their architectonic performances in the 
Arabian stylo (an improved imitation of the Byzantine style) 
were distinguished for their easy forms and rich ornaments. In 
scientifical matter they chiefly cultivated the mathematical and 
physical sciences. Edrisi ( + 1 180) who made his studies at Cor- 
dova, wrote several geographical works of great value. In the 
other European countries (with the exception of the Eastern em* 
pire) the Latin ceased to be a living language, since in the 9th 
century the Romanic and Germanic languages had been im- 
proved with more success. In the same period (752-1100) sev- 
eral poetical and other works were, for the first time, written in 
German, and the grand cathedrals of Bamberg, Worms, Ments, 
Spires, etc., built in the mixed LombardoByzantine style. In 
the 1 1th century, the first feudal castles were built ; among them 
the celebrated Wartburg (now belonging to S^e Weimar), in 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY. 46 

Tlie CruaadeB. 

1067. About the same time music and painting on glass were 
cultiTated successfully. 

{h.) As the Cn^o^s, undertaken since the end of the ilth 
century by European nations for the recovery of the Holy Land, 
were attended by most important consequences with regard to 
the social condition and culture of Europe, we must previously 
give some historical outlines of them. The Holy Land, or Pal- 
estine, had, since the end of the 4th century, formed part of the 
Eastern empire, but in the 7th century been conquered by the 
Arabs. The latter granted free exercise of religion to the Chris- 
tian population, and in general, treated them with equity. In 
068 the sultan of Egypt took possession of Palestine, which 
continued to be under the sway of himself and his successors 
until the year 1078, when the Sddschuks (or Turks, who from other 
Turkish tribes differed only by their particular name, which they 
had derived from that of their former sultan, named Seldschuk) 
subdued the country ; and by them, the Christians, especially the 
pilgrims to Jerusalem, were often treated with cruelty and scorn. 
The pilgrims returned to Europe and gave an account of the 
treatment they received. This excited the indignation of the 
European Christians, and they were easily induced to unite in a 
great effort for taking the Holy Land from the infidel Seldschuks. 
There were in all, seven crusades: the first^ in the period from 
the year 1096 to 1100; the second^ 1147-1149; the Miri, 1189 
-1 193 ; the fourth^ 1203-1204 ; the ffth, in 1228 ; the sixth, in 
1248; the sevenih^ in 1270. We shall now show the various 
consequences of the crusades, already alluded to. How they 
exerted influence on the extension of the pa'pal potver, see above 
paragraph, marked (e). Yet we must add here that the possession 
of the immense riches of the Roman Catholic clergy, especially 
of the regular clergy, dates from the period of the crusades, they 
being then enabled to purchase at the cheapest prices the estates 



46 EUROPE, PAST AlTD PRE8EKT. 



Cooaequenoes of the CrosMlefl— Chtralry^Ofilen of KninhtlMMML 



of cmsaderfl. To the princes, too, the onuadea presented many 
opportonities for extending their power; for ioBtanoe, by the 
eseheating of fiefs, which thus became estates of the crown. The 
consequences, with regard to the nobilityj were in substanoe the 
following : — First, the spirit of chivalry was improved, famtlj- 
names and ensigns armorial came into nse among the nobles, and 
the tcumamenls became now more general and more splendid. 
Then the crusades gave rise to the erection of the following 
religious and MUita>ry orders : 1. The Knights of Si. John, whose 
first origin dates from the year 1048, when some merchants from 
Amalfi (near Naples) erected a monastery and hospital at Jem- 
salem ; yet their regular organization took place during the first 
erusade. In 1187 they transferred their seat from Jerusalem 
to Ptoiemais or Acre (on the Syrian coast), in 1291 to Oypros, 
and in 1309 to Rhodes. On the last-named island they main- 
tained themselves for more than two hundred years until the 
year 1522, when the island was conquered by the Turkish sultan 
Soliman II. The king of Spain and (German emperor Charles 
v., who then was in possession of Malta, ceded in 1530 to the 
knights this island, which in 1798 was conquered by the French, 
but since the year 1800 belongs to Great Britain. 2. The 
knights templars, whose first organization dates from the year 
1 118, and who were distinguished for their valor and great ser- 
vices in the Holy Wars. Since the loss of the Holy Land, the 
knights templars transferred their principal seat to France, but 
to their misfortune. For their great wealth excited the avidity of 
King Philip the Fur, who, in 1312, exterminated almost the 
whole order. 3. The ThUonic order, originating in 1 190, and its 
members consisting only of German knights. Since the re^Mni- 
quest of Palestine by the Saracens, the master of the Teutonic 
order transferred his seat from Jerusalem to Venice, thence to 
Marburg (belonging to Hesse Cassel), and finally to 



800IAL AND POLITIOAL HISTORY. 47 

OomnMictal iDleraooras. 

(sonih-eut, and 32 miles distant from Dantzick). The knights 
of the Teutonic order snbdued, in the period from the year 1230 
to 1283, the pagan tribes of the Prussians proper, and took pos- 
session of the whole country that now comprises the Prassian 
provinces of East and West Prussia. The last master of the 
Teutonic order was the margrave Albert, of the house of Hohen- 
K^lem ; he changed his Catholic creed for Protestantism, and in 
1525 transformed his mastership into a duchy. The Teutonie 
order, dissatisfied with this alteration, now left the country, and 
removed their principal seat to Mergentheim (now belonging to 
the German .kingdom of Wirtemberg). The dissolution of the 
order took place in 1809. Similar other orders originated chiefly 
in Spain. Concerning the consequences of the crusades with 
regard to European commerce and industry, it may be remarked 
that before that period the commercial train of Europe, in the 
direction from east to west, was to be compared with the moderate 
running of a river, which afterwards rising to a mighty stream and 
dividing into several branches, diffused its contents in every di- 
rection. Italian, French, and Catalonian maritime towns seised 
upon the sea-commerce; while German, Netherlandish, and 
French traders took possession of the inland commerce. We 
shall first speak of the European sea-commerce^ which from the 
remotest ages until the end of the 15th century ever continued 
to be (at least substantially) restricted to the Mediterranean Sea, 
During the crusades Venice, and partly (renoa and Pisa^ acquired 
the most substantial monopolies and other commercial advantages 
in all seaports of the Eastern empire, as well as of Syria and 
Palestine. During the fourth crusade (in 1203 and 1204) the 
Venetians conquered most of the shores and islands of the first- 
named empire, and founded settlements thera At the same time 
the navigation on the Black Sea became subject to their sway, 
and thus they not only participated in the commerce between 



48 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Trade uf Venice, GeiUM, Pisa, sod Aroalfl with the EasL 

Asia and the interior of Europe, but for a long while Bnperin- 
tended the commercial intercourse with the north of Europe. 
But after the re-establishment of the Byzantinian authority at 
Constantinople in 1261, the Venetians were expelled from this 
capital, and the Grenoese succeeded them ; while the Venetians 
became now (by commercial treaties with the Saracens) possessed 
of the highly important Indian trade through JEgypt, Since they 
even participated in the caravan trade with the interior of Africa 
and obtained settlements on the coast of the Barbary. About 
the same time the Genoese founded settlements in Crimea and 
on other shores skirting the Black Sea. The exports of Venice 
to Egypt were chiefly olive-oil, cloth, velvet, furs, quicksilver, 
copper, lead, cinnabar, sweet oranges, and other fruits, etc., upon 
the whole at the value of about 300,000 ducats (an immense 
sum at that time) annually. Besides these goods, other ones, at 
the value of about 50,000 ducats, were smuggled in Egypt by 
the ships' crews. Towards the end of the 1 4th century the Vene- 
tian merchant- vessels amounted to upwards of 3,000 (including 
300 of the burthen of 700 tons each), and were navigated by 25,000 
tuen. The annual exports and imports of Genoa were likewise 
very considerable. Thus, for instance, in 120 1, one cargo, brought 
from the Levant, comprised among other valuable goods 1500 
pounds of gold, silver, and precious stones ; and in 1 379, a large 
Genoese vessel brought a cargo of spices, muslin, silk stuffs, gold, 
and silver, at the value of 1,500,000 ducats. A large portion of 
the imported goods was exported to Germany, especially to 
Nuremberg. Bills of exchange came first in use at Genoa in 
this period. Pisa was not behind in commercial and shipping 
enterprises ; it kept up a lively intercourse with the Levant, and 
acquired substantial privileges in Constantinople. The mer- 
chants of Amalji (near Naples) were the first who exported 
European goods to Syria and Egypt. The mariner's compass la 



SOCIAL AND POLinOAL HISTORY. 49 

Maritime Laws — ^Inland Commeroe. 

said to have been invented at Amalfi, in 1302, by Flavto" Oioja ; 
but, the pecttHar use of the loadstone being known already a 
century before, he has perhaps only improved that instrument. 
Ancona traded chiefly with Cyprus ; among other goods, it ex- 
ported Florentine and French cloth, soap, and wine, and im- 
ported cotton, spices, sugar, and alum. In the period from the 
12th to the end of the 15th century, Barcelona^ the capital of 
Catalonia in Spain, was renowned for its commercial and ship- 
ping enterprises, and rivalled successfully even with Venice and 
Genoa. In France, not only Marseilles^ but also Aigues Mortes 
and MorUpellier carried on great business in the last-named 
enterprises. Finally, it may be remarked that in this period 
the maritime laws, if not established for the first time, were im- 
proved and brought into more general practice. 

With regard to the inland commerce, there were in this period 
lico principal commercial roads : the one between Constantinople 
and Germany by way of the Danube river, and the other between 
the Italian or French seaports and the staples of the interior of 
Europe. The first of these roads was indeed of great import- 
ance, but in general not so much frequented as the latter, for 
the simple reason of its shorter distance. Besides Ratishon, 
which continued to be an emporium, Vienna was chiefly engaged 
in the trade through Constantinople. For the Levantic and 
Indian trade through Venice and Genoa, Nuremberg and Augs- 
burg became the great staples of Germany and other European 
countries. Their intercourse with Venice did not commence 
before the I4th century, but it soon yielded immense profits to 
them. The goods received from Venice (and partly from Genoa), 
they exported partly to Erfurt (the staple of the east of Ger- 
many, etc.), partly to Mentz and Cologne (the staples of the 
west and north of Germany, etc.), but chiefly to Bruges.^ Ant' 
werp, snd BnuseU^ though these Netherlandish emporia received 

3 



50 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Commercial Marts— Maiiufuctiiree. 



Iso directly goods from Venice by sea. In France, there were 

n this period no such staples like those of Germany ; yet in 

arious other regards Lyojts and Avignon were at all events sta- 

iles of great importance. The emporium of Russia during the 

4th and 15th centuries was Novogorod^ which at that time had a 

)Opulation of 400,000 inhabitants. Next to this city Pskow or 

Pleskow (south-west, and 156 miles distant from St Petersburg) 

7as an important staple of Bussia. The emporium of Sweden 

vas Wlsby, on the island of Gothland, which in the beginning 

f the 12th century sent abroad its merchant vessels even as fiir 

s to Alexandria in Egypt. The maritime law of Wisby was of 

p*eat authority far and near. The staples of Denmark were 

Ro€skil(le^ Aalborg, and Aarkuus, and that of Norway was Bergen. 

•'n England, London continued still to be the only emporium, 

)ut in the 15th century Bristol also began to rise. Lastly, with 

espect to INDUSTRY, il was chiefly silk-weaving and dyeing, that 

vere, the fornier art introduced, the latter improved, since the 

crusades. The Normans, settled on the island of Sicily, waged 

^ar against the Eastern empire, and in 1 1 48, headed by their 

dng, Boger II., they took in Corinth, Athens, and Thebes, where, 

18 in Constantinople, silk-manufactures were flourishing. Greek 

*>ilk-weavers were now by them induced to go to Sicily and in- 

itruct people there in the mysteries of their art. The latter, 

ihus introduced for the first time in Italy, was soon improved 

^ith great success at Palermo ; thence it was transplanted to 

Lucca, in 1309 to Venice, and since the year 1314 to Floren£e^ 

Milan, Bologna, etc. The art of dyeing was improved chiefly by 

he multiplication of dyeing materials ; saffron, alum, and prob- 

ibly indigo too, being introduced by the crusaders. Orcfailla, as 

lyeing material, was not known in Europe before the 14th cen- 

tory, and first brought from the Orient to Florence in the year 

1300. Sicily, favored by its climate, enjoyed the pecoliw 



SOCIAL AKD POLmOAL HISTORY. 61 



Origin of Free GlUzeoships aad CorponUloDa. 

advantage of cultivating the sugar-cane^ and introducing the im- 
portant article of this tropical produce into Europe. Before the 
period of the crusades, honey was the only substitute for sugar 
throughout Europe, until the first crusaders became acquainted 
with the sugar-cane in Syria. Already, before the middle of the 
12th century, it was cultivated in Sicily on a large scale ; thence 
it was transplanted to Madeira (discovered in 1419), and finally 
to the West Indies. Even so early as the 14th century the con- 
gumption of sugar in Italy was immense. 

(i.) It is obvious that these various improvements, occasioned 
by the crusades, could not forbear to react favorably upon the 
condition of the citizens in most of the European towns. Many 
communities acquired their independence and privileges by grant- 
ing loans or gratuities to their sovereigns in cases of pecuniary 
embarrassments. The first cities, obtaining substantial privileges^ 
were those of Upper and Central Baly^ which availing themselves 
of the opportunity presented by the long-lasting differences be- 
tween the German emperors and the popes, became independent 
In the administration of their local affairs. Their mayors were 
called podestas^ and partly appointed by the German emperor (see 
historical introduction of Italy), partly and chiefly elected by the 
citizens. In the beginning the governmental power was exercised 
exclusively by the nobles (or patricians, as they were called in 
most of those cities)^ but subsequently the mechanics laid claim 
to a participation in government, and for the most part effected 
their desire. In Germany, those free cities, whose last remnants 
are Hamburg, Bremen, Lubec, and Frankfort, took existence 
during the reign of emperor Frederic II. (121.5-1250), and du- 
ring the interregnum (1250-1273 ; see historical introduction of 
Germany). Although these cities continued to be subjected to 
the emperor, their privileges were very substantial, and comprised, 
ftmong others, the right of immediateness (i. e., they were in- 



52 EtTROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT 

Municipal PrlTll«ge«— Luxuries. 

dependent members of the German empire), the right of self* 
governmeot in local affairs, the staple-right, the rights of coinage, 
of holding fairs, of levying customs, etc. Here, as in the Italian 
cities, the governmental power was at first exercised exclusively 
by the patricians, till in the 14th century the mechanics, or rather 
the guilds^ obtained the right of participation in government, at 
least in many cities of southern Germany. In France^ especially 
in the south of that country, the high nobility and clergy granted 
regales, or other similar privileges, to many cities, partly for 
money, and partly because they considered the flourishing of these 
citiics suitable to their own interest. In Aragon (see ^ 16), since 
the year 1137, comprising Catalonia also, there were likewise 
privileged cities, besides Barcelona ; yet the governmental power 
here was divided between royal and municipal officers. In the 
north of Europe, only Nbvogorod and PUskow in Russia, and 
Wisby in Sweden, enjoyed similar privileges (Novogorod even 
more) as the Italian and German free cities. The increasing 
number and wealth of free citizens influenced greatly on the im- 
provement of manufactures and of industry in general, and the 
reaction proved favorable in almost every branch of human exer- 
tion. The cloth manufactories, for instance, being in this period 
most extensive and flourishing in Italy, Germany, France, Switzer- 
land, Spain, England, and above all in the Netherlands (where 
Louvain, Ghent, Dendermonde, Ypres, Brussels, Bruges, etc., were 
highly distinguished for their cloth manufactures, and those of 
Bruges alone yielded the means of existence to more than 10,000 
families), were promoting in an extraordinary manner the raising 
of sheep, which branch of husbandry was cultivated chiefly in 
England and Spain. The prevailing luxury influenced again on 
the manufactures. Scarlet and citrine were the most fashionable 
colors of dress in the middle ages ; and in the beginning of the 
14th century, even the lower classes of Genoa wore red garments 



SOCIAL AND POLITIOAL HISTORY. U 

Drinking PropenslUet and Customs. 



with lemon-colored liniog, at least on holydajs. Scarlet atate- 
dresses were sometimes lined with green. The ladies of Plaoen- 
tia, and of other Italian cities, used to wear wide and long scarlet 
dresses, either of fine woollen, or of silk and velvet, or of gold- 
brocade. Sleeves and girdles were set with pearls. Besides 
diamond rings on the fingers, the hair was adorned with gold 
chains, pearls, and precious stones. In many cities of Germany, 
Flanders, Brabant, and France, the ladies were not inferior to 
those of Italy in finery. On the other side, the gentlemen were 
not behind-hand in ornament, and even their breeches were em- 
broidered with gold, silver, and pearls. That the delight in the 
pleasures of the table kept pace with this luxury, is a matter of 
course ; but a most striking feature in the customs of the middle 
ages were the so-called draughts cf honor, or, in plain words, the 
drinking propensity. In Germany, the Netherlands, and in the 
north of France, beer was the common beverage, in the northern 
oountries, mead, and in the southern, wine. Tet, in the first-named 
countries, wine also was drunk in great quantities. In the drink- 
ing-rooms of the cities formal drinking-rules had been established 
by practice. The drinkers sat down round " the abbot and his 
monks," viz. : round the great bumper and the smaller ones, and 
the chairman insisted upon strict observance of the rules. Woe 
to him who was dilatory in pledging I He incurred the risk of 
having the contents of the bumper thrown into his face. Mead 
was a beverage from ancient times in the north of Europe ; it 
was even exported from Germany, through Constantinople, to 
Syria and Palestine, until the end of the 12th century. In 
Meissen, on the Elbe, it was brewed in such quantities, that in 
1015, at winter time, when the river was frozen over, a rather 
great fire was extinguished with mead. The multiplication of 
the branches of industry, and the improvement of the condition 
of mechanics and tradesmen, gave rise to the formation of guildsy 



U EUROPE, PAST AKI) PRESEITT. 

GaUd»— Hanaeatlo League. 

or corporations of mechanics and tradesmen. They originated 
in the period of the crusades, and soon spread over all countries 
of Eorope. In Italy they were most numerous, and Florence, 
for instance, numbered at one time not less than 72 different 
guilds. The guild of the cloth -weavers, belonged to those that 
stood highest in credit. Next to Italy, the guilds were most 
numerous in Germany. In the middle ages, cases of swordrlaw 
occurred frequently, but never in such degree as since the midst 
of the 13th century. About the same time, numerous pirates 
were roving about the European seas. Thus the communicationsy 
both by land and by sea, were infested ; and whereas, in Q-ermany, 
the interregnum (1250-1273) prevented the redress by govern- 
ment, or in any other regular way, several commercial towns en- 
tered into a confederacy for mutual defence. This was the origin 
of the renowned Hanseaiic LeagtUy to which belonged nearly 80 
cities and towns of Germany, Prussia, and the Netherlands, among 
others, the following: Hamburg, Lubec, Bremen, Brunswick, 
Luneburg, Magdeburg, Bresiau, Dortmund, Soest, Osnabruck, 
Stralsund, Wismar, Bostook, Stettin, Konigsberg, Elbiug, Dant- 
sick, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Dort, Deventer, Qroningen, Zutphen, 
Zwoll, Middelburg; moreover, Cracow in Poland, Dorpat in 
Livonia, and Wisby on the Swedish island of Gothland. In the 
course of time, Lubec became the head of the Hanseatic League 
that entertained a large navy. The Guildhall, in London, was 
established, if not directly by this league, yet by a corporation of 
German merchants. Other confederacies in Germany were the 
Rhenish League^ which was established at Mentz in 1255, and to 
whom belonged not only Mentz, Worms, Spire, Frankfort on the 
Maine, etc., but also Cologne, W esel, Munster, and other members 
of the Hanseatic League. To the Swabian League, originating 
partly in the 13th, but chiefly in the 15 th century, belonged 



SOOIAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY. $6 

Geographical Knowledge— Poetry and the Fine Arts. 



Nuremberg, Augsburg, and other cities of southern Crermanj 
that traded chiefly with Italy. 

(/) New scientific progress since the crusades, was chiefly 
made in Gfeography and other kindred branches of knowledge 
The geographical conceptions hitherto prevailing in most part* 
of Europe, were in some measure enlarged and corrected by the 
crusades, and moreover by the accounts of several missionaries 
sent to Karakorum (830 miles north-west from Pekin, and 37( 
miles south from Irkutsk), once the splendid capital and residence 
of the Mongolian emperors, by the pope, and king Louis IX. of 
France, in 1246, and the following years. Besides these mission 
aries, a Venetian merchant, named Marco Polo, visited Mongolia 
or Tartary, and thence China, Cochinchina, Malacca, Ceylon 
Persia, and Armenia, in the period from the year 1271 to 1295. 
Although mixed with numerous fables, his accounts are, in sub- 
stance, correct ; yet they did not in general add much to geo- 
graphical knowledge for want of auxiliary knowledge in nautical 
and other mathematical branches. All mathematical acquire 
ments at that time had been derived from Arabian authors, oi 
Arabian translations of Greek authors. This latter fact maj 
appear strange ; as of course it might have been much better tc 
make use of the Greek original instead of translations. Bui 
(with the exception of the Eastern empire and Arabian Spain] 
in Europe the study and knowledge of the andent Cheek larigiuigt 
did not commence before the latter half of the 1 5th century ; and 
until then no other Bible was used or scarcely known than iU 
Latin translation, commonly called Yulgata. The fijie arts made, 
in this period, much greater progress than the sciences. Espe- 
cially poetrif rose to a high state of improvement, and assumed, 
after the crusades, the character of the romantic. Epic and 
lyrical poetry flourished chiefly in Germany and in France, and 
highly celebrated were the German poets of the 12th and 13th 



M Europe; past and present. 



InreDtion of Gonpowder^Art of Printing. 



century (they were called MinnesingerSy or minstrels of love), and 
4t the same period the TVoubadours, or poets of Provenoe, and 
ither parts of southern Franoe. Even on the island of Iceland 
at that time a fertile and well-cultivated country) the spirit of 
)oetry was improved with the greatest success. The Scandina- 
dan poets of the middle ages were called Scalds, Fainting and 
sculpture were first raised to independent fine arts in the 13th 
century; the former by Cinuibue (born in 1240, died in 1300), 
ohe latter by Nicolo Pisano (the latter surname alludes to Pisa, 
vhere he lived in the midst of the 1 3th century). Fainiing on 
glass and plastic brass founding were at a high pitch of improve- 
ment in this period ; but above all. architecture^ whose admirable 
^andeur in the Germanic, or New Gothic style (an improvement 
if the original Gothic style) dates chiefly from the 13th century. 
The construction of the cathedrals of Paris, Rouen, Rheims, and 
Amiens, of Burgos and Toledo, of Cologne and Magdeburg, and 
jf St. Peter in York, and of Westminster Abbey in London, 
jommenced in this century, while that of the cathedral of Stras- 
burg commenced in 1018, and of those of Vienna and of Freiburg 
now belonging to the grand-duchy of Baden) commenced towards 
/he midst of the 12th century. Not only churches, but also 
nonasteries, or abbeys, palaces, castles, town-halls, bridges, etc., 
.vere at that time built in the above-named style. 

(k.) Since the days of the crusades, Europe had more and 
nore become the focus of universal history, yet it attained its 
uermanent ascendency in this respect not before the end of the 
15th century, when not only the use of gunpowder (invented, 
iccording to common supposition, about the year 1350, by a monk, 
it Freiburg in Baden, named Barthold Schwarz) had become 
acre general, but the invention of the art of printing (in 1 440) 
.lad brought another not less powerful, though moral weapon into 
its hand, and moreover now the discovery of America (in 1492), 



SOCIAL AND POUnCAL BISTORT. « 

Tbe RefcMrniBUoD. 

and of ihe passage by sea to India (1498), opened at onoe, as it 
were, all temporal treasares to its spirit of enterprise, and ex- 
tended its commeroe, hitherto confined to the Mediterranean Sea. 
in a rather short time oyer the whole earth. While these impor- 
tant discoveries brought on the most substantial changes in the 
maierial condition and circumstances of Europe, not less portentous 
spiritual alterations were effected by the almost simultaneous Iirf<yr' 
motion, dating from October 31,1517. It b remarkable, and gives 
a new evidence of the defectiveness of human exertions and per* 
formanoes, that all those inventions, discoveries, and events, good 
as they were in themselves (perhaps with the exception of the in- 
vention of gunpowder), proved to have their wrong side too. So, 
for instance, Christianity is indebted to the art of printing for the 
circulation of the Holy Scriptures among all classes of society, 
and the sciences are indebted to this art for their high state of 
improvement ; but at the same time, infidelity and revolutionary 
spirit have likewise availed themselves of thb powerful lever to 
propagate their mischievous principles, unfortunately with great 
success. The advantages of the discovery of America have been 
immense in almost every respect ; yet it not only proved fiital in 
its consequences to the discoverers themselves, in drying up the 
intrinsical sources of prosperity in Spain ; but it transformed, 
almost throughout Europe, the hitherto more or less prevailing 
meek and quiet spirit, into a turbulent one. While the former 
^ is in the sight of Ood of great price" ( 1 Pet. iiL 4), the latter 
is of great annoyance to those who are excited by this spirit. 
The benefits of the Reformation are unquestionable ; nevertheless, 
the aroh-enemy knew very well how to avail himself even of this 
blessing. He suggested, that the primitive aim of the Reforma- 
tion had been not only the overthrow of superstition, but the 
overthrow of Christianity itself; and hence the whole host of 
English deists, French atheists, and German rationalists, have, 

3* 



88 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Thirty Years' War— Balance of Power. 



under the head of superstition, directed their weapons against 
everlasting divine truths, and united in the attempt to supplant 
the latter by human deceptions, or rather by their own wrong* 
headed fancies. Characteristic in this respect is the fact that at 
the very time when the first French revolution was at its highest 
pitch of excess, a prostitute acted the part of the goddess of 
reason ! 

18. Besides this tendency to infidelity^ it was chiefly the improve- 
ment of foreign and domestic politics, which marked the prevailing 
spirit of the age in the last three centuries. All the principal 
events of Europe, from the l6th to the end of the 18th century, 
may be traced to this latter head. The German emperor, Charles 
v., was the first European prince who followed a steady line of 
policy ; the next were Philip II. of Spain, and Henry lY. of 
France ; then followed Bichelieu, and the Swedish king Gustavus 
Adolphus ; Louis XIV ., and William III. (of the house of Orange) ; 
Peter I., Frederic II., and Catharine II. The war of thirty years 
(1618-1648) was, among those of a general character, the only 
one that did not (at least not directly) arise from the principles 
of this policy ; for it was the natural result of a reactionary tenr 
dency, called forth on the part of the Roman Catholics by the Refor- 
mation. But the chief motive of all other wars in the before- 
named period, was more or less the desire of conquest and aggran- 
dizement. Thus the wars of Henry II. of France, of Philip II., of 
Richelieu (or nominally of Louis XIII.), and above all, those of 
Louis Xiy., had no other aim. Henry lY. of France, was the 
inventor, and king William III. of England, the improver of that 
whimsical policy known by the name of European equilibrium, 
A balance was imagined, with Western Europe in the one, an 7 
Eastern Europe in the other scale, and now it was the rulers' 
problem of constantly equipoising and balancing. Thus the 
reciprocal countries and provinces were to be weighed in a manner 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY. M 

French Preponderanoe— LioentiouMiefl»— Infidelit/. 

not unlike that of the grocer who is weighing his spices. Only 
to this strange rule of politics European Turkey owes the contin- 
uation of its existence. Henry lY . was, by the stabs of Ravaillac. 
prevented from realizing his dreams of equilibrium ; while William 
III. sacrificed to them the public interest of Holland, his native 
country. Even so late as the year 1 790, King Frederic William 
II. of Prussia, was about to wage war against Austria and Russia, 
merely for the sake of the fancied European equilibrium. Before 
the days of Louis XIY. Spain and the German Empire ranked 
foremost among the European powers, but since then France had 
attained the ascendency, although her political preponderance had 
begun to be lessened by degrees so early as the year 1692, when 
in the battle of La Hogue her navy received the first fatal blow 
from the English. Yet her moral ascendency and influence has 
unfortunately continued to the present day, and generated all 
that corruption and licentiousness in customs and manners by 
which Europe became infected. The abominable public and pri- 
vate behavior of Lpuis XIY. set a bad example not only to his 
own subjects, but also to other nations ; first to foreign princes, 
then to their subjects. The still more ignominious dissoluteness 
of his successor, Louis XY., pulled down the last barriers of ven- 
eration and shame, the more so as this king stupidly suffered 
Yoltaire, and the other French atheists, to undermine both the 
Christian faith and his own throne. Diderot was even allowed 
to declare publicly, that the sovereign happiness of man would 
begin as soon as the last king had been strangled with the entrails 
of the last priest ! German book-learned fancymongers, and Eng- 
lish so-called philosophers, aping the French fashion-leaders, as- 
sisted them faithfully in their endeavors, and even that great 
Prussian, King Frederic II., was in this respect so infatuated 
that in his epistolary correspondence with Yoltaire, d'Alembert 
•ad others of the same stamp, the letters written by Mm, as 



60 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Plan <^ the eeparate aoeoontB of each eomitiy. 

well as those written by his correspondents, closed always with 
the refrain : Sereuez Vinfamt I And let it be remembered thai 
tills blasphemous motto was applied to our Saviour himself! At 
Lhat time, in the higher circles, and partly even among the lower 
)la8ses of society in France, it was the fashion to deny the exist- 
ence of God ; materialism was the watchword and idol of the age ; 
the most insolent and disgusting selfishness went hand in hand 
tvith these principles, and a French author asserted publicly, that 
agotism was to be considered as the only and genuine motive of 
iuman actions. " Professing themselves to be wbe, they became 
Jools." (Rom. i. 22.) The excesses and crimes of the first French 
revolution (1789) were a natural sequence to this state of things. 



Entering now into particulars of the description of Europe, 
we shall describe the different countries in the following order 
of succession: — 



Portugal, 


PrusBia, 


Spain, 


Austria, 


Itoly, 


Demnark, 


Switzerland, 


Sweden and Norway, 


France, 


Russia, 


Great Britain and Ireland, 


ToniAn Idands, 


Belgium and Holland, 


Greece, 


Germany, 


Turkey. 



It may, at the first glance, appear somewhat strange that we 
commence with PortugcU^ one of the less interesting countries of 
Europe. But, on due consideration, it seemed most natural to 
begin at the extreme boundaries, viz. : either on the north-east, 
i. e., with Rusna^ or on the south-west, L e., with Portugal, Russia 



SOCIAL AND POLinOAL HISTORT. 61 

Propofled Description of the eeverel Countries. 



presents indeed far greater interest than Portugal ; but as the 
description of that country must indispensably digress in many 
instances into Asiatic Russia, and would at the same time imply 
the necessity of giving next after Russia the description of other 
eastern countries (Turkey, etc.), it appeared more suitable to com- 
mence with Portugal 



PORTUGAL. 

Aeka : 86,608 square miles. 
Population : 3,725,000 inhabitoDta. 

The kingdom of Portugal, comprising the western coast of the 
Pyrenean peninsula is upon an average 106 miles in breadth, 
surrounded on the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean, and 
on the other sides by Spain. 

Of the above-stated area continental Portugal comprises 35,358 
square miles, while the remainder is to be assigned to the Azote 
IsleSy which, together with the former, constitute one and the 
same political body, and rank among the other Portuguese prov- 
inces. Thus they are not to be considered as African colonies, 
like Cape Yerd Islands, Angola, etc. ; and as they at the same 
time are situated very nearly opposite Lisbon, and little more 
than 800 miles distant from continental Portugal (while the dis- 
tance between them and the next points of Africa amounts to 
more than 920 miles), they are very improperly ranked by most 
geographers as among the African Islands. 

Of the above-stated population, 3,500,000 live in continental 
Portugal, and 250,000 inhabitants on the Azore Isles. The 
Raman Catholic profession is the religion of the state, though all 
other denominations are tolerated. The archbishop of Lisbon 
bears the title of patriarch siuee the year 1717; besides him, 
there are 6 bishops in Portugal and its colonies (formerly there 
were 12 archbishops and 14 bishops), and their dioceses comprise 



PORTUGAL 63 



Cl Imate— Soil— Prodactlons. 



4,086 parishes. Even so late as the year 1821 Portugal still 
nambered 360 monasteries with 5,760 monks, and 126 nunneries 
with 2,725 nuns. But in 1834 all cloisters were abolished. 

The swrface of the country is in general mountainous, though 
not in such a prevailing manner as in Spain. The highest 
mountain ranges of Portugal are the Sierra de Estrella^ rising to 
7,700 feet in height, and the Sierra Mbnchique (see Introduction, 
* 7, c). 

The principal rivers of Portugal are, the Tagus, Douro, Minho^ 
and Gvadiana (see Introduction, ^ 10). Besides them there are 
only coast-rivers, e. g., the MortdegOy the Lima^ etc. 

The climate is in general mild and salubrious. 

The soil is upon the whole very fertile in the valleys and plains, 
especially in Algarve, and might yield the richest crops of various 
kind, if the people were more diligent and intelligent. Here, as 
in Spain, the possession of rich colonies paralyzed more or less 
the vigor of the national spirit, and while in the 16th century the 
riches of India, and subsequently those of Brazil, directed their 
streams to Portugal, the people sunk by degrees into indolence 
and poverty. Until the 16th century the cultivation of com was 
the most productive source of wealth to the country ; but later 
it was more and more neglected, and already for many years past 
the com raised in Portugal is not sufficient for home consumption. 
Wine^ sea-saliy and olive ail, are the chief natural products of the 
country. The best wines are those produced in the environs of 
Oporto (universally known by the name of port-wine), and in the 
vicinity of Lisbon and St. Ubes. Algarve yields the best olive 
oil, and the chief place for making sea-salt is St. Ubes. Hemp 
and flax are cultivated in some northern districts. The rearing 
of cattle is far less important than the rearing of mulesy and 
horses. Fine sheep are reared, and they produce valuable wocl. 
The rearing of silk-worms is rather considerable. 



M EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Indttfltry— Commeroe— Education. 

The indtbstry was hitherto in a backward state as well as the 
agriculture ; yet in recent times several of its branches have been 
improved with much success. To be noticed are: the silk manu- 
factories of Oporto, Braganza, and Campo Grande (near Lisbon), 
the cloth and woollen manufactories of Portalegre, Govilhan, and 
Fundao, the manufactories of calico, gold and silver ware of 
Lisbon and Oporto, the linen manufactories in the provinces of 
Minho, Beira, and Traz os Montes ; and finally the tanneries of 
Libbon, St Ubes, Oporto, Coimbra, Beja, etc. 

The commerce of Portugal, once very extensive, especially in 
the 16th century, and even in the last century, is now quite 
limited, and the imports far exceed the exports in value. Since 
the days of Cromwell, and chiefly since the conclusion (in 1703) 
of the so-called Methuen-treaty (derived from the name of the 
English plenipotentiary, named Methuen), the English have not 
only acted the part of masters of the country, but almost exer- 
cised a monopoly on Portugal, into which they import even the 
meanest necessaries of life besides their manufactures. Fortu- 
nately the exports of port- wine to England are very considerable \ 
otherwise the Portuguese would have to pay the whole of the 
English imports in ready money. In 1844, Portugal exported 
33,946 pipes of port-wine^ of which 25,492 were exported to 
England, 3,278 to the United States, 1,943 to Brasil, 919 to 
Hamburg, 716 to Calcutta, and Hongkong, 290 to Sweden, Nor- 
way, and Denmark, 225 to Canada, 212 to Halifax, 162 to Hol- 
land, 109 tp Newfoundland, 95 to Eussia, 67 to Prussia, 6 to 
France, and 432 to the Portuguese colonies. 

The meaTU of education are very deficient, notwithstanding the 
pompous names of the different schools. Besides one university 
at Coimbra (founded in 1297 at Lisbon, but in 1308 transferred 
to Coimbra; in 1841 it numbered 1,300 students), public reports 
of the year 1841 enumerated 17 seminaries, 27 lyceums, 8 gymna- 



POETUGAL. 



GoreminaDt— FinaooM. 



Slums, 263 progymnasiuins,* and 873 common schools ; yet all these 
sehooU irete^ in the named year^ firequented by no more than 31,280 
pupils. (The common schools of the city of Berlin alone, were 
at the same period frequented by as many pupils.) Moreover, 
the instruction itself is managed in a rather miserable manner. 
It is needless to remark that under these circumstances very few 
of the lower class in Portugal can read and write. 

The government of Portugal is a limited hereditary monarchy, 
the supreme power being vested in a King, or, at present, Queen 
(Donna Maria II. da Qloria, bom April 4, 1819, ascending the 
throne in 1834. and married in second marriage to Prince Ferdi- 
nand, of Coburg-Kohary), and a legislative body. 

With respect to the public finances, the official statement for 
the period of 1845-1846 estimated the amount of the revenue at 
10,756,954 millrees (one millree is little more in value than one 
dollar), and that of the expenditure at 10,717,542 millrees. 

* As the above-mentioned terms will frequently occur in this work, it may 
be suitable to give some explanations about them. The higher schools of 
continental Europe have the same object in view, but in general not the same 
nganization as those of the United States. Univerntin have, in Germany, 
Holland, Sweden, Denmark, etc, the signification of high schools, where ail 
branches of science are taught, and which for this purpose unite the four fac- 
ulties of theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and philosophy (including astrono- 
my and the higher branches of mathematics, history ,etc). LyeewM and Oym- 
natim/uaxe those higher schools, where all branches of preparatory knowledge, 
necessary for those who frequent the universities, are taught (for instance, the 
lAtin, Greek, and Hebrew, mathematics, etc.). Their pupib are (at least in 
most of the countries of continental Europe) not boarders, but frequent the 
ly ceums and gymnasiums only at certain hours of the day and then go home again. 
Seminaries have in Europe almost everywhere the signification of prepara- 
tory schools for future teachers. Progymnatiums are schools where, beside the 
elements of knowledge, the Latin is taught> and which for this reason are as 
frequently called Latin achooU, 



M . KUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Public Debt~Anny~-Nary. 

Nevertheless in the precediog year, 1844, the achuU amount of 
the revenue was 9,843,000, and of the expenditure 11,158,000 
millrees. Thus a deficiency of 1,315,000 millrees became appa- 
rent. At the same period the ptiblie dtbt was 84,130,000 mitfrecs, 
of which amount only 73,957,000 yielded interest. This state 
of things must appear somewhat strange, when we consider that 
in 1834 nearly 500 cloisters were abolished (see anie) and their 
estates confiscated in behalf of commonwealth. The produce of 
the sale must have been very considerable, as most of these con- 
vents were wealthy, and some of them had an annual revenue of 
more than $100,000. Towards the end of the year 1836 the real- 
isation of all these estates had been effected ; nevertheless, one or 
two months afterwards, viz. : on the first of February, 1837, the 
minister of finances declared publicly and officially a d^idencp 
to the extent of 5,312,500 millrees 1 Thus the money got by 
the sale of the moDastic estates cannot have been deposited in 
the public treasury, but must in some way or other have gone 
astray. And so it is. The Portuguese people have not received 
a farthing of the money, and their public burdens, instead of 
being alleviated, have on the contrary been aggravated by adding 
new items to the former heavy taxes ; but Don Pedro and his 
English and Portuguese adherents have been enriched by that 
lucrative experiment ; and it is a fact that golden crosses, sacred 
vessels, and many other objects of great value, have clandestinely 
been pilfered and carried away to England. 

The Portuguese army amounts, according to official statement, 
to 25,970, but actually only to about 18,000 men, besides 9,000 
men in the colonies. The navy is at present reduced to 5 frigates, 
4 sloops of war, and several other vessels of smaller size. In 
1783, and still in 1808, the naval force of Portugal consisted of 
10 ships of the line, 18 frigates, etc., all in good order; and in 



POBTUOAL eY 



Ofdera of Honor— Histoiy of PortogaL 



1825 it nambered at least still 5 ships of the line, while at pres- 
ent there is none more left. 

The Portuguese orders of honor are the following: — 1. The 
order of merit of St. Berudict of Aviz^ established in 1 162 as a 
religions order of knighthood, bat in 1789 transformed by Maria 
I. into a mUilary order of merit 2. The order of Si. Jago from 
the year 1288, transformed by Maria I. into an order of merit. 

3. The order of Christ, derived from the papal order having the 
same name (see introduction, of the States of the Church). 

4. The order cf St. John, arisen from that order from the year 
1048, described above (see History of Europe, § 17, A). 5, The 
order of tower and sword, established in 1459, and renewed in 
1808. 6. The order of the immaculate conception of Villa VicosOj 
established in 1819 by John YI. 

Sutory of PoHug<d. — Portugal was called Luntania by the Romans, who 
waged war against this country since the year 148, B. C, but did not conquer 
H completely before the year 19, B. C. Its £ate since the migration of nations 
we have learned from the history of Europe (§g 2, 10, 14, and 16), and we 
shall now enter into further particulars. About the midst of the 1 1th century 
King Ferdinand of Castile wrested the greatest part of Lusitania from the 
M (JOTS. In these wars Count Henry of Burgundy (see History of Burgundy 
under the head of France) rendered such signal services to King Alphonso V L 
of Castile, that the latter, in reward for them, gave him, in 1098, his daughter 
in marriage and a Lusitanian province in dowry, lliis province, comprising 
the present provinces of Traz os Mcmtes and Entre Minho e Douro,was styled 
the earldom of Portucalia (derived from Porlus Cole, the ancient name of 
Oporto), and thus Count Henry became the first count of Portugal (this latter 
name was derived from Portucalia). Henry's son and successor, Alphonao 
HenriqueZf prosecuted the conquests of his &ther, and having in 11S9 in the 
battle at Ouriqne (at the Algarvian frontier) vanquished five Moorish kii^ 
(hence the five bucklers in the Portuguese coat of arms), he was proclaimed 
Inng of Portugal by his troops. Soon after acknowledged and confirmed in 
his new dignity by the pope Alexander IIL, he in 1143 summoned the Cortes 
or States of his empire to an assembly at Lam^go^ and on this oocaaiao it was 



CS EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

History of Portugal— Eartj Voyaffn and DIaooTeiiea. 



-vhm the fundamental laws of Portugal, togetfaer inth the order of auooeaaioi^ 
were established. King Alphonso lY. (1825-1867) was renowned for his 
valor, yet he polluted his glory by consenting to the assassination of his 
daughter-in-law, the handsome Inez (Agnes) de Castro, clandestinely married 
to his son Peter Z, surnamed the Cruel (on account of the frightful revenge 
ho took on the murderers of Inez). Peter the Cruel (died in 1867) was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son Ferdinand who died in 1388, and with whom the 
Bo-called genuine Burgundian race became extinct For the second marriage 
of Pater the Cruel with Inez de Castro was not considered as a legitimate 
one ; and for this reason a Castilian prince claimed the right of succession od 
the Portuguese throne. Yet the Portuguese Cortes, or states, filled with 
bstrnd against the Castilians, proclaimed, in 1884, Peter's second son John 
king of Portugal John L being the son of Inez de Castro, he and his suc- 
cessors were comprehended under the appellation of the bastard Burgundian 
race. Nevertheless to the kings of this race the Portuguese owe the ages of 
their highest renowa For at the beginning of the next or 15th century those 
fiunous voyages of discovery commenced which ended in unlocking to the 
Portuguese the treasures of India and Brazil, and ranked them, at least lor a 
long while, among the first nations of the world. They were superintended 
by Don Henry, son of King John L, who personally interested himself in 
these enterprises. The first vessels he, in 1416, sent out for this purpose 
sailed cloese by the north-western coast of Africa, and did not venture to 
double Cape Bojador; in 1418 the island of Porto Santo (near Madeira), in 
1419 that of Madeira, and in 1432 the Azore Isles, were discovered and set- 
tled. In the last-named year Cape Bojador was at length doubled, and later 
Cape Blanco, Cape Verd, Cape Verd Islands, and Guinea discovered. King 
John IL was of a very active and enterprising character too ; he frequently 
sent vessels to the West- African shores, and thus in 1486 Cape of Gkxxi Hope 
was discovered by Barthol. Diaz. On the 9th of July, 1497, Vasoo de Qama 
sailed from Lisbon ; he doubled the last-named cape on the 20th of Novem- 
ber, and arrived at the port of Calicut on the 19th of May, 1498. Thus the 
maritime way to India was opened to the enterprising spirit of the civilized 
world, six years after the discovery of America. King Emanuel of Portugal, 
the successor of John IL since the year 1496, hastened to avail himself of the 
important discovery made by Vaaoo de Ghuna (who returned to Lisbon, August 
29, 1499), and sent a fleet of 18 vessels to India in 150a On this oocasian 
Brazil was discovered. But we must now return to the political histery of 



PORTUGAL. 69 



Bi8lOf7— SpanlBb Kale—Hooie of Braganza. 



PortugaL King Emanael died 1621, and wbb snooeeded by John TTT., who 
died in 1567, and was stioceeded by his grandson SeUulian, Unfortunatelj' 
King Sebastian was at the period of the regal vacancy only three years old, 
and his education, as well as the regency during his minority, was intrusted 
to the care of the Jesuits, who inspired him with a fanatic spirit to such a 
degree that it became his most ardent desire to wage war against the infidels. 
Guided by this spirit and turning a deaf ear to the warnings of his counsel- 
lors and even of the king of Spain, he in 1678 ventured an ezpeditioo against 
the Moors of Morocco, and on the 4th of August^ in a bloody battle at Alcassar, 
not only his army was totally routed, but he himself disappeared in a myste- 
rious manner forever. His only legitimate successor to the crown was the 
old cardinal Henry, third son of King Emanuel, but his reign was of short 
duration; for he died in 1680. Amongst the pretenders to the throne who 
now came forth with their claims, the most powerful was King Philip IL 
of Spain, whose mother had been the eldest daughter of King Emanuel. 
Philip, countenancing his claims by an army of 24,000 men, attained his aim, 
and thus Portugal was, in the period fipom the year 1680 to 1640, under the 
wway of Spain. Yet the national hatred between the Portuguese and the 
Spaniards did not subside; and Philip's next nearest successor, Philip IV ^ 
being a weak and indolent king, the Portuguese seized the first opportunity 
of casting off the odious Spanish yoke, and proclaimed the duke of Braganza 
king of Portugal (December 1, 1640). The duke of Braganza was the de- 
scendant of a natural son of King John L (see above), and mounted the throne 
as King John JV. Since that time the houee of Braganta has continued to 
reign over the kingdom of Portugal John IV. died in 1666, and his soocea^ 
sors were the following: Alphonso VI. (1666-1667), Peter II. (1667-1706), 
John V. (1706-1760), Joseph I. (1750-1777), Maria I. (1777-1816), and John 
VL (1816-1826). The reign of the rather imbed]e King Joseph L was sig- 
nalized by the despotic proceeding of hi^ minister, the marquis of Pombal^ 
who, being a mimic and enthusiastic admirer of the so-called French philoso- 
phers (see History of Europe towards the end), intended to civilize, or rather 
to force the Portuguese people into his Utopian system at any price. Pre- 
possessed as he was with his insensate ideas and dreams, he treated every 
cmo, who seemed to stand in his way, with the utmost recklessness and 
tyranny ; and after his degradation (which took pUice at the death of King 
Joseph), the astonishing discovery was made that several room9 of his palace 
were JiUed with letters of petition, ckims, etc., unopenedl Prince John 



10 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

History of PortngBl— Brazil— CoDle«t of Pedro with Miguel. 

(subsequently King Joha VL) wsa in 1792 dedared Prince Regent in oons^ 
quenoe of his mother'a insanity. He did not meddle at all with the Frendi 
revolution and the subsequent political affiura of Europe ; yet being compelled 
by the English to disregard the continental system established by Napcdeon, 
the latter sent^ towards the end of October, 1807, an army to invade Portugal 
In these circumstances the Prince R^;ent followed the advice of the Englidb, 
and embarked with the royal family for Brweily the chief Portuguese colony. 
Here he resided until the year 1821, when he returned to Portugal, leaving 
his eldest son Don Pedro behind. In the following year (1822) Don Pedro 
declared himself emperor of Brazil, which country has since continued to be 
an independent em^nre ; and by this declaration he aehtally renotmeed bis 
hereditary right of succession to the Portuguese crown, according to the clear 
terms of the order of succession established in 1641 by the Cortes of Lamego 
(as the legitimate representatives of the Portuguese people were called). 
Thus, when John VL died in 1826, his legitimate successor was his second 
Bon, Don Miguel, who indeed was in 1828 proclaimed king by the Cortes 
with the agreement of the majority of the Portuguese people. But as Don 
Miguel considered both the English monopoly (see above) and a constitntioo 
of modem pattern as incompatible with the interest and welfiau^ of the Por- 
tuguese people, he aroused on the one side the jealousy of the British gov- 
ernment, and on the other side the rage of the liberal party in France and other 
oountriesi Meanwhile Don Pedro had in 1831 been compelled by the BrasQ- 
ians to abdicate, and was driven away. He went to Paris and lived there in 
retirement, until English stock-jobbers, headed by Lord Palmerston, induced 
him to venture an expedition against hi? brother. The former provided him 
money, and the Litter with adventurers of every kind. It would be endlese 
to relate all the tricks, machinations, briberies, etc, employed for the purpose 
of attaining the aim. In short, Don Pedro at last succeeded, and in 1884 his 
daughter Donna Maria II. (see above) mounted the throne. In the same year 
died Don Pedro (on the 24th of September), having previously taken care to 
provide for himself and his good friends by coilfiscating the estates of the con- 
vents (see above). We are well aware that this statement of the modem 
part of Portuguese history differs from the misrepresentations circulated about 
Portugal in these kst twenty or twenty-five yeais. But as it is the duty of 
every historian to adhere strictly to historical truth, we have not a moment 
hesitated to give the faeU as they aetuaUy have been, and not as they should 
have been, according to foveridi dreams, commonly called the spirit of the age» 



PORTUGAL. 71 



Ceographlcal DeacripUon— EMremadun. 



PortQgal (exclosiTe of the islands) has from old been divided 
into 6 provinces, of which the most southerly is styled the king- 
dom of Algarve. In 1835, of the two provinces of Beira and 
Entre Minho e Douro four provinces were formed, and the whole 
of the provinces subdivided into 17 districts. But as this altera- 
tion is not an essential one, we shall, for the sake of simplifica* 
tion, retain the former division. 

1. Tlie promnee of EaravMADUBA (snbdivided into the 8 districts of Li»- 
bon, Leiria, and SaDtarem), at the mouth and on both sides of the Tagus, 
oootaining : Lsbon (Portuguese LiMboa\ the capital of Portugal and royal 
residenoe, on the right bank of the Tagua, with 280,000 inhabitants, 44 parish- 
churches (among them the remarkable cathedral), and numerous other 
diurches and chapels, many charitable institutions, fine public and private 
buildings, a royal academy of sciences, a royal library with 86,000 volumes, 
8 observatories, etc, and the royal palaces of Ajudoy Bempotia, and Neeeui- 
dadtK Lisbon is a place of considerable commerce, and has one of the finest 
harbors in the world. A magnificent aqueduct) built in 1748 entirely of 
marble, supplies the city with fresh water. Lisbon has frequently sufl^sred 
by earthquakes; the most formidable of them were those of 1866, 1597, and 
espedally of 1756 (Nov. 1), when one half of the dty was destroyed, and 
more than 80,000 of the inhabitants perished. Upon the whole, the city b 
ill-built» and numerous dogs are running about in the dhrty streets. lisbon, 
wrested from the Moors in 1147, has since the days of John I., been royal 
residence. Belem, though a town by itself^ is considered as forming a part of 
Lisbon ; it is noted for its royal castle, and a magnificent pile, formerly an 
abbey of the order of St Jerome, the church of which contains the royal 
fiunily vault Another royal castle is at Qttdut, About 14 miles to the 
north-west of Lisbon is situated the town of Oimtba, with 4,000 inhabitants, 
and the remarkable so-called cork-cloister, the interior waUs of which are 
oovered with cork in order to keep off humidity. Quite near lies the vOlage 
of VtminrOf noted for the first important battle between the English and 
the French in 1808. The royal palace of Mafba, built in the period from 
1717-1781, contains 870 apartments, with 5,200 windows, and bears in many 
points resemblanoe to the famous palace of the Escurial in Spaia Toaaxs 
YmatukM, a city with 8,600 inhabitants, is noted for the stroi^ lines of ibrtifiea- 



12 EUBOPE, PAST Am) PRESENT. 

G«ognptaicsl Deieription— Belm— Donro. 

tioDs which Lord WeUiogton established here in 1810. About 56 miles to 
the north of Lisbon are situated the stately building of the former moaaste- 
ries of Alcobaca (founded in 1148), and Baialha (founded in 1886), whoso 
monks were altogether nobles and possessed of immense riches. Samta&kk, 
a town on the right bank of the Tagus, 46 miles above Lisbon, with 8,000, 
and Abrantes, 37 miles farther up the river, with considerable trade, and 5,000 
inhabitants. St. Ubes, or Setubal^ a sea-town at 18 miles distance from Lis- 
bon, has 15,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its salt-worksw Other cities and 
towns in the province of Estremadura are : Leiria (with 2,000 inhabitants), 
Fotnbal (with 4,000 inhabitants), Obid^ (with 5,500 inhabitants), Ourem 
(with 4,500 inhabitants), Thomar (with 8,800 mhabitants), Abnada (with 
4,000 inhabitants), Cenmbra (with 4,500 inhabitants), etc. 

2. The province of Bbira, between the Douro and Tagus rivers, and subdi- 
vided into the districts of Coimbra, Aveiro, Lamego. and Guarda (belonging 
to Upper Beira), and of Castello Branoo (or Lower Beira); containing : Oo> 
UCBKA, capital of the province, on the Mondego, nc^th-north-east, and 110 
miles distant firom Lisbon, and southward and 69 miles distant from Oporto^ 
with the only university of the country (see above), a remarkable cathedral, 
considerable inland commerce, and 15,000 inhabitants. In the middle ages. 
Coimbra was for years the royal residence, and in a garden on the opponte 
side of the Mondego the unfortunate Inez de Castro was murdered in 1850 
(see History of Portugal). Aveiro, a maritime town at the moiuth of the 
Vouga river, with 4,600 inhabitants. Vizku, or Ft<«u, a town 8itui\ted south- 
east, and 50 miles distant from Oporto, with great fiurs, and 9,000 iohabitanta. 
Lamboo, a city eastward and 46 miles distant from Oporto, with 9,000 inhabi- 
tants, cultivating much vine. At Lamego the Cortes or states of Portugal framed 
the fundamental laws of the kingdom (see History of Portugal). Other cities 
and towns in the province of Beira are : Etqueira (formerly noted for itc 
oldest and wealthiest Benedictine convent of the country), Figueira do Mtm- 
dego (with 6,000 inhabitants), Pinhd (with 8,000 inhabitants), Almmda 
(strongly fortified, with 8,000 inhabitants), Covilhao (with 6,000 tnhabitantsX 
CatieUobranco (with 6,500 inhabitants), Ovar (with 11,000 inhabitants), etc 

8. The prooinee of Emtrb Mimho b Doirao, on the west bordered by the 
Atlantic Ocean, on the north by the Spanish province of Oalicia, and on the 
other sides by Beira and Traz os Montes ; it is the best cultivated, most induN- 
triousi and most populous province (subdivided into the 8 districts of OporfeOk 
Bnigm and Viaiia), and ocntains : Ovoato, or JPcrio, the capital of the pror- 



PORTUGAL. 73 



Geogmptalcal DeflcripUon— Traz os MoDte»— Algure. 



inoe» on the ri^t bank of the Donro, is not only the second city, bat the seo- 
ood emporium of the kingdom, long since famous for its oonsiderable exports 
ai port- wine (see the particulars above), and has moreoyer numerous manu£EU>- 
tures of various descriptions, many fine buildings, 90 churches, 40 hospitals, 
etc^ and 80,000 Inhabitants. Bsaga, a city situated north-north-east, and 37 
miles distant from OpcH^, with a great and remarkable cathedral, and 15,000 
inhabitants. The Suevian kings, shortly after they had conquered the coun- 
try (see History of Europe, § Z), took their seat at Braga. Other cities and 
towns of this province are : Viana (with 8,000 inhabitants), OtiimariLes (with 
6,000 inhabitants), Atnaronte (with 4,000 inhabitants), PoiUe de Lima (with 
2,600 inhabitants), Bareelloa (with 5,000 inhabitants^ Vi^^ do Conde (with 
3,000 inhabitants), etc. 

4. The pravince of Traz os Montks (subdivided into the 2 districts of Brar 
ganza and Yillarcal), on the east side of the preceding province, containing : 
Bbaoakza, the capital of the province, and the ancestral seat of the royal 
fiunily (see History of Portugal), not fiir off the Spanish frontier, north-east^ 
ward, and 184 miles distant, from Lisbon, with 6,000 inhabitants. Peso da 
Hegca, a little town, but noted for its considerable d6pdt of port-wine and its 
fiunous wine-fairs in February. Other towns in this province are : VillarecU 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), Chaves (with 6,500 inhabitants), Torre de Moncoroo 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), Miranda deD<)uro(wiiJti 1,600 inhabitants), Mir an- 
deUa (with 1,800 inhabitants,) etc 

6. The prmnnce of ALnrrRjo, on the south side of the Tagus (divided into 
the 8 districts of Evora, Beja, and Portalegre), contains : Evoka, the capital 
of the provinoe, 74 miles south-east from Lisbon, with many Roman antiqui- 
ties, and 0,100 inhabitants, cultivating much vine. Bkia, a town with Roman 
antiquities, and 6,000 inhabitants. Elvas, a strongly fortified city near the 
Spanish frontier, with a remarkable aqueduct built by the ancient Romans, 
and 10,000 inhabitants. Villa Vioosa, a fortified town, with a royal palace, 
and 8,000 inhabitants. OuaiQUB, a town near the frontier of Algarve, south- 
eastward, and 100 miles distant from Lisbon, with 2,000 inhabitants, is noted 
far the defeat of the Moors by Alphonao L, in 1189 (see History of Portugal). 
Other towns of this provinoe are : PcrtaUgre (with 6,400 inhabitants), Eetr^ 
nua, (with 6,000 inhabitants), Maura (with 6,000 inhabitants), 8erpa (with 
6.000 inhabitants), Campo Mayor (with 4,600 infaabitantB), Sinee (with 1,200 
inbabitants), etc. 

A. 13ie frmnnee (or kiogdom) of Aloabvb, the moet southerly province of 

4 



U EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The Azores. 

Portugal (with an area of 2,151 square nules, and a population of 186,000 in- 
luibitants), comprising only the district of Faro, and containing : Laoos, the 
ancient capital of Algarve, on a baj of the Atlantic Ocean, with 9,000 inhab- 
itants. Tayiba, the modem capital of AJgarve, near the mouth of the Oua- 
diana River, with 9,000 inhabitants. Near Cape 8t. Vincent (noted for a 
naval victory of the English in 1797) is situated the little town of Saohes, 
with the ruins of an old castle, the former seat of Don Henry, when he super- 
intended the famoas voyages of discovery (see History of Portugal). Other 
towns of Algarve are : Faro (with 8,000 inhabitants), Mofichiqtte (with 8,000 
inhabitants), Stives (with 8,000 inhabitants), Villareal de Sau Antonio (with 
2,000 inbnbitants), Albufeira (with 1,800 inhabitants), etc 

The Azores, or Western Isles, constitute, as has already been 
stated, together with continental Portugal, one and the same 
political body, and rank among the other Portuguese provinces 
as well as, for instance, the Balearic Isles rank among the Spanish 
provinces. It is not improbable that the existence of the Azores 
Isles was known to the Phoenicians, or at least to the Cartha- 
ginians; yet to Europe they were unknown until the year 1432, 
when they were discovered by the Portuguese (see History of 
Portugal). In 1449 the first Europeans settled here. The 
climate of the Azores, situated between the parallels of 40^ and 
37^ of N. lat., and between 25^ and 3P long, west from Green- 
wich, is peerless mild, and healthful ; and, besides grain and wine, 
oranges, lemons, and other similar fruits, thriving marvellously 
here, are the chief staples of the isles ; which latter yield to the 
government an annual revenue of about $30,000, while the ex- 
penditure amounts to little more than 910,000. The Azores, 
having together an area of 1,150 square miles, and a population 
of 250,000 inhabitants, comprise 9 islands, which are the follow- 
ing:— 

1. San Mioukl, or 8t. Miekael (area : 341 square miles ; population : 100,000 
mhaUtants), productive of grain and fruits. Its capital is Punia Deigade, 



PORTUGAL. 16 



Ooloiii< 



"which is considered as the capital of the whole group too, and has 20,000 
inhabitante. Another important staple-town is Riheira Orande^ with 12,000 
inhafaitanta The romantic Talley of Fwma» is noted for its hot and cold 
mineral springs. 2. Tkrceiba (area: 224 square miles; population: 40,000 
inhabitants), with excellent pastures and numerous herds of catUe ; containing 
^ngroy fortified town and seat of the governor of the Azores, with 15,000 
inhabitants. Praya, a town with 4,000 inhabitants. 8. Pico (area: 287 
equare miles ; population : 80,000 inhabitants), with many vineyards and a 
Tulcan 6,600 feet high ; containing the towns of Laget (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
MagdaUna and St. Roea. 4. San Josgk, or St. George (area: 106 square 
miles; population: 20,000 inhabitants), noted for its husbandry and vines, 
containing the towns of Vdat (with 4,000 inhabitants), Catheta and Topo. 
6. Fatal (area: 68 square miles; population: 24,000 inhabitants), noted for 
its delightfid climate and tropic fruit& Horta is an important oonunercial 
town and sea-port, with 10,000 inhabitants. 6. Sta. Mabia (area : 43 square 
mUes; population: 8,000 inhabitants), productive of grain and wine. Its 
chief town Porto has 2,000 inhabitants. 7. Flores (area : 48 square miles ; 
population : 10,000 inhabitants), the most charming island of the whole group ; 
productive of grain and with numerous herds of cattle. Its chief town, Santa 
6Vk2, has 3,000 inhabitants. 8. Oraciosa (area : 82 square miles; population. 
12,000 inhabitants), noted for its husbandry, and productive of barley and 
"wine. Its chief town bears, like that of the preceding island, the name of 
Banta Onu, and has likewise 8,000 inhabitants. 9. Cobvo (area : 21 square 
miles; population: 1,000 inhabitants), the smallest and most northerly island. 

Since the loss of Brazil (see History of Portugal), the Portvr 
guese Colonies are reduced to the following : — 

1. In Africa: settlements and possessions in Lower GuiTiea 
and Eastern Africa, the Madeira and Cape Verd Islands, and two 
islands in the Gulf of G^uinea. 

2. In Asia : the cities and townships of Goa and Diu in Hin. 
dostan, Macao in China, and part of the island of Timor in the 
Indian Archipelago. 



SPAIN. 

Abea : 179,921 square miles. 
Population : 12,000,000 inhabitants. 

The kingdom of Spain comprises nearly four fifths of the 
PyreTk/ean peninsula, separated from France by the Pyrenees. 

The statements about the actual amount of the population dif- 
fer materially, even in the so-called official reports ; for want of a 
regular census of tne people. Yet the estimation of 12,000,000 
can, in all probability, not much fall short of the actual number 
t>f inhabitants. Besides the Spaniards proper, or Castilians (as 
they, in Spain, are called by way of eminence), there are 500,000 
Basques (see Introduction, ^12) in the Basque provinces and 
Navarre, about 60,000 Mod^ares^ or descendants of the Moors, 
and nearly 45,000 Gipsies The Roman Catholic is the estab- 
lished church ; yet all other denominations are at present not 
only tolerated but enjoy almost the same political privileges aa 
the Catholics. At least the recent endeavors of protestant mis- 
sionaries to propagate the sound doctrines of the gospel among 
the Spanish people, have met with far less obstacles than could 
have been expected, considering the* catholic zealotism pre- 
vailing here formerly. In 1830 the catholic dergy of Spain 
numbered 8 archbishops (the archbishop of Toledo ranks fore- 
most as primate), 77 bishops, 2,393 canons, 1,869 prebendaries, 
16,481 curates, 4,929 vicars, 17,411 beneficiaries, 27,757 seculars 
in orders, 15,015 sacristans, and 3,927 servitors. In the begin- 



SPAIN. W 

Qeograpkical Feftlnraa. 



tang of the year 1835, there were still 1,940 monasteries with 
30,906 monks, and a proportional nnmber of nnnneries with 
about 24,000 nuns. But in the same year 884 of these cloisters 
were abolished, and the sale of their estates had yielded (accord- 
ing to official reports in June, 1835) a sum of 16,693,260 reals, 
which was designed for the alleviation of the public ohargea 
We shall soon see, under the head of Spanish finances, whether 
this intention was realized or not. 

Spain is thoroughly mountainous ; in regard to its chief moun- 
tain range, the Sierra Nevada, and the other ranges, see Introduc- 
tion, ^ 7, c ; and about the Spanish part of the Pyrenees, see ^ 7, b. 

The rivers peculiar to Spain are the Ebro, Giiadalaviar, Xucar^ 
Segura, and Guadalquivir, and those in common with Portugal : 
the Tagus, Duero, Minho, and Guadmna (see Introduction, ^ 10). 
There is not any remarkable lake to be found throughout Spain, 
the Albufera, near the city of Valencia, being rather a lagoon 
than a lake. The Imperial canaJ (along the right bank of the 
Ebro), and the canal of CasiUe, scarcely deserve to be mentioned 
as canals. 

The dinuUe is generally mild and pleasant, except in some 
tracts along the northern coast. The provinces of Valencia and 
Murcia enjoy the charms of an almost perennial spring, while in 
Granada and Andalusia the sugar-cane and other tropical pro- 
ductions thrive. Noxious winds are the cold and rough Gallego 
from the north, and the scorching and enfeebling Sdaiio from 
Africa ; yet they commonly do not last long. 

The soil is generally very fertile except in some tracts of the 
Sierra Morena, in Estremadura and Asturias, producing in 
abundance, in most parts of Andalusia, and in the Mediterranean 
provinces, the vine, the olive, and southern fruits (among them 
the delicious pomegranate). 

The natural riches of the country consist chiefly of salt (rock- 



U EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Notunl Producto of Spain. 

tali in Oatalonia ; spriDg-Balt in YalenciA ; sea-ealt in Valencia, 
Sevilla. and on the Balearic Isles), olives^ and other fruits of 
•oathern Europe, wines (the choicest sorts are those from Malaga, 
Xeres, and Alicante), silk (in the southern provinces), horses (the 
finest breed in Andalusia, and next in Asturias), mules (which in 
Spain generally are preferred to the horses), and sheep, for which 
latter Spain has been renowned since the middle ages. Besides 
the merinos, there are two other less yaluable breeds, called 
Churros and Metis. During summer the sheep feed on the ele- 
vated table -lands of Castile and Leon, and are driven in winter 
to %h.e low plains of Estremadnra, and the adjoining provinces. 
Tet since the last civil war the flocks have greatly diminished in 
number ; and moreover, the Spanish merinos have long since dm* 

continued to outdo those of Germany and other countries. From 

• 

the remotest ages until the beginning of the 16th century, Spain 
was renowned for the richness of her gold and silver mines, that 
were worked successfully by the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, 
Moors, and finally by the Spaniards, but were closed since the 
discovery of the exceedingly rich mines of Mexico and Peru. 
In the most recent time they have been re-opened and worked 
Qgain so successfully, especially in Upper Andalusia, that in 1843 
they yielded 229,090 marks of silver. For the rest, the Spanish 
mines yield excellent copper (yet only 300 quintals in 1843), great 
quantities of lead (next to England, Spain is said to possess the 
richest lead-mines in Europe), and qmcksUver (at Almaden in the 
Castilian districts of La Mancha ; the annual produce is com- 
puted at 20,000 quintals) ; moreover, iron (chiofiy in the Basque 
provinces ; the annual produce is on the increase), cobalt, alum, 
etc. Agriculture, once so flourishing in the days of the Moorish 
sway (see History of Europe, ^17, b), is long since in a backward 
state ; chiefly wheat is raised. 

With regard to other branches of industry, there are indeed 



SPAIN. 99 

lDdiiflU7— Commeroe. 

woollen, silk, cotton, and Tarious other manufactories, still to be 
found in Spain ; yet being unable to rival with those of Great 
Britain, and the English having availed themselves of their 
political influence, acquired during the last civil war, for the 
purpose of exercising a kind of monopoly in Spain, the Spanish 
manufactories are far from being in a prospering state. Since the 
expulsion of the Moors (the last remnants of them were driven 
away in 1609, and by this fanatic and insensate proceeding Spain 
loflt 800,000 of its most diligent and most industrious inhabi- 
tants) Spain has ceased to be a manufacturing country. Only 
the woollen manufactories of Castile, the damask and silk manu- 
factories of Andalusia, the manufactories of arms in the north- 
western, and the paper manufactories in the eastern provinces, 
were prospering in the 17th century, while the cotton manu&cto- 
ries of Catalonia rose in the 18th century. Nevertheless the 
woollen and silk looms did not exceed the number of 10,000 
throughout Spain, and in 1768 there were in the whole country 
not more than 2,200,000 operatives, mechanics, husbandmen, and 
others depending for subsistence on handiwork. Since the 
beginning of the present century, Spain has been in an almost 
uninterrupted state of war, political convulsions, and internal 
dilacerations, which has proved fatal to most of the existing 
mann&otures, and even to the commerce. The chief articles of 
export are : wines, fruits of southern Europe, salt, olive oil, corks, 
quicksilver, and a rather inconsiderable quantity of wool (scarcely 
one tenth of the quantity which was formerly exported). Of 
2 830 vessels that in 1844 entered the port of Cadiz, 2,060 were 
Spanish coasters, while of the remainder 480 were English 
vessels, 75 from the United States, 6 from Hamburg, 4 from 
Bremen, 4 from Prussia, etc. Now let us see of what consist 
the articles of import. Besides colonial produces and spices, they 
consist chiefly of cloth, calicos, silks, linen, hardware, copper and 



80 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT . 

Education In Spalo. 

pewter uteDsils, glasswares, furaiture, toys and triDkets, fitncy 
articles, timber, corn, flax, hemp, dried and salt fish, salted beef, 
butter, cheese, poaltry, and hogs. Now we ask, what conception 
can be formed of the actual state of industry in a oountry where 
kitchen and other domestic utensils, and even victuals, must be 
imported ? 

The meajis of education are in Spain in the same backward 
state as in Portugal. According to the assertion of a member 
of the Cortes in 1839, all Spain numbers not far above 900 schools 
of every description. At this ratio, 13,333 Spaniards must resort 
to one ^Dgle school ! Nominally, there are still 8 universities : at 
Salamanca (founded in 1222, and in 1845 frequented by 302 
students), at Valladolid (founded in 1346, and in 1841 with 
1,300 students), at Valencia (founded in 1401, and in 1841 with 
1,600 students), at Saragossa (founded in 1474, and in 1841 with 
1,100 students), at Seville (fonuded in 1504, and in 1845 with 
800 students), at Granada (founded in 1531, and in 1845 with 
810 students), at Si, Jago (founded in 1532, and in 1845 with 
1,030 students), and at Oviedo (founded in 1580, and in 1845 
numbering 450 students). Tet by all the distractions and revo* 
lutions, brought on by the last civil war, they have been deprived 
of most of their revenues, and many of their best teachers and 
professors. The universities at Huesca (founded in 1354), at 
Alcala (founded in 1499), at Toledo (founded in 1499), at Ori- 
huela (founded in 1555), at Gervera (founded in 1717), and at 
Palma (founded in 1827), have been transformed into secondary 
schools. Of the first-named universities, only a few are endowed 
with the privilege of instruction in all branches of science (see 
note, or explanatory annotation, under the head of Portugal). 
In 1832, there were still 56 colleges and seminaries, numbering 
altogether 3,810 pupils, and moreover, 774 Latin schools (see the 



SPAIK. %l 

GoTernment— Plauices. 

joBt-mentioned note) ; yet they likewise are at present in a mis- 
erable condition. 

Spain is a kingdom^ and its government a limited hereditary 
monarchy, the supreme power being vested in a King, or Queen 
(at present Isabella 11^ born in 1830, and at full age in 1843), 
and a legislative body. Since the end of the 15th century, the 
kings of Spain bear the predicate of ^ Catholic Majesty," in re- 
membrance of the zeal for the catholic creed evinced by Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella in subduing the Moors (see History of Europe, 

There is scarcely any kingdom or state to be found in the 
whole world, where the public finances are in such decayed circum- 
stances as in Spain. Every year brings a more or less consider- 
able li^i/, which in 1841 amounted to 174,421,846 reals. Ac- 
cording to an official statement of the year 1845, its amount 
would have been no more than 45,112,665 reals, the expendir 
ture being rated at 1,250,635,353, and the revenue at 1,205,- 
522,688 reals. Yet in reality the deficit amounted to more than 
double that named sum, the revenue being designedly estimated 
too high, while the expenditure had by far been exceeded. The 
amount of the public debt does not fall short of the immense 
sum of 20,000,000,000 reals (say in words : twenty ihousaTid mil- 
lions), besides about twenty millions of recently contracted debts, 
partly not consolidated and partly without paying interest Con- 
sidering that the sale of the estates of convents (see above) has 
yielded large sums, and that in 1843 the Spanish silver mines 
shall have yielded 229,090 marks of silver, it must at the first 
sight appear strange, that the Spanish finances should be in such 
miserable circumstances. Yet sifting the question to the bottom, 
the riddle is soon solved. The leaders of the Spanish revolution 
have been in the skill of making money quite as experienced and 

assiduous as the leaders of the Portuguese reyoluti^p. ^^^^ 

4# 



83 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Ministerial Oomiption. 



for instance, the Spanish minister of finances, Mr. Mgndizabal^ 
had been for years but a poor Jewish pedlar, yet by hb shrewdness 
he insinuated himself into the favor of the Qneen BegePit, Chris- 
tiana, who appointed him Minister of Finances. This office far- 
nished ample opportunities for him to fill his pockets, as well as 
those of his adherents and of his benefactress. He sold the 
estates of convents, a great deal of church property, saered 
vessels, and utensils ; nay, even church-bells ; and according to 
official returns from the month of June, 1835, the sum received 
out of the sale of 559 estates of convents, amounted to 16,693,- 
260 reals, and according to official returns from the same month^ 
1840, the sum received out of the sale of 31,433 estates of eon- 
vents ahd churches, amounted to 1,245,549,569 reals. Now it 
is a fact that the Spanish people have not since been released from 
a single item of their taxes, which number not less than 94 of 
various descriptions ; but, on the contrary, they have at present to 
pay more taxes than ever, while the ci-devant poor pedlar, by his 
industry in financial affairs, has amassed a fortune to the amount 
of at least $3,000,000 1 If Mr. Mendizabal should be asked to give 
an account of his stewardship, and to restore all property illegally 
acquired, he would indeed be reduced to very low circumstances, 
and that deservedly. For he has evidently despoiled the public 
treasure of the Spanish nation, and to these spoiliations alone 
does he owe his wealth. His predecessors as well as his succes- 
sors in that lucrative office have practised the same arts, and in 
this way acquired immense riches, while the Spanish nation has 
been hardened with taxes at the ratio of more than 120 reals 
per head. 

The Spanish a/rmy^ notwithstanding the unsettled state of XL^. 
political institutions of Spain in general, is in good order, for 
the plain reason of being the principal support of the present 
rulers. It numbers nearly 100.000 men, and is arranged in 31 



SPAIN. B% 

Army— Navy— Orders of Honor. 



regiments and 3 battalioDB of foot, 18 regiments of cavalry, and 
about 12,600 artillerists, etc. The Spanish navy is scarcely 
worthy to be mentioned. In 1802 it numbered not less than 68 
ships of the line, 40 frigates, etc. ; but in 1834 it was reduced to 
2 ships of the line, 4 frigates, and 18 smaller men of war, and at 
present most of them have become disqualified for service. This 
being the state of facts, the once so important and renowned 
navy-departments (as they were styled) of Ferrol, Cadiz, and 
Garthagena have been abolished, and reduced to one navy station 
at Cadiz. 

The Spanish orders cf honor are the following : 1. The order of 
the golden fleece^ instituted in 1430 by Philip the Bountiful, duke 
of Burgundy.* 2. The order of Maria Louisa^ instituted by the 
Queen Maria Louise (+ 1819) only for ladies. 3. The order of 
CA^M"^ /iZ, instituted by this king in 1771. 4. The military 
order of St. Ferdinand^ instituted by Ferdinand YII. in 1815. 
5. The m\[\t6LTj* order of St. HermenegUd^ instituted by Ferdinand 
VII., in 1815. 6. The so-called Navy-order for distinguished 
seamen, instituted in 1816 by the same king. 7. The order of 
St. Isabella^ from the year 1815. 8. The military (>rier of Maria 
Louisa IsaJbeUa^ instituted in 1833 by Ferdinand YII. Besides 
these there are still to be mentioned the following religums orders 
of knighthood: the orders of Calatrava (instituted in 1158), of 
St. J ago de Comj^osteUa \^yi^\!\\.\x\j^^ in 1170), of ./IZcATi/ara (insd- 
tuted in 1177). and of Montesa (instituted in 1319). 

* The present Idngdom of Belgium and Holland constituted the andent 
dudiy of Burgundy, wboee only heiress, Mary, was married to Prince Mazh* 
milian of Austria, the grandfather of King Charles I of Spain. Thus since 
ihe beginning of the 16th century the duchy of Burgundy was one of the 
oonstituent parts of the Spanish kingdom until the year 1714, when the 
remaining Burgundian provinces were ceded to Austria. For this reason, the 
originally Burgundian order of the golden fleece has become an Austrian as 
irell as a Spanish order. 



84 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

History of Spain. 



History. — ^The aborigines of Spain (which, in the Old Testament, & g., Eick. 
xxvii. 12, is called TartkUh), in as fiur as they are noticed by history, were 
the Iberiant and the CdU (see Introduction, § 12), both descendants of 
Japheth, and immigrated here at an unknown period. Hie former preyailed 
in the eastern and southern, and the latter in the western and northern part 
of the country. The Celts having in the course of time been intermingled 
with the Iberians, were since called Ccltiberians. But these people lost their 
political indep^idence at a very early period, when the Phomieians came 
hither, settled here (they founded, for instance, Cadiz), reaped great profit from 
the rich gold and silver mines (see above), and forced the aborigines to w<H'k 
them. Next to the Phoenicians came the Carthagini.an»^ who treated the 
aborigines like savages and slaves, as also the RotnaiM did, who since the 
year 206, before the Christian era, became gradually possessed of the Cartha- 
ginian settlements in Spain, though they did not finally conquer all Spain 
anterior to the year 25, B. C. The whole Pyrenean peninsula became a 
Roman province, with Roman language, and Roman customs and mamiera. 
Before the time of the Emperor Augustus, the peninsula was divided into 
Hi»pania citerioTy or Tarraeonefms (all the country between the Pyrenees and 
tlie Ebro River), and Hitpama ulterior, or Zufitania (Poi^ugal), and Baetiea 
(all parts of Spain situated to Uie south of the Ebro River). At the time of 
Au<<ustus, the province of Tarraconenait comprised the whole northern and 
north-western part of the peninsula, and Bofiica comprised the south-eastern 
part, or Andalusia and Murcia. Lusitania comprised all Portugal with the 
exception of the provinces on the north side of the Donra At the time of 
Emperor Constantino, the extreme north-western part of Tarraconensis was 
called OaU-aeeia (Galicia), and the extreme south-eastern part of Baetiea was 
called Cartfutffinunma (Murcia). Since the beginning of the migration of 
nations, Germanic tribes immigrated and settled in the Pyrenean peninsula 
(sec History of Europe, §§2 and 3); at first (in 409 and the following years) 
the AlanSy Sttevcty and VandaU. 'Vhe Alans settled chiefly in Lusitania and 
Carthagisiensis, the Suevca in Gallaeda, Baetiea, etc, and the Vandals first in 
the north and subsequently in Baetiea (hence its name Vandalitia, or, at 
present, Andalusia). Tet in 428 the Vandals emigrated to Africa and con- 
quered its northern part, at present called Barbary. In 414 the Viaiffotka 
invaded Spain, subdued the Alans and Sueves together with the la.et remnnnts 
of the Romans, and wero in the 6th centxiry roneters nf the whoV peninsula. 
Abtmt the invasion of the Mbort, the gradual foundation of Christian 



SPAIN. 86 



History oT Spain— Houm q€ Hapab orgh o f Bourbon. 



doms, eta, see History of Europe, g§ 10, 14, and 16, where we left Spain 
under the sway of Kmg Charles L, with whom began the reign of the houne 
of Haptbwrg in Spaia Charles L, who ascended the Spaninh throne in 1516, 
resigned in 1656, and was sncoeeded by his son Philip IL, who was the most 
powerful king in Europe at that period He was the ruler not only of Spain, 
but likewise of the Netherlands, of Naples, of the islands of Sicily and Sar- 
dinia, of the duchy of Milan, of the Canarian and Philippine Islands, and of 
tho immense colonies in America and partly in Africa. Since the year 1580 
he became moreover possessed of Portugal and its colonies (see History of 
Portugal). Yet Spain itself derived no real benefit either from her rich 
American colonies (for instead of staying at home to cultivate the soil, the 
inhabitants crossed the ocean in search of gold and silver), nor from the power 
of her king, who, by his perpetual wars, burdened Spain with a heavy public 
debt Philip IL died in 1598, and was succeeded by his son Philip III. 
(1598-1621). Then succeeded Philip IV. (1621-1665), and Charles II. (1665 
-1700). With Charles II. the male line of the house of Hapsburg, in Spain, 
became extinct, and now the female line was to succeed The chief pretenders 
to the throne were the French prince Philip of Anjou (great-grandson of 
Philip IV.), and the Austrian Archduke Charles (subsequently emperor of 
Germany), great-grandson of Philip III., both by their grandmothers. As 
the parties did not come to an aoeoomiodation, a war ensued, known by the 
name of the Spanish wvr of fucctnioUy which lasted from the year 1701 to 
1714. England and Holland partook in it by the instigation of William II L, 
prepossessed by his fimcies of European equilibrium (see History of Europe, 
§ 18), and filled with personal hatred against Louis XIV., the grandfather of 
prince Philip, llie German empire and the duke of Savoy partook likewise in 
diis war. At last, in the treaties of peace concluded in 1713 at Utrecht, and in 
1714 at Rastadt, matters were settled thus : the prince of Anjou, or Philip V., 
was acknowledged as king of Spain and both Indies (such was the title since the 
possesion of the colonies in America, etc.). Charles, or the house of Austria, 
acquired the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and in Italy with the excep- 
tion of the island of Sardinia, which was ceded (o the duke of Savoy, henceforth 
entitled king of Sardinia. England became posse8se<l of Gibraltar and of the 
island of Minorca (the latter until the year 1755), and Holland acquired — ^noth- 
ing, in reward for all its sacrifices made to the fimdes and immoderate ambition 
of WUliam UL With Philip V, (1701-1746) the hwm of JBourboii ascended 
Hm throne of Spain. In 1718 he oonvocated the Spanish cortes, or states 



86 EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

History of Spain— Its Provinoes. 

(the legitimate representatiyes of the Spanish nation), diiefly for the purpose 
to fix the order of succession permanently. In agreement with the king this 
legislatire body laid down as a rule, that only the male descendants of the 
reigning family should ascend the Spanish throne ; and thus the so-called Salie 
law (which excludes all females from the throne) became a fundamental law 
of the kiogdoDL The successors of Philip V. were: Ferdinand YL (1746 
-1759), Charles IIL (1769-1788), Charles IV. (1788-1808). In 1808 Napo- 
leon enticed both Charles IV. and liis eldest son (subsequently King Ferdinand 
YII-) to renounce their rights to the Spanish crown in £eiTor of the French 
emperor, who now appointed his brother Joseph king of Spain. Yet Great 
Britain intervened, and the ensuing peninsular war ended in ihe restoratioa 
of the Bourbons in Spain, whither Ferdinand VII. (his Dather having resigned) 
returned in 1814. During his reign, Spain lost her colonies on the American 
contment; a fur greater evil was, however, the king's weakness in listening to 
female intrigues and excluding his brother Charles, the legitimate hdr of the 
throne, from the succession, in favor of his daughter Isabella, lliis act, as 
arbitrary as illegal, being in contradiction with the clear terms of the funda- 
mental law (see above), would indeed have been of little consequence but for 
the interposition of the French revolution of 1830, and the busy intermeddling 
of Louis Philipe and Lord Palmerston (the British secretary of state for foreign 
affairs), who nourished in Spain the jQames of civil war for more than six 
years, and supported, by the whole weight of their power and influence, the 
pretensions of the Queen Regent Maria Christiana (since Uie year 18S8, when 
Ferdinand VIL died) and her infant daughter. How matters went on during 
this period, is manifested by the fcusts above-stated under the head of finances^ 
means of education, navy, eta 

In 1833 Spain was divided into 48 departments, and their 
names were derived from their capitals. Yet sinoe the middle 
ages Spain has been divided into 17 provinces, styled (with two 
single exceptions) kingdoms and principalities; and as their 
names continually occur in history and other reading, we shall 
retain them in the following topographical descriptions ; denoting 
only the capitals of departnients with this sign: +• It may 
still be remarked that the 1 1 yjprovinces, beginning with New Cas- 
tile and ending with Murci4, are called the dominloiw of tlie 



SPAIN. 8T 

Geogrmph7--8tattoUe8. 

orown of Castile^ and the remainder the dominions of the crown 
of Aragon (see History of Europe, ^ 16). 

1. 71u kingdom of New Oastilb, near the centre of the peninsula, and sepa- 
rated from the Mediterranean Sea by Valencia and Andalusia. It was 
wrested in 1085 from the Moors by Ferdinand surnamed the Holy, and con- 
tains the following cities and towns : -|- MADiun, the capital of all Spain, and 
(since the year 1660) royal residence, on the Manzanares, a branch of the 
Tagvs, south-westward and 240 miles distant from Bayonne (in France), is 
•ituated on a sandy and sterile table-land, and numbers 9,000 houses, and 
according to the census of 1847, about 207,000 (exactly, 206,714) inhabitants. 
The royal castle is an extremely large and very magnificent building. There 
are ouiny other noble edifices, besides 77 churches. The royal library nimi- 
bers 250,000 volumes. Among the beautiful walks of the city the most 
frequented are the celelnuted " Frado** and the *' Paseo de las delicias.** At 
the Frado is situated the royal palace Buen Retxro (built during the reign of 
Philip IV.), with extensive gardens. About 7 miles distant from Madrid is 
situated the royal castle of pleasure el Pardo (built in the 16th century) ; and 
between 4 and 6 mites distant from the capital is another castle, called VUla 
trietoaOy where Ferdinand VII died in 1833. Alcala db Hen ares, a town on 
the Henares River, with 5,000 inhabitants, is remaricable as the birth-place of 
Cervantes, the celebrated Spanish poet. The former university of Alcala 
(see above) was next to that of Salamanca the most renowned in Spain* 
--|- Toledo, a city on the Tagus, south-south-west and 27 miles distant from 
Madrid, with silk and sword-blade manufactories, and 16,000 inhabitantsL 
In the middle ages Toledo was the largest dty in the Christian part of Spain^ 
and in the 14th century it numbered 200,000 inhabitantsi The magnificent 
cathedral was during several centuries a Moorish mosqua The archbishop 
of Toledo had formerly an annual revenue of 800,000 ducats. Abanjuez, a 
town on the Tagus, southward and 27 miles distant from Madrid, with 4,000 
faihabitants, and with a splendid royal castle of pleasure (founded by Fbilip 
IL),where the court uses to reside in the season between Easter and Whitsuntide. 
In the vicmity of Aranjuez is situated the town of Ocana (with 12,000 inhal»- 
tants) noted for the victory of the French over the Spaniards in 1809. Tala- 
▼xaA DE LA RBTNA,a town on the Tagus, south-westward and 64 miles distnnt 
from Madrid, with 8,000 inhabitants. It was formerly renowned for its silk 
manufikctories, and is remarkable for Wellington's victory over the French od 



86 EUROPE; PAST ASD PRESENT. 

SutisUoB, etc— Old CaaUIe. 

the 27th and 28th of March, 1809. -|- Guadalaxara, a town on the Henarea, 
north-westward and 37 miles distant from Madrid, with cloth manufactories, 
and 7,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this district are: 8iguema (with 
4,000 inhabitants), and Brihuega (with 2,000 inhabitants). -|- Ouen^a, a town 
on the Xucar, south-south-east and 83 miles distant from Madrid, with 9,000 
inhabitants. Molina and Requerui, towns with respectively 6,000 and 6,000 
inhabitants. The southern part of Now Castile is called La Mancha, on the 
south bordered by Andalusia, and on the west by Estremadura. It contains : 
4- CxuDAD Real, capital of La Mancha, near the Guadiana, southward and 
92 miles distant from Madrid, with tlie most renowned mule marts in Spain, 
and 8,000 inhabitants. Almaden, a town near the frontier of Andalusia, 
with 10,000 inhabitants, and a mining academy, is noted for its rich quicksQ- 
ver mines (see above). Other towns of La Mancha are : Valdepenaa (with 
8,000 inhabitants), Almagro (with 8,000 inhabitants), Alcaraz (with 3,500 
inhabitants), Calatrava and Maruanares. 

2. The kingdom of Old Castile, on the north side of New Castile, extend- 
ing northward to tlie Bay of Biscay. It was originally a country under the 
sway of the kipgs of Leon, until in 1016 it was raised to the rank of a king- 
doQL It contains : -\- Buaoos, fortified capital of Old Castile, on the Arlan- 
con River, northward and 188 miles distant from Madrid, with a magnificent 
Gothic cathedral (containing the sepulchres of many Spanish kings), and 
12,000 inhabitants. At Burgos arc still the remnants of the house in which 
the famous Spanish warrior, Ruy Dias de Yivar, surnamed the Cid, was bom 
in 1026. He died in 1099, and was buried in the neighboring monastery of 
San Pedro de Cardena, Other towns in this district are : Aranda de Duero 
and Laredo, -|- Santandkb, a fortified maritime town on the Bay of Biscay, 
westward and 115 miles distant from Bayonne (in France), with a good har- 
bor, rather active commerce, and 25,000 inhabitants. Other, but smaller 
neighboring seaports are : Santana and SantUlana, The town of EtpiAoea 
de los MonUroe (with 2,000 inhabitants) is remarkable for the victory of the 
French over the British and Spaniards, on the 12th of November, 1808. 
BrivieKa, a fortified town with 2,500 inhabitants. Near Pancorvo is an im- 
portant mountain pass on the high-road between Burgos and Vittoria. -|- Lo- 
OROifO, a fortified town on the Ebro, eastward and 70 miles distant from 
Burgos, with lairs, and 8,000 inhabitants. -|- Calahoera, a town on the table- 
land, called Rioja^ has 4,000 inhabitants, and is noted as the birth-place of 
the ancient Roman author Quintilianusi Medina Celt, a town with 1,200 in- 



SPAIN. 89 

BUitlttica. etc.— Leon. 



habitants. 4~ Soria, a town on the Dnero, south-eastward and 78 miles dk 
tant from Burgos, with considerable trade in wool, and 6,000 inhabitants 
Here or close by stood the ancient town of yvmatUia. Osma, a town neai 
the Duero, with 4.000 inhabitants, -j- Segovia, a town on the Erasraa Rirer, 
southward and 92 miles distant from Burgos, with a remarkable old casde, 
once the ^at of Gothic and Moorish kings, 22 churches, and 18,000 iuhabir 
tants. Between Segovia and Madrid is situated the town of San Jldefonto, 
with 4,300 inhabitants, and the royal castle La Oranja, built in 1716 by the 
model of the palace of Versailles. In a wilderness of the Guadarrama 
Mountains, 23 miles west^north-west of Madrid, is situated the town (with 
2,000 inhabitants) and 'celebrated palace of Escurial, built in the yean 
1563-1684, at an expense of 5,000,000 ducats, by order of Philip IL, in re- 
membrance of his victory over the French at Si Quentin in 1557. The edi- 
fice, half palace, half monastery, is 740 feet long, 580 feet wide and 60 feet 
liigh, and has 5,000 windows. Ckinchon, a town with 2,000 inhabitants. 
+ AviLA, a town on the Adaja River, 55 miles west-north-west of Madrid, 
with a remarkable Gothic cathedral, and 5,000 inhabitants. Until the year 
1808 was here a university, founded in 1482. Other towns of this district 
are : Piedrahita and Arevalo (with 4,500 inhabitants). 

8. The kingdom of Leon, between Old Castile and Portugal, and separated 
from the Bay of Biscay by Asturias. About its history, see History of 
Europe, § 16. It contains : -\- Leon, capital of Leon, 170 miles north-north- 
west of Madrid, with an ancient Gothic cathedral considered as the finest in 
all Spain, 7 other churches, and 6,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this dis- 
trict are : Astorga (with 4,000 inhabitants), Sahagun (with a formerly cele- 
brated Benedictine abbey, and 4,000 inhabitants), and Bembibre (with 1,600 
inhabitants). -\- Palencia, a town on the Carrion River, south-westward and 
41 miles diiitant from Burgos, with a beautiful cathedral, and 11,000 inhabi- 
tants. Torquemada and SaldahcL, towns with respectively 2,800 and 4,000 
inhabitants. + ^alladolid, a town on the Pisuerga, 100 miles north-north- 
west of Madrid, with a royal castle, in which Philip II. and several of his 
ancestors were born, a magnificent cathedral, a university (see above), and 
21,000 inhabitants. At Valladolid Columbus died in 1506, and at that period 
its population amounted to 100,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this dis- 
trict are: Medina del Rio seco (with 8,000 inhabitants, and noted for the 
battle on the 14th of August, 1808), 7\tdela (with 2,000 inhabitants, and noted 
for the battle on the 22d of November, 1808), T&rdenllas (with 4,000 inhaU- 



90 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

BtottoUos, etc.— AsturiM— GaUda. 



tants), and ISinutnfaf (with 1,200 inhabitants). -^-Zauo^a, a fortified town on 
the Duercs and near the frontier of Portugal, with 10,000 inhabitantfi. 
FermotUe and Toro, towns on the Duero, with respectively 3,000 and 8,000 
inhabitants. + Salamanca, a town on the Tormes (with an ancient Roiuun 
bridge), north-westward and 115 miles distant from Madrid, has since the 
middle ages been celebrated for its university (see ante), contains a re- 
markable cathedral, 24 other churches, and niunerous magnificent public edi- 
fices in general, but at present only 15,000 inhabitants. Battle on the 2l8t 
of July, 1812. CiUDAD RoDRioo, a fortified town near the frontier of Portu- 
gal, with 6,000 inhabitants. Wellington's victory in 1812. Other towns of 
this district are ; Ledetma (with 2,000), B^r (with 5,000), and Alba da Tar- 
mes (with 4,000 inhabitants). 

4. The principality of Asturias, along the Bay of Biscay, between Old 
Castile and Galicia, and on the south bordered by Leon. (About its history 
see History of Europe, § 16.) The crown-princes of Spain are, by way 
of eminence, titled princes of Asturias. This province contains : -|- Oviedo, 
the capital of Asturias, half way between Bilbao and Corufia, with a univer- 
sity (see above), 5 churches (one of which is remarkable for its high steeple), 
and 10,000 inhabitants. Guon, a maritime town, 18 miles north-east of Oviedo, 
with 6,000 inhabitants. Gijon was the primitive seat of Pelayo (see History 
of Europe, g 10), whose successors were called kings of Gijon, until Alphonso 
the Chaste assumed the title of king of Oviedo. Other towns of Asturias 
are: Villa vicioBo^ CudilUrOf AviUt^ Mure^j NaviOy and Canffoi de Onis, 

5. The kingdom of Gauoia, forming the extreme north-western part both 
of Spain nnd of the peninsula. It was at an early period wrested from the 
Moors, and in 1060 raised to the rank of a kingdom by Ferdinand, king of 
Castile and Leon. It contains : -{- Coru.vna, fortified capital of Galicia and 
maritime town, northward and 150 mile") distant from Oporto, with a 
very spacioiis harbor, packet lines to the West Indies and Falmouth, various 
noanufoctories, commerce, and 23,000 inhabitants. North-eastward and 23 
miles distant from Corunna, is situated the fortified town of Fekbol (with 
13,000 inhabitants), formerly the principal station of the Spanish navy. St. 
Jago de Compostblla, a town southward and 32 miles distant frY>m Corunna, 
with 28,000 inhabitantH,a univep-'^^' umerous linen and other manufactories, 
and a very large cathedral, tr "™**^ince the 9th century innumeraible pil- 
grims have resorted, as cor-"^^ mhab^ bones of St James the Less according 
to general belief i^'hor Quint^'o^^j^joje town, with 2,000 inhabitantSL 



SPAIN. 91 

Btatiidoii •t&r— btracDadam— Andalasla. 

-f- Luoo, a town near the head of the Minho River, with a remarkable catbe- 
drai, and 12,000 inhabitants. Other towns of thia district are : Mondonedo 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), Jiibadeo (with 2,000 inhabitantsX Viverro (with 
1,800 inhabitants), and RedondeUt, -\- OaBNSB, a town on the Minho, with a 
remarkable cathedral, and 6,000 inhabitants. -|- Pontkvsdra, a maritime 
town, with 5,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this dbtrict are : Tuy (with 
6,000 inhabitants), and Ft^ (with active commerce, and 6,000 iuliabitants). 

6. The province of EsTESiCAnuRA, between New Castile and Portugal, bor< 
dered on the south by A"4^ft1"»V It was conquered in 718 by the Moors, 
and wrested from them in the 11th and 18th century. It contains : -]- Bada- 
joz, strongly fortified capital of Estremadura, near the frontier of Portugal, 
eastward and 188 miles distant from Lisbon, and south-westward and 170 miles 
distant from Madrid, with 1 8,000 inhabitants. Oliven^a, a fortified town quite 
near the frontier of Portugal, to which kingdom it belonged until the year 1801, 
when it was ceded to Spain ; it numbers 10,000 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this district are : JCerea de loa Cavalleraa (with 5,000 inhabitants), Zafra (with 
10,000 inhabitants), Llerena (with 7,500 inhabitants), and Merida (with 9,000 
inhabitants), -f- Caceees, a town on the river of the same name, with 10,000 
infaabitanta Other towns of this district are : TVuxillo (native place of Pizarro^ 
with 4,000 inhabitants). Carta (with 4,500 inhabitants), Alcantara (with 8,000 
inhabitants), Almanu (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Plasencia (115 miles west- 
south-west of Madrid, with 7,000 inhabitants). Eastward and 28 miles distant 
frtMn the last-named town, is the delightful valley of la Vera de Plasencia, with 
the fiimous convent of San Geronimo de Juste (founded in 1410), where King 
Charles L died in 1558. 

7, 8, and 9. Andalusia, comprising the southern part of Spain, and con- 
taining the following three provinces, styled kingdoms, and wrested from the 
Moors chiefly during the 18th century: — a. The kingdom of Seville, contain- 
ing : -f- Seville, the capital of thi«i province, as well as in some respects of 
Andalusia too, on the Guadalquivir, 46 miles north-north-east of Cadiz, is 16 
miles in circuit, and has 18,500 houses, but at present only 91,000 inhaUtants, 
wlule under the sway of the Moors it numbered 500,000 inhabitants. Seville 
abounds in magnificent ancient buildings and edifices, and among them are the 
splendid cathedral, the steeple named Qiralda (864 feet in height), an ancient 
Boman aqueduct, an ancient palace of the Moorish kings, etc. Other cities 
and towns of this district ore : San Lucar, surnamed de Barrameda (seaport 
of Seville, with oonatderable commerce and 20,000 inhabitants), Utrera (with 



M EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Statiitlcs, ete.-^TllIe— CordoTft. 



11,000 inhabitants), Carmona (with 18,000 inhabitants), Ouuna (with 16,000 
inhabitants), and JSeija (with 85,000 inhabitants). -^Huelta, a maritime 
town, 66 milsB west-south-west of Sevilla, with 8,000 inhabitantiL Quite near 
Huelya is sitoated the little town and seaport of Palos, from which Columbus 
sailed on his first voyage to America. Other towns of this district are : JfiMa 
(with 9,000 inhabitants), Mbffuer (with 7,000 inhabitants), and AyanumU 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), -f- Cadiz, a strongly fortified city and chief seaport 
of Spain, on the Isle of Leon, with 70,000 inhabitants. Cadiz is not only one 
of the oldest towns of Europe (see History of Spain), but since the years 
1717 and 1726, the centre of the rich trade with America and India (until 
that period, Seville had been the centre). So late as in the year 1803, the 
imports of Cadiz were $61,000,000 in yalu& On the other or eastern end of 
the named isle, ia situated the town of Isla db Leon, or San Fernando^ with 
15,000 inliabitants, and in its vicinity the village of Las Cabeuu de San Juan, 
wliere, on the Ist of January, 1820, the military revolution, contrived by 
Riego, took plac& On the continental part of this district are situated the 
following towns : Pverto de Santa Maria (with 20,000 inliabitants), Puerto 
Real (with 7.000 inhabitants), Medina Sidonia (with 10,000 inhabitantsX 
Chielana (with 7,000 inhabitants), and Conil (with 1,600 inhatntants). Off 
Cape Trafalgar (23 miles south-east of Cadiz) the British gained the great 
naval victory on the 21st of October, 1806, at which the renowned admiral 
Lord Nelson was killed. Between this cape and Gibraltar are situated the 
townn of Alffexiras (with 15,000 inhabitants), Tari/a (with 9,000 inhabitants), 
and San Roque (with 3,000 inhabitants). Xeers bb la Frontera, a city 
situated north-eastward, and 14 miles from Cadiz, is noted for its excellent 
wines, and has 60,000 inhabitants. Near this city it was where, in 711, the 
Visigoths were defeated by the Moors in a battle that lasted nine daya 
Arcos de la FhmterOt a town 14 miles north-east of Xeres de la Frontera, 
12,000 inhabitants. Zahartt, a small town at the head of the Gaudaleta River, 
and situated on a rock, with houses cut out in the rock. 6. The kingdom of 
Cordova, containing: -{-Cordova, capital of this province, and once the 
splendid residence of the Moorish caliphs (see History of Europe, §§16 and 
17), at which period its population amounted to about 1,000,000 inhabitants, 
while at present it numbers only 60,000. The city is situated on the rig^t 
bank of the Guadalquivir, north-eastward and 120 miles distant from Cadiz, 
and contains an exceedingly large and splendid cathedral (once a Moorish 
mosque), and, moreover, an ancient Moorish palace of great extent Cordova 



SPAIN. 08 

StatiBUcs, etc.— GibrelUu^-Granada. 



was captured hj the Christiana in 1286. Other towns of this prorinoe are: 
Zueena (with 12,000 inhabitants), JTonit/Za (with 6,000 inhabitants), ^u/a/a»ietf 
(with 9,000 inhabitants), Baena (with 4,800 inhabitants), Castro del Rio (with 
2,000 inhabitants), Fuente Ovejuna (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Priego (with 
6,000 inhabitants), e. The kingdom of Jaen, containing: 4"^^^^* capital of 
this province, in a delightful country, southward and 196 nules distant from 
Hadrid, with a remarkable cathedral, and 20,000 inhabitants. Jaen surren- 
dered to the Christians in 1246. Other towns of this province are : Andujar 
(with 10,000 inhabitants), Baeta (with 12,000 inhabitants), Ubeda (with 16,000 
inhabitants), Alcala la Heal (with 9,000 inhabitants), Martos (with 14,000 
inhabitants), AlcaudeU (with 4,000 inhabitants), Linares (with 6,600 inhabi- 
tants), and Baylen (with 2,500 inhabitants). Near the Uist-named town, the 
Frendi general Dupont fell into a narrow pass and saw himself obliged to 
surrender, with 8,000 men, to the Spaniards, in 1808. Carolina is the chief 
town of the German colonies in the Sierra Morena, founded in 1767 by the 
Spanish minister Olavides, and has 2,600 inhabitants, chiefly Germans. 

GiBSALTAR, at the southern extremity of Spain, is the strongest fortified 
town in the world, with a garr»on of 8,000 men, and 17,000 inhabitants. 
Hiis place was captured by the British in 1704, who have held it ever since. 

10. Ilie kingdom of Granada, frequently also called Upper AndalvMa, on 
liie west and north bordered by Andalusia, and on the south by the Mediter- 
ranean Sea. It was conquered by Ferdinand and Isabella, in 1492 (see 
History of Europe, § 16), and contains : -f~ Granada, capital of this province^ 
and, until the year 1492, the residence of the last Moorish king in Spain, on the 
Xenil River and at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, north-eastward and 46 miles 
distant from Malaga, with 80,000 inhabitants, a university, a splendid cathedral 
(containing the sepulchres of Ferdinand and Isabella), 22 other churches, some 
manufactories, and highly remarkable edifices built by the Moors. Among 
the latter ranks first the Alhamhra, the fortified castle of the ancient Moorish 
kings. Another Moorish palace is called Oeneralife, Other towns of this 
district are : Alhama (with 6.500 mhabitants), OwuUx (with 9,000 inhabitants), 
MoirU (with 12,000 inhabitants), Loxa (with 14,000 inhabitants). Baza (with 
12,000 inhabitants), and Uxijar^ the chief town of the so-called Alpujarras, 
irith important lead mines, -f- Malaga, a maritime town, north-eastward and 
69 miles distant from Gibraltar, is famous for its wines and fruits, and contains 
62,000 inhabitants, who carry on a very active commerce. Other towns of 
this district are : Vdet Malaga (with 14,000 inhabitants), Ronda (with 18,000 



EUROPE. PAST ASD PRESENT. 



StatlsticSf etc.— Mnrcia, Ara^n, Catalonia. 



inhabitants), Anteguera (with 20,000 inhabitants), and MarheUa (with 4,800 
inhabitants). -f-ALMieaiA, a maritime town, eastward and 110 miles distant 
from Malaga, with 20,000 inhabitants. In the 14th century, Abneria was the 
emporium of the kingdom of Granada. Vdez d Rvbio, a town with 12,000 
inhabitants. Cuevas, a small town. 

1 1. The kingdom of Murcia, between Andalusia and Valencia, containing : 
-|-MuRoiA, capital of this province, on the Segura, south-eastward and 221 
miles distant from Madrid, with a beautiful Oothic cathedral, important silk 
trade, and 86,000 inhabitants. Cabthagkna, a fortified maritime town, and 
formerly a station of the Spanish navy, with one of the best harbors in the 
Mediterranean and 37,000 inhabitanta Carthagena was founded by the Car- 
thaginians about 230 years before the Christian era. Loroa, a town in a 
most fertile country, 42 miles west-north-west of Carthagena, with copper and 

» 

lead mines, and 25,000 inhabitants. -|~ Albaoets, a town near the frontier of 
New Castile, with important markets for cattle, and 9,000 inhabitants^ Other 
towns of this district are: Chinchilla (with 11,000 inhabitants), ViUena (with 
9,000 inhabitants), and Almanm (noted for the victory gained by the Span, 
iards over the English, Dutch, and Portuguese, in 1707). 

12. The kingdom of A&aoon, between Catalonia and both Castiles, bordered 
on the north by the Pyrenees (about its history, see History of Europe, § Itf), 
containing : -f- Sasagossa, strongly fortified eapital of Aragon, on the Ebro^ 
north-eastward and 184 miles distant from Madrid, with a university, 18 
churches, thriving commerce, and 50,000 inhabitants. Famous siege by the 
French in 1808 and 1809. Other towns of this district are: Borfa (with 
8,200 inhabitants), 7'arr(u<ma (with 10,000 inhabitants), Calaiayud (with 9,000 
inhabitants), Daroea (with 3,000 inhabitants), and Fraga (with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants). -|-TicauEL, a town on the Guadalaviar, southward and 88 miles 
distant from Saragossa, with 8,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this district 
are : AlcaiHz (with 5,000 inhabitants), Albarraein (with 2,000 inhabitants), 
Caniavieja (with 2,000 inhabitants), and Montalban, -j- Huisoa, a town on 
the Isuela, 87 miles north-nortli-east of Saragossa, with a secondary school, 
formerly a university (see above), and 10,000 inhabitanta Other towns of 
this district are: Jaea (with 8,000 inhabitants), Mequinenza (with 2,000 
inhabitants), Monton (with 8,200 inhabitants), Barhattro (with 6,000 inhabi- 
tants), and AinMo. 

18. The prineipality of Catalonia, comprising the extreme north-eastern 
part of Spaia (About its history and important commerce in the middle 



SPAIN. M 



Stattotlcs, etc.— Catalonlft— Valenda. 



ages, see History of Europe, §§16 and 17.) It contains: -^ Bakcelona* 
fortified capital of Catalonia, the principal manufacturing town in Spain, and 
riyalling Cadiz in conunerce, on the coast of the Mediterranean, about 200 
miles south-west of Marseilles (in France), ha? (including the suburb of Bar- 
eeicfutta) a population of about 160,000 inhabitants, numerous magnificent 
public edifices, 82 churches, etc Northward and 20 miles distant from Bar- 
■elooa is Montoebrat, a single mountain 8,937 feet high, was before the last 
'ivil war famous for its hermits and the number of pilgrims who visited it 
Hher towns of this district are : Manresa (with 9.000 inhabitants), Martorell 
with 2,600 inhabitants), Mataro (with 13,000 inhabitants), IgwUada (with 
12,000 inhabitants), Vique or Vich (with 16,000 inhabitant^)), Tarrata (with 
4,000 inhabitants), and ViUafranea de Panadea (with 6,000 inhabitauts). 
-^ Takbaoona, a maritime town, 46 miles westsouth-west of Barcelona, with 
a remarlcable cathedral, many Roman antiquities, and 12,000 inhabitants. 
Other towns of this district are: Reus (with 26,000 inhabitAnts, and the sea- 
port of S<dou\ ValU (with 9,000 inhabitants), Tortoaa (strongly fortified, and 
with 16,000 inhabitants), and Villanueva (with 9,000 inhabitants). Alfaquet 
at 8an Carlo is a sea-port -|- Lebida, a fortified town on the Segre, and near 
the frontier of Aragon, westward and 78 miles distant from Barcelona, with 
13,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this district are : Baloffuer (with 4,000 
inhabitants), Cardona (with 8,000 inhabitants), Cervera (with 6,000 inhabi- 
tants), So/«ona (with 3,000 inhabitants), Urgel or 8eu ^Urg,el (with 8,200 
inhabitants), Puycerda or Puigcerda (with 2,000 inhabitants), and Campredon 
(with 1,600 inhabitants), -j- Gebona, a fortified town on the Ter, 66 miles 
Dorth-north-east of Barcelona, with a beautiful cathedral, and 6,000 inhabi- 
tants. FiGUEBAS, a town at the foot of the Pyrenees, with 5,000 inhabitants, 
and one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, called San Fernando. 
Other towns of this district are : Roaan (with 2,000 inhabitants), Aren% de 
J/ar (with 4,000 inhabitants), Ctutello de ^mpurtdM (now only with 1,500, 
but during the sway of the Romans with 100,000 inhabitants), Cadaqftea 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), and HoHalrieh (with 3,000 inhabitants). About the 
little republic of Andobba, see under the head of France. 

14. The kingdom of Yalkncia, between New Castile and the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, on the south bordered by Murcia, and on the north by Amgon and 
Oatalonia. Since the year 788 a Moorish kingdom, it was conquered in 1288 
by the Christian king of Aragon. The Valencians are distinguished by their 
and diligence, and for this reason Valencia is the best eultivBted 



96 EUROPE. PAST AND PRESENT. 



StaUstics, etc.— Balearic luiandf. 



province of Spain. It contains : -f Valencia, the capital of litis province, od 
the Quadalaviar and quite near its mouth, south-eastward and 193 miles 
distant from Madrid, with a university and numerous other literary institu- 
tions, important book-trade and silk manuiactories, a magnificent caUiedral 
and 72 other churches, and 66,000 inhabitants. Its seaport is called Orao, 
Northward and 82 miles distant from Valencia is situated Murvucdro, a town 
with 6,000 inhabitants, and in ancient ages famous by the name of Sofftmt 
Other towns of this district are : Liria (with 12,000 inhabitants), San Felipe 
(with 15,000 inhabitants, founded by Philip V. in place of the town of Xativa, 
which in 1714 was demolii«hed), Carcarente (with 6,000 inhabitants), and 
Alcira (with 9,000 inhabitants). -|- Castellon de la Plana, a maritime 
town, 56 miles north-north-east of Valencia, with 15,000 inhabitants. Near 
tlie coast are the uninhabited isles of Columbretea. Other towns of tliis district 
are: Penitcola (with 2,500 inhabitants), Vinaroz (with 9,000 inhabitants), 
Segorbe (with 6,000 inhabitants), Cervera and Morella, -f- Alicante, a mari- 
time town, southward and 83 miles distant from Valencia, with important 
wine-trade and saU*works, and 25,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this 
district arc : Orihuela (with 26,000 inhabitants), Mcfte (with 20,000 inhabi- 
tants), Aicoy (with 18,000 inhabitants), Gaudia (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
Detiia (with 2,000 inhabitants), Ghtardamar (with 2,000 inhabitants), and 
Benidorme (with 2.500 inhabitants). 

15. The kingdom of Majorca, or the Baleaeic Islands, in the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, opposite to the coast of Valencia. The Carthaginians were for a loQg 
time possessed of these islands, which subsequently were conquered by the 
RomansL In 429 A. D. the Vandals settled here, and since the year 798 
the Moors took possession of the islands, which were wrested frxim them in 
the years 1229-1254 by King James I. of Aragon. There are altogether 4 
islands, and two of them (Majorca and Minorca) are emphatically named Ba- 
i^arttf, while the two other (Ivica and Formentera) are called (he Ftthyutitm 
Itlandi. The island of Majorca (area : 1,342 square miles ; population : 200,000 
inhabitants) contains : -f- Palma, fortified capital, with a secondary school, for- 
merly a university, a remarkable cathedral, and 34,000 inliabitants. Other 
towns of the island are : Alcudia (with 1,200 inhabitants), and Soller (with 
6,600 inhabitants). The island of Minorca (area : 256 square mfles ; popu- 
lation : 50,000 inhabitants), belonging to the British in the period from the 
year 1708 to 1755 (tee History of Spain), contains: Mahon, or Port Mahon^ 
capital of the island, with ooo of the finest harbors in the Meditemmean, and 



SPAIN. W 

SUUtBtlOT, etc.— Navurre-'BaMiQe PtotIdom. 



6,000 inhabitaiits. The former capiUl of this island was Omdadela, with 
8,600 inhabitants. Besides Majorca and Minorca, the Balearic Islands com- 
prise the Isles of Cabrera (a kind of conrict colony), Foradada^ Pantaleu, 
Jh-off&nera, and Colcmba, Of the Pithyunan Idandt, that of Ivioa has an 
area of 192 square miles, and a population of 20,000 inhabitants, while the 
other named FoumnnLA, is 48 square miles in extent, and numbers 2,000 
inhabitants. 

16. The kingdom of Nayabek, between Aragon and the Basque provinces, 
oo the north separated from France by the Pyrenees. About its early his- 
tory, see History of Europe, § 16 ; and it is only to be added here, that iii 
12S4 the kingdom of Navarre was inherited by the Coimt Theobald of Cham- 
pagne, who entailed it upon his French descendants, until in 1612 King Fer- 
dinand of Aragon wrested from them the southern part of it It contams : 
-f- Pampblitjca, fortified capital of Navarre, 20*7 miles north-north-east of Mad- 
rid, with 16.000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are: S8tdla{'mib 
5,000 inhabitanto), Viana (with 8,600 inhabitants), Ihtdela (with 8,000 inhab- 
tants), Olite (with 1,200 inhabitants). Tafalla (with 2,000 inhabitants), and 
San^tteaa (with 2,500 inhabitants). The valley of RoneevaUen in the Pyrenees, 
28 miles north-east of Pampeluna, is noted for the attack on the Prankish 
warriors of Chariemagne in 800, and the glorious death of Roland. 

17. The Basque Pkovincks, along the Bay of Biscay, and on the other sides 
Bonroimded by Navarre and Old Castile. They entered into a political con- 
nection with the kingdom of Castile by the treaties of the year 1202, with the 
reservation of particular privil^es. There are three of them, vix. : — a. Biscay, 
containiug: -^Bilbao, fortified capital of Biscay, on the Tbaizabal, 7 miles 
distant fi-om its mouth, 78 miles west-south-west of Bayonne (in France), with 
export of wool, and 15,000 inhabitants. Bilbao*s seaport is called Portugaletc, 
Near the little town of Sorromaxtro^ or Somcrraetro, are important iron mines. 
Other towns of Biscay are : Orduna (with 4,000 inhabitants), Durango (with 
2,800 inhabitants), Bjod Bermeo (with 1,600 inhabitants). 6. Ouipdzooa, con- 
taining: -|- San Skbastxam, strongly fortified capital of Quipuxooa, on the Bay 
of Biscay, 27 miles west-south-west of Bayonne (in France), with iron trade, 
and 10,000 inhabitants. Other towns of Guipuxcoa are : Loa Pauagee (with 
2,000 inhabitants), Fuenterabia (with 1,800 inhabitants), Irun (with 1,100 
inhabitants), Guetaria (with 600 inhabiUnts), Plaaeneia (with 1,800 inhabi- 
tants), Bergara (with 4,000 inhabitants), Mondragon (with 2,500 inhabitants), 
ToloBa (with 4,200 inhabitants), AUgria, and Atpeytia. The chief town of a 

5 



M EUROPE, PAST AJSTD PRESENT. 

Spanish CMoDies. 

little district caUed BneartaUoneSj is Onatb (with hardware manufiustoriea, 
and 4,000 inhabitants), whose former university is at present nnited with that 
of Valladolid e. Alata, containing: Vittobia, capital of Alava, southward 
and 28 miles distant from Bilboa, has 12,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its 
sword-blades. Battle on the 2l8t of June, 1818. Other towns of Alaya are : 
Salvatierra (with 1,200 inhabitants), Aiiana, and Banoi de EhriK 

The Spanish Colonies, at ' present reduced to an area of 
110,760 square miles (with about 4,500,000 inhabitants), are the 
following : — 

1. In Africa : the so-called Presidios^ or four fortified tovms 
on the northern coast of Africa, opposite the province of Granada 
(Couta, Penon de Yelez, Alhucemas, and Melilla) ; the Canary 
Islands, and two islands in the Gulf of Guinea. 

2. In America : the West Indian islands of Cuba and Porto 
Mica. 

3. In Asia : the greatest part of the Philippine Islands. 

4. In Polynesia : the Ladrone, or Marianm Islands, 

In the period from the year 1580 to 1640, when the immense 
Spanish dominions on the American continent and the Porta- 
gnese colonies were nnited, the total extent of the Spanish pos- 
sessions amounted to 9,239,855 square miles. 



ITALY. 

Aexa: 119,706 Bqnare rnOes. 
Population: 24,578,100 inhabitants. 

Italy forms a great peninsula on the south of Europe, extend- 
ing into the Mediterranean Sea. It is fancied to have the shape 
of a boot, the island of Sioilj lying at the toe. 

Of the above-stated area and population, the Italian continent 
and its smaller isles comprise 99,652 square miles, and 21,785,100 
inhabitants, while the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Malta, 
comprise 20,054 square miles, and 2,788,000 inhabitants. In a 
political sense, the island of Corsica forms a constituent part of 
France, and thus it can only in a geographical sense be considered 
as belonging to Italy. Its area (3,791 square miles) is for this 
reason added to that of the French continent. 

Of those Alps (see Introduction, ^ 7) which separate Italy 
from other countries, the Maritime and the Coltian Alps form 
the boundary towards France, the Pennine and the Leponiic Alps 
towards Switzerlami), and the Rhaetic Alps towards Germany ; 
while the Gray Alps belong exclusively to Italy. About the 
Apennines, see Introduction, ^ 7. 

About the rivers and lakes of Italy, see Introduction, ^ 9 and 
10 ; the seas J g^^} and straits, washing the shores of Italy, are 
noted under ^ 8. 

The climate is generally mild and delightful ; and even in the 
northern parts of Italy, the short winter is of great mildness. 



100 EUROPE, PAST AND PBESENT. 

Italiui Soenery—ProdttcttonB— Manaflictares. 

Besides this, Italy is noted for the beauty, diversity, and romantdo 
character of its scenery. Nevertheless, the country has in this 
respect its unfavorable side as well as other countries. Thus, for 
instance, the south wind proves often to be exceedingly hot and 
enfeebling, and is in this case called Sirocco; .and the coast 
between Leghorn and Naples (likewise the country near the 
mouths of the Po) suffers much from malaria, or the bad air of 
the marshes. 

With respect to rusJtu/raX produdionSf Italy is very poor in min- 
erals, especially in metals, with the exception of iron (its annual 
produce is about 150,000 quintals), and some lead (2,000 quintals). 
Yet Italy is noted for its excellent marble of Carrara (in the 
duchy of Modena), and the island of Sicily abounds in sulphur. 
Moreover, great quantities of lava and pumice are exported from 
Naples. Chief products of the vegetable kingdom are : rice (in 
Lombardy), maize and wheat (chiefly in Upper Italy and Tuscany), 
icine (in all parts of the country ; yet the best sorts are those 
known by the name of Lachrymae Christi, Monte Pulciano, Monte 
Fiascone, Vino Santo, etc.), olive oil, and fruits of southern 
Europe. Naples has the finest breed of horses ; in many of the 
mountainous parts of Italy are mvles, and in the States of tho 
Church and Tuscany, buffaloes are reared. But, in general, the 
rearing of cattle and sheep is of no great importance. As nox- 
ious animals, may be mentioned, vipers, tarantulas, and scorpions ; 
while, the silkyworm^ kept in great number throughout Italy, is 
of substantial benefit to the country. Agriculture flourishes in 
Lombardy and Tuscany. 

During the middle ages, Italy excelled in various manufactures, 
which are still important, though not so much so as formerly. 
The kingdom of Lombardy and Venice ranks first in manu&o- 
tures, and those of other Italian countries are at least not in a 
backward state. Thus may be mentioned the manufacture of 



ITALY. 101 

Italian Oommerce— Education— Religion. 



siiks at Tarin, Genoa, Luoca, Naples, Palermo, Anoona, Florence, 
and Bologna ; of leather gloves at Naples, Genoa, Rome, and Luooa ; 
of paper at Lncoa, Genoa, Turin, Pescia, etc. ; of pergwmen at 
Rome, in Piedmont, etc. ; of artificial flowers at Genoa, Turin, 
Bologna. Rome, etc. ; of straw hatSj in Tuscany ; and of caiguis 
for musical instruments, at Rome, Naples, etc. 

The Italian commerce is very considerable, though chiefly re* 
stricted to the intercourse with the Levant The principal sea- 
ports and first commercial cities of Italy, are Leghorn and Chnoa ; 
next to them are to be mentioned, Ancona, Naples, Me8sina,yenice, 
Givita Yecchia, Gallipoli, etc. The most important inland trade is 
carried on by MUan^ Turin, Verona, Alessandria, Florence, Rome, 
Lucca, Modena, and Parma. The chief articles of export are 
sUk^ olive oil, oranges and other fruits, and marble ; while tropical 
produce, corn, British, French, and German manufftctures, fancy 
articles, etc., are chiefly imported. 

In the means of educaiion, Lombardy and Venice, Tuscany and 
Parma, surpass by far the other Italian countries, where the lower 
classes are, for the most part, ignorant, and averse to improve- 
ment. Nevertheless there are throughout Italy learned men to 
be found, who are distinguished for their attainments in literature 
and science. In music^ and perhaps even in scvlptv/re^ the Italians 
excel most of the other European nations. 

The Roman Catholic is the established religion in all the 
Italian states ; although others are at present, and some have 
long been, tolerated. The Waldenses, in Piedmont, who have 
almost the same religious faith as the Moravian brethren, do, 
since the year 1843, enjoy the same political privileges as 
their catholic fellow-citizens ; while the Armenians, Greeks^ Mo- 
hammedans, and Jews, in the commercial cities, have free exercise 
of religion. During the wars and differences between the Em- 
peror Charles V. and the Pope, in the 16th century, the Refor- 



102 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

History of Tialy. 

mation made such progress in Italy, that but for the sabsequent 
rigorous and bloody proceeding of the inquisition, perhaps the 
majority of the Italians would have embraced the Protestant 
&ith. 

JJistory of Italy. — ^Tbe aborigines of Italy, in as far as history has noticed 
them were the UmhrianSt SieuliafU, Sabinea, Voldei, Ausomana, Samnitet, 
etCL At a very early period foreign immigrants joined them, for inst4»noe, 
JllyriafUf Pelaagiana^ CelteSy and Venetes ; and from their mixture arose Tari- 
oos other people, as the Etnucana, Latins^ CampanianM, etc In the period 
between the years 1000 and 700 B. 0^ many of the ancient Oreeka settled in 
the southern parts of the Italian peninsula, and founded there the cities of Ta- 
nmt, Syberis, Croton, Brundusium, Naples, Reggio, eta After that time the 
south of Italy was called Oreat- Greece. Anterior to the first settlement of 
the Greeks, Aeneas, a Trojan prince, shall have immigrated into Latium with 
many of his fugitive countrymen, and their descendants founded Home in 
764 A. G. In the beginning the Romans were ruled by kings in the following 
succession : Romulus (754-715), Numa Pompilius (715-672), Tullus Hostilius 
(672-640), Ancus Martins (640-616), Tarquinius Priscus (616-578), Servius 
Tullius (578-534), and Tarquinius Superbus (584-510). The monarchic form 
of government having been abolished in 510 B. C, Rome became a republic 
with aristocratic forms of government, which lasted until the year 45 B. C^ 
when Julius Ciesar was appointed dictator for lifetime and assumed the title 
of imperator. llie first actual Roman emperor was Octavins or Augustus, 
who after a reign of 44 years died in 14 A. D.; and the last Roman emperor 
was Romulus Augustulus, who in 476 A. D. was dethroned by Odoaccr, the 
leader of a Germanic tribe called the HerulL About the subsequent politi- 
cal fate of Italy, see History of Europe, §g 6, 7, 9, and 14. Since the con- 
quest of the Lombardian kingdom of Italy by Charlemagne, the greatest 
part of Italy was under the sway of the Prankish, and since the end of the 
9th century under that of the German kings and emperors (see History of 
Europe, § 14 at its end). But as soon as the latter began to yield to the 
pretensions of the popes, many paVts of the country became independent, as 
republics or as duchies, etc^ while in Lower Italy the Normans founded the 
kingdom of Naples. In the last three centuries most of the Italian states 
were the subject of a quarrel between Austria, France, and Spain, and the 
wan subsequent to the first French revolution brought on new political 



ITALY. 10$ 

IMvtoloDs of Italj— SutUnia. 



there But we must defer the farther particiilftrs to the history of 
eaudb. separate Italian state. 

Italy comprises the following states : — 

In TJppsa Italy: 

1. The Kingdom of Sardinia, 

2. The Kingdom of Lombardy arid Venice, 

3. The Dachy of Pa/rina, 

4. The Duchy of Mbdena, 

In Central Italy : 

5. The Grand Duchy of Tiucany 

6. The Slates of the Church, 

7. The Repuhlic of San Ma/rino, 

In Lower Italy: 

8. The Kingdom of Naples* 



L THE KINGDOM OF SARDHHA. 

AjtKA : 29,245 square miles. 
Population : 6,292,000 inhabitauts. 

Until the peace of Utrecht (in 1713) this state was known by 
the name of the duchy of Savoy. Since that time and at present 
it embraces the western section of Upper Italy, together with 
the large island of Sardinia. 

* Beddes these states, the geographical description of Italy must necessa- 
rily embrace that of the really Italian island of Malta also. 



104 EUROPE^ PAST AKD PRESENT. 



Sardinia: Geographical Deteripllon. 



According to the census of 1844, the population of the whole 
kingdom amounted to 5,108,601 inhabitants; but since it has 
increased to the above-stated number. With the exception of 
about 22,000 Waldenses (see above) and of 8,000 Jews, all inhab- 
itants are CeUhoUcSj under the church authority of 7 archbishops 
and 34 bishops. There are still 334 monasteries and 95 nunne- 
ries in this kingdom. 

The north-west part of continental Sardinia comprises the 
highest branches and summits of the Alps (see above, and Intro- 
duction, ^ 7), while the lAgurian Apennines run through its 
southern part. 

The chief river is the Po ; and one of its tributaries, the Ticino 
(see Introduction, ^ 10), forms the boundary on the side of Lom- 
bardy and Venice. 

Of the continental provinces, Savoy is thoroughly mountainous, 
and for this reason not much adapted to agriculture. Piedmont 
and the adjacent districts are for the most part level, and at the 
same time fertile and well cultivated. Genoa and Nice, sheltered 
by the Apennines against the cold northerly winds, are noted for 
the mildness of the climate, and abound in fruits of southern 
Europe. Although in Savoy the rearing of cattle, and in Pied- 
mont, etc., the agriculture is in a high state of prosperity, yet 
the chief staple of the kingdom is only sUk. Other articles of 
export are rice, olive-oil, cattle, and hemp. About the manufac- 
tures, see above. 

There are 4 universities in the kingdom, viz. : at Turin (founded 
in 1412, and in 1842 frequented by 1,250 students), at Genoa 
(founded in 1812, and in 1842 with 6J0 students), at Oagliari 
(founded in 1720, renewed in 1764, and frequented in 1842 by 
499 students), and at Sassari (founded in 1766, and in 1842 with 
240 students). Besides these there are 85 colleges and 39 semi- 
naries. The common schools are still in a backward state. 



ITALY. 10» 

Sardinia: GoTernment, etdi— HiBtory. 

Until the beginning of the last revolution in Italy the power 
of the king (at present Vietor Emanud^ bom 1820, March 14) 
in most of the provinces was absolate ; and in Genoa and the 
island of Sardinia more or less limited. 

The annual revenue of the state is upon an average 79,000,000 
lire (or francs), and the expenditure about 77,500,000 lire. The 
public debl omoautB to nearly 150,000,000 lire, about $30,000,000. 

The armif numbers on the peace footing 34,500, and on the 
war footing 135,300 men. The nav^ numbers 5 large frig* 
ates, 2 sloops of war, 2 brigs, 4 schooners, 12 gun-boats, and 3 
steamers. 

The orders of honor of Sardinia are the ^ following: 1. The 
arcler of Si. Annunciata, in one dass, instituted in 1362, and re- 
newed in 1518 and 1720. 2. The order of St. Mauritius and 
l^zariM, in 3 classes, instituted in 1434, and altered in 1527. 

3. The military order of Savoy ^ in 4 classes, instituted in 1815. 

4. The order of merits from the year 1831. 5. The order or cross 
of loyalty, instituted in 1814. The royal title is: '< King of 
Sardinia, Cyprus, and Jerusalem, Duke of Savoy, Genoa, etc.. 
Prince of Piedmont, Margrave of Italy," etc. 

HUtory, — ^The ancestral seat of the Sardinian monarcfas is Bavoy, whidi 
since the year 879 formed part of the kingdom of Arelat (see under France), 
and vbose governor, Berold or Beroald, made himself independent in 1016, 
and was the first count of Savoy. His descendants acquired in the course of 
time, partly by marriage, partly by purchase. Piedmont, Asti, and Nice. In 
1416 Coxmt Amadeus VIII. was by the German emperor Sigismund raised to 
the rank of a duke of Savoy. In 1438 the heiress of the kingdom of Cyprus 
(established at the end of the 12th century) bequeathed that island to her 
nephew, Charles L duke of Savoy, hence the claims of this house upon the 
above-stated title. In the history of Spain it has already been stated that 
the duke of Savoy (at that period Victor Amadeus IL, whose great-grand- 
mother was the daughter of King Philip II. of Spain) partook In t)ie ^af of 
meeemon. As confederate of Austria in this WMTi \^ i^i^if ed the duchy of 

6* 



IM EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Sardinia: Geographical Division— Piedmont. 

Mcmfferrai and part of the duchy of Milartf and by the treaty of XTtrecfat in 
1713, the island of Sicily, which he however in 1720 ceded to Austria, that 
indemnified him by the island of Sardinia. Since that time the dukes of 
Savoy transformed this title into that of kings of Sardinia. In 1792 the 
French invaded the continental part of the kingdom, and incorporated first 
Savoy and Nice, and subsequently all Sardinian provinces on the continent, 
with France. Thus the whole kingdom was reduced to the island of Sar- 
dinia ; but in 1814 the kmg was not only reinstated into the poesessioQ of his 
dominions, but amply indemnified by the annexation of the former republic 
of Genoa. In 1881 the elder branch of the house of Savoy became extinct, 
and Charles Albert of the collateral line of Savoy- Carignan (whose ancestor 
was a younger son of the above-named Duke Emanuel) ascended the throne. 
But the reverses he met with in the war against Austria in 1849, induced 
him to abdicate, and he was succeeded by his eldest son, the now reigning 
king Victor JSmanud. * 



The whole kingdom is divided into 10 counties, or general 
intendancieS) as they are styled (of Turin, Guneo, Alessandria, 
Aosta, Novara, Savoy, Nice, Genoa, Cagliari, and Sassari), which 
are subdivided into 48 districts. But in the following topog- 
raphy, we shall retain the historical division into the provinces 
of Piedmont, Savoy, Nice, etc., as these names are more in 
use. Although Savoy b the ancestral seat, we must begin with 
Piedmont, as containing the metropolis and royal residence. 

1. The prineipaliiy of Piedmomt, of which the counts of Savoy became 
possessed in the 11th and 12th century, contains: Turin, the caipital ot the 
kingdom and royal residence, on the Po, 73 miles west-south-west of Milan, 
and north-westward and 70 miles distant from Qenoa, is the most regularly 
built of all the Italian cities, and adorned with numerous magnificent public 
edifices and palaces, and has 136,000 inhabitants. It contains 110 churches 
and chapels, a university (see p. 104), and many other literary instltuttontv 
and is noted for its manufactures of silk. In the beautiful environs of Turin, 
are the royal country-seats and pabices of Stupinigi (built in 1740, and <hm 
of the most splendid paloo^s in Europe), of Moneaiieri, or Moniecalieri (near 



ITALT. 107 

SwdiDia: BtatlaUcs of PiedmODt 

the town of the same name, with 7,000 inhabitants), of Xa Veneria (near the 
town of the same name, with S,000 inhabitants, and a fine royal stad), and of 
Rivoli (near the town of the same name, with 6,000 inhabitants). La Superga 
is a magnificent church and convent, built in the years 1715-1781. Cabionan, 
or CarignanOt a town on the Po, southward and 11 miles distant fifx>m Turin, 
is the ancestral seat of the reigning royal fiunily, and has 8,500 inhabitants. 
Chixri, a town in the yicinity of Turin, has 14,000 inhaMtants, and was in the 
middle ages a republic by the name of Cairo. Other towns of this district 
are: Carmagnola (with 12,000 inhabitants), ChivoMo (with 7,000 inhabitants), 
Oirie (with 4,000 inhabitants), ComIU (with 4,500 inhabitants), San MdurUio 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), Zanxo (with 6,000 inhabitants), Viu (with 4,600 
inhabitants), Usaeglio (with 2,000 inhabitants), Rivarolo (with 6,000 inhabi- 
tants), and Rivara (with 1,700 inhabitants). Suba, in the middle ag^ chief 
town of a margraviate of the same name, on the Dora Riparia, westward 
and 80 miles distant from Turin, with 3,500 inhabitants, and the remarkable 
remains of the strong fortress of BrunettOy demolished in 1797. Other towns 
of this district are: JSxilles (with 1,500 inhabitants), San Ambrogio (with 
2,000 inhabitants), Oiaveno (with 8,000 inhabitants), and Avigliana (with 
8,000 inhabitants). Pinbrolo, or Pignerof^ a town on the Clusone, south- 
westward and 25 miles distant from Turin, with a beautiful cathedral, and 
14,000 uihabitants. Pinerolo, Fenesirelle (with 4,000 inhabitants), Oulx (with 
1,000 inhabitants), and Cetana (with 1,000 inhabitants), together with the 
valieg of CluwnSy belonged to France in the period from the year 1681 to 1718. 
Other towns of this district are : Cawmx (with 8,000 inhabitants), Cmniana 
(with 8,500 inhabitonts), VigoM (with 6,000 inhabitants), and VUlafranea di 
PiemonU (with 8,000 inhabitants), llie va/legt o/I/ueemay Peroao, and San 
MartinOy are the seat of the above*mentioned WALDKNsn, with 18 churches. 
Saluzzo, formerly the chief town of a margrayiate of the same name, on the 
Po, 32 miles south-south-west of Turin, with an old castle (once the residence 
of tlie renowned margraves of Saluszo), a splendid cathedral, and 15,000 
inhabitants. Quite near is situated the magnificent abbey of Staffarda 
(founded in 1135 by Manfredo L, margrayo of Saluzzo, and built in the Gtothic 
Btyle). Victory gamed by the French marshal Catinat^ in 1690. Other towns 
of this district are: Savigliano (with 16,500 inhabitants), Roteeonigi (with 
10,500 inhabitants), and Barge (with 7,000 inhabitants). CuiOEO, or Coniy a 
town at the junction of the Gesso and the Hura, 92 miles aouthaouth-west of 
ToriB, with 20,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this district are : Buma (with 



108 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

BardfDia: Statlailce uf Piedmont 

8,000 inhabitant), I>T<mero (with 7,000 inhabitants), Fosaano (with 13,00# 
inliabitants), Vinadeo (with 2,600 inhabitants), Demonte (with 7,000 mlialn- 
tants). Chixtsa or La Chitua (with 6,600 inhabitantsX Valdieri (with 2,000 
inhabitants), and Boves (with 8,000 inhabitants). Momdovi, a town on the 
Ellero, southward and 46 miles distant from Turin, with 16,500 inhabitants. 
Victory gained by Napoleon Bonaparte, on the 22d of April, 1796. A short time 
before, Bonaparte had gained another victory at Millenmo (a town, eastward 
and 18 miles distant from Mondovi, with 1,800 inhabitants). Other towns of 
this district are; Ceva (with 8,600 inhabitants), Bene (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
and Cherateo (with 12,600 inhabitants). Alba, a town on the Tanaro, south- 
eastward and 82 miles distant from Turin, with a remarkable cathedral, and 
8,000 inhabitants. Bra, a town on the Hura, witli 12,000 inhabitants. 
Govone, a town on the Tanaro, with 2,600 inhabitants. Polengo, a village 
with a Gothic castle and beautiful park. Another village with an ancient 
castle, is Barolo, Asn, once the chief town of the county of Asti, of wliich the 
dukes of Savoy became possessed in 1631, with a magnificent Gothic cathe- 
dral, and 24,000 inhabitants. JOoceonato and San Damiano, towns with 
respectively 8,500 and 7,000 inhabitants. Ivsea, a town on the Dona Baltea, 
northward and 82 miles distant from Turin, with a remarkable cathedral, and 
8,500 inhabitants. Other towns of this district are : Locana (with 4,000 in- 
habitants), Aglie (with 4,000 inhabitants), Cuorgne (with 3,000 inhabitants), 
Ponie (with 2,500 inhabitants), Caetellamonte (with 6,000 inhabitants), Borgo- 
maeino (with 2,000 inhabitants), ddueo (with 5,500 inhabitants), and San 
Oiorgio (with 4,000 inhabitants). Vxbcklu, once the diief town of a Lord- 
ship belonging to the fiunous barons of Visoonti, and since the year 1427 
belonging to the house of Savoy (the Dukes Amadeus DL and Charles IIL 
resided here towards the end of the 15th, and in the beginning of the 16th 
century), is situated on the Sesia, 89 miles east-north-east of Turin, and con- 
tains many remarkable Gothic edifices, and 19,500 inhabitants. Other towns 
of this district are: BatUhia, or St. Ya (with 8,500 inhabitants), Crescentino 
(vnth 4,400 inhabitants), and Tri^io (with 7,000 inhabitants). Biella, a town 
41 miles north-north-east of Turin, with 8,000 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this district are: Oropa (with 1,200 inhabitants), Andomo (with 3,000 inhabi- 
tants), Oeehieppo wperiore (with 1,700 inhabitants), Croce Moetto (with 1,600 
inhabitants), and PoUove (with 1,500 inhabitants). Masserano, a little prin- 
cipality beloD^g to tbe barons of Ferreri, under the sovereignty of Sardinia. 
AosTA, a town, at the foot of Mount St Bernard, 50 miles north-north-webt 



\ 



ITALT. 109 

Sardinia: Statiatlcs of Savoy. 

of ToriD, with 7,000 inhabitanta 8t. VinceruOf a town, with nuneral sprh^gs, 
and 2.000 inhabitants. Chattillon, a town, with iron works, and 1,500 inhabi- 
tants. CoaMAoaioRB (in French, Courmayeur\ a village between the Ber- 
nardins, with frequented mineral springs* and 1,200 inhabitants. BAaoo, or 
Bard, a fortress between Aosto and Ivrea, dominating the road over the Great 
St Bernard, and therefore presenting the last serious obstacle to Bonaparte, 
when in 1800 he cro^ised the Alps with his army. 

2. The ducky of Savoy, between Piedmont and France, on the north bor- 
dered by the lake of Geneva (its population was 606,396 inhabitants, accord- 
iDg to the census of 1844; about its history, see p. 105); containing: Cham- 
BKar, capital of Savoy, at 9 miles distance from the French frontier, 46 miles 
aoutli-south-west of Geneva and 83 miles west-north-west of Turin, with an 
ancient castle once the residence of the dukes of Savoy, active trade with 
Lyons, and 18,500 inhabitants. Not £eu' off is situated, in a delightful valley, 
the town of Aix, noted (even from the days of the Romans) for its mineral 
aprings, and with 3,200 inhabitants. Other towns of this district are : Alta 
CoxBA, in French Haute Cotnbe (with a renowned abbey from the year 1125, 
and with 1,600 inhabitants), EcJiellet (with 1,200 inhabitants), Mommeuamo^ 
in French Montmelian (with 1,300 inhabitants), RvmiUy (with 4,500 inliabi- 
tants), 8i. Pierre d'Albigny (with 4,000 inhabitants), Yenne (with 3,500 in- 
habitants), Ailloti (with 3,000 inhabitants), ^rv»//tfr« (with 1,500 inhabitanU), 
Ugine (with 2,800 inhabitants), and Aiguet belles (with 1,000 inhabitants). 
The small towns of Conjlana and Hdjntal, on the Isdre, are at present united 
by the name of Albertville, and have together 3,500 inhabitants. PatU 
BeauvoUiUf a town on the Isere, with 1,500 inhabitants, belongs with iis 
western half to France, and with its eastern to Savoy. Thonok, formerly 
C^ capital of the ancient duchy of Oiablese or Chablais, on the lake of Ge- 
neva, north' eastward and 21 miles distant from Geneva, with 4,200 inhabi- 
tants. OUier towns of this district are : JEvian (with 8,000 inhabitants), SL 
Jean d'Aulpt (with 2,800 inhabitants), and Abimdanee (with 1,800 inhaU- 
tanU). Anneot, formerly the capital of the ancient duchy of Genevese, or 
Genewns (of which the dukes of Savoy became possessed, in 1401), on the 
lake of Annecy, southward and 21 miles distant from Geneva, with 9,000 
Mhabttants. Faverges, a town, with an important silk manufactory, and 3,000 
inhabitants. Boknsvillb, formerly the capital of the ancient Lordship of 
FoMcigny^ or Fomgny, at the confluence of the Bonne and Arve, sout h oa at 
wvd and 14 milaa distant from Geneva, with 1,800 inhabitanta, 07im^ or 



110 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Sardinia: Stattstict of Nice — Monaco—Montferrat. 

ClnseSy a town on the Arre, 'with 2,000 inhabitants. Sallanche, or Salleneh*, 
a town on the Arvc, with 1,800 inhabitants Chcanouny, a village situated in 
the romantic yalley of the same name, with 1,700 inhabitants. Tanninget, 
a town with 8,000 inhabitants. 8t Gervaia, or San GervastOy a vilhige at 
the foot of Mont Blanc, with mineral springs, and 2,000 inhabitants. 
HoNTiERS, or Mon9tier»t smuamed en Tarentaise, a town on the ls5rc, 30 
miles east-south-east of Chamberj, with 2,800 inliabitants. AinUj a town 
with 900 inhabitants. San Gioyanni, or 8L Jean de Maurienne, a town 28 
miles south-east of Chambery, with frequented mineral springs, and 8,000 
inhabitants. Other towns of this district are: Lans-le-Bourg (with 1,500 
inhabitants), Modane (with 1,200 inhabitants), and Termiffnon (with 1,800 
inhabitants). 

8. The county of Nice (area : 1,448 square miles ; population : 247,488 in- 
habitants, according to the census of 1844), along the coast and on the Frendi 
border, once belonging to Provence, but since the year 1388, to the house of 
Savoy. It contains : Nice, a maritime town and the capital of the county, 
much frequented by the English, Germans, and otliers, on account of its salu- 
brious air, with 87,000 inhabitants. Other towns of the county are : Villafranea 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), Soapello (with 9,000 inhabitants), Turbia (with 800 
inhabitants), 7'enda (with 8,000 inhabitants), Briga (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
and Oneglia (with 6,000 inhabitants). 

The principality of Monaco (area: 63 square miles; population: 7,000 
mhabitants), surrounded by the county of Nice, is independent in its local 
af&irs, but in other respects under the protection and supremacy of Sardinia. 
It yields an annual revenue of 100,000 francs to the prince of Monaco (at 
present Florestan I., belonging to the fomily of Grimaldi), and contains the 
following towns: Monaco (the capital, with 1,200 inhabitants), Mentone (with 
8,000 inhabitants), and Rocea hruna. 

4. The duehy of Montfekilat (area : 1,065 square miles ; population : 170,000 
inhabitants), situated between Turin and Genoa. Montferrat was originally a 
margraviate, and in 890 it was ruled by the margrave William, whose male 
line became extinct in 1806. The heiress of the margraviate, lolantha, was 
married* in 1830, with a prince of Savoy, and by the right of succession, the 
house of Savoy became possessed of the margnivlate, or duchy, in the years 1627 
and 1703. It contains : Casale, cnpital of Montferrat, on the Po, eastward 
and 87 miles distant from Turin, with several remarkable palaces, md. a 
eatbednO, and 20,000 inhahitanta. Aoqoi, a town on the Bormida, with MOO 



ITALY. Ill 

BwdiDla: 8UUlstks8 of Duchy of Milan, etc. 

inhabitaoCa The little town of Cuearro is considered as the acCual btrth-plaoe 
ol Columbus, -who, aooording to recent investigators, was bom here in 1442 ; 
while others are of the opinion that he was bom in Cogoleto (see under duchj 
of Genoa). NiiMa deUa Paglia, a town on the Belbo, with 5,000 inhabitanta 

5. The Sardinian portion of the duchy of Milan (see history of this duchy 
m the description of the Austrian empire), containing : Alessakdria, sur- 
named delta Paglioy a city on the Tanaro, eastward and 46 miles distant from 
Turin, and northward and 42 miles distant from Genoa* with several literary 
institutions, frequented fi&irs, and 46,000 inhabitants. In the vicinity is situated 
the village of Maaenqo, noted for the battle of the 14th of June, 1800. 
Soteo, a great village, with 8,000 inhabitants, and a magnificent abbey, 
founded in the 16th century. Valenza, a town on the Po, with 7,000 inhab- 
itanta LuMELLO (with 6,000 inhabitants), Moriara (with 4,200 inhabi- 
tanis), and Vigevano (with 12,000 inhabitants). Novaba, a town on the 
Agogna, north-eastward and 66 miles distant from Turin, with a magnificent 
eathedral, several literary institutions and societies, and 16,000 inhabitants. 
Other towns of this district are : Oleggio (with 7,000 inhabitants). Borgomanero 
(with 7,000 inhabitants), Afaggiora (with 2,000 inhabitants), Borgosesia (with 
8,000 inhabitants), and Varallo (with 8.000 inhabitants). Near the village of 
AiagnOy at the foot of Mount Rosa, are important copper mines. On the 
Lake Maggiore is situated the town of Asona, wiili 65,000 inhabitants, noted 
for a colossal statue of Charles Borromeo, born in 1638 at Arona, and distin- 
guished f<Nr his works of Cliristian charity. He was cardinal andmrchbishop 
of Milan, where he died in 1584. Near Arona, and in the Lake Maggiore, 
are the Borbomean Isles (hola dei Pescatoriy Inola hella^ and Iwla tnadre), 
with beautiful gardens, belonging to the family of Borromeo. PtUlanza (with 
1,600 mhabitants). Intra (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Cauobbio (with 2,000 
inhabitants), towns on the Lake Maggiore. Other towns of this district are : 
JhmodoMoia, or Domo d*Os9ola (with 1,800 inhabitants), and Vogogna (with 
1,600 inhabitants). Tortona, a town on the Scrivia, eastward and 9 miles 
distant from Alessandria, with 9,000 inhabitants. SerravaUe, a town, with 
2,400 inhabitants. Bobbio, a town on the Trebbia, and near the frontier of 
the duchy of Parma, with 6,000 inhabitants. Yoohera, a town 18 milea 
east-north-oast of AIessandria,*with 12,000 inhabitants. 

6. The former repMie (at present styled duchy) of Genoa (area : 2,843 
■yinrr miles; population, according to the census of 1844: 705,708«inhabi- 
tants). llie city of Gknoa was already in the days of the ancient Romau 



112 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Sardinia: I>«eb7 of OeD0»— Hlstorj and StaUslloi. 

noted for its eztensiTe oommerce. In the period of the migration of nataons 
it came under the sway of the Ostrogoths, and since changed bands, until in 
tlie middle ages it threw off obedience to the German emperors, and became 
independent, with republican forms of government like those of Venice. So 
early as the year 806 it had conquered the island of Corsica, which it kept 
first until the 11th, and then, since the year 1284, until the latter half of the 
18th century, when the island was ceded to France. About the highly-im- 
portant and extensive commerce of Genoa in the middle ages, see History 
of Europe, § 17. Since the year 1464, Genoa, with its territory, was consid- 
ered as part of the duchy of Milan. It was conquered by King Francis L of 
France, and again by Charles V. emperor of Germany. At last, in 1528, it re- 
acquired its independence, which it maintained until the wars brought oo by 
the French revolution. In 1797, it was transformed into a Ligurian RepMic ; 
in 1806, incorporated into the French empire; and in 1815, into the kingdom 
of Sardinia. The duchy of Genoa contains the following dties and towns: 
Genoa, fortified capital of the duchy and chief seaport of Sardinia, on the 
Gulf of Genoa, with 120,000 inhabitants. It is built on the declivity of a 
mountain which half encircles its harbor, and is sumamed the Superb on 
account of its numerous and magnificent palaces and other edifices, among 
which are more than 100 churchesw Besides a university (see p. 104), there 
are many other scientific and literary institutions. (About the birtb-jdace of 
Columbus, see CucarrOf p. Ill, and CogoUto, p. 118.) The shore to the right 
and to the left of the city, is covered with numerous and splendid villas. As 
Genoa's suburb is considered the neighboring town of San Piar d' Arena, or 
San Pietro d* Arena, with many villas and magnificent palaces, and 7,000 
inhabitants. Westward and 23 miles distant from Genoa, is situated the 
village of Monienotte, noted for the victory gained by Bonaparte on the 14th 
of April, 1796. Other remarkable villages in the vicinity of G^enoa are : 
Aremanoy San Cipriano, La Foce, and SorL Voltri, a maritime town, with 
docks, paper manufactories, and 8,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this dis- 
trict are : Comigliano (with 8,000 inliabitants), Segtri di PonenU (with 6,000 
inhabitants). Pra, or Pria (with 4,000 inhabitants), Pegli (with 4,000 inhabi- 
tants), Catnogli (with 6,000 inhabitants), I^ervi, TorriffUoy and MeU. Novi, a 
town at the foot of the Apennines, 28 miles north-nortii-east of Genoa, with 
many palace-like houses and villas of the Genoese, and 10,800 inhabitants. 
Savon Aj a maritime town, 20 miles west-south-west of Genoa, with 17,000 
inhabitanta. Pope Pius VIL lived here forcedly, in the years 1809-1812. 



ITALY. lis 

Bardinia: BUiUsUa-^Ialaixt of Sardinia. 



CogoUtOy a village on the Oulf of Genoa, vith 1,000 inhafaitanta, is considered 
as the birth-place of Columbus, according to the prevailing opinion, iivhile 
others consider Cucarro (see p. Ill) as his birth-place. Other towns of this 
district are: Vado (with 2,000 inhabitants), ^/5i»>/a (with 1,800 inhabitants), 
Vareaze (with 1,500 inhabitants), and Noli (with 2,000 inhabitants). Albenga, 
a maritime town, south-westward and 32 miles from Savona, with 4,000 inhab- 
itants. Other towns of this district are : Alasaio (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
Languegliay or Laigiieglia (with 2,200 inhabitants), Loano (with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants). Finale (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Varigotii (with 1,500 inhabitants)L 
Porto Mauritio, or Pvrto San MauriziOf a maritime town, south-westward 
and 37 miles distant from Savona, with 6,700 inhabitants. San Remo, a 
maritime town, north-eastward and 28 miles distant from Nice, with 12,000 
inhabitants. It is said, in praise of this town, that within the memory of 
man, a murder has never happened there. Another maritime town is Venti- 
jciOLiA, or VintimigliOf with 5,500 inhabitants. Chiavari, a maritime town, 
eastward and 28 miles distant from Gkuoa, with 11,000 inhabitants- Other 
towns of this district are : Rapallo (with 6,000 inhabitants), Lavagna (with 
2,500 inhabitants), SeHri di Levante (with 2,000 inhabitants), Barzonasca 
(with 5,000 inhabitants), and Varese (with 6,000 inhabitants). Sfezia, or 
BpeanOy a maritime town on the Gulf of Spezia, between Genoa and Leghorn, 
with a fine harbor, and 10,000 inhabitants. In and near the Gulf of Spezia, 
are situated the small isles of Palmaria^ Tino (with a light -house), and Tinello, 
Of greater extent is the island of Capraja, between Corsica and Leghorn, 
with 8,660 inhabitants, according to the census of 1844. In the district of 
Spezia, are still the following towns to be mentioned : Portovenere (with 2,000 
inhabitants), Lerid (with 4,700 inhabitants), Levanto (with 4,000 inhabitants), 
Sarzana (with 8,000 inhabitants), and Monterosto (with 1,000 inhabitant). 

7. The island of Sardinia (area: 9,287 square miles; population: 698,000 
inhabitants), next to Sicily the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, situ- 
ated in the latitude of Naj^les. The soil of the low country is generally 
very fertile in grain, of which great quantities are exported, chiefly to 
Algiers. The rearing of cattle is also very considerable. In the mountainous 
districts lives the mtffion^ bearing a great resemblance to the Rocky Mountain 
sheep. Tlie aborigines of the island of Sardinia were Iberians (see Introduo- 
tion, § 12), and in the course of time, Greek and Carthaginian immigrants 
settled here. The Romans conquered the island in 238 B. C, and in 720 A. D., 
it came under the sway of the Arabs, in 1050 under that of the Pisans. 



114 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

liland of Sardinia— SUtisUcs. 

In 1824 the king of Aragon became poaaeased of it, and since that period the 
island continued to be under Spanish sovereignty, until in 1714 it was ceded 
to Austria, and in 1720 ceded to the duke of Savoy, in exchange for Sicily 
(see ante). * With regard to the administration, the island is divided into 
two divisions, or provinces, which are subdivided into eleven districts ; and it 
contains : Caguari, fortified capital of the island, on the gvJI of the same 
name, with a university (see above), 38 churches, 20 convents, ship docks, 
active conmierce, salt works, and 80,000 inhabitants. Quarto^ a town, with 
6,800 inhabitants. Here, and in the neighborhood, the female sex is distin* 
guished for its beauty. Bdsachi, chief town of a district, with 1,800 inhabi- 
tants. Other towns of this district are : Oristano (with 6,000 inliabitants), and 
Ales (with 1,000 inhabitants), while Cobras (with 8,500 inhabitants), Poti/tZa- 
tino (with 2,000 inhabitants), Sorgono (with 1,800 inhabitants), and Arittti^ are 
more or less remarkable villages. The district of Iglesias contains the fol- 
lowing towns : Iglesias (chief town, with a fine cathedral, and 8,600 inhabi- 
tants), Villaeidro (with 5,800 inhabitants), Chupini (with lead mines, and 
8,000 inhabitants), and Carloforte (on the isle of Han Pietro^ near the south- 
west coast, with 2,800 inhabitants). Isiu, chief town of a district, with 2,200 
inhabitants. Nurri and Sardara^ villages, with respectively 2,000 and 1,700 
inhabitants. Lancsbi, chief town of the district of Ogliattra^ with 1,700 in- 
habitants. Tortoli and Bavi^ towns, with respectively 1,800 and 1,200 inhab- 
itants. NuoRO, chief town of a district, with 3,600 inhabitants. Oroiei^ 
Fonnij and Posada, towns, with respectively 2,000, 2,800, and 2,600 inhabi- 
tants. MontesantOy Orgosola, and Siniseolaj are mountain villages, whone 
inhabitants are notorious for their wild manners. Dorgalif a vUlage, with 
2,900 inhabitants, and noted for its manufactory of arms. The fair sex of the 
village of Benetutii are distinguished for their beauty. Sassari, the eecand 
dty on the island, near its northern coast, with 26 churches, 18 convents, a 
university (see above), and 23,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this district 
are : Oailo (with 4,800 inhabitants), Sorw (with 4,800 inhabitants), Casiel 
Sardo (with 2,100 inhabitants), and Porto Torres (with 800 inhabitantjtJL 
ALomERi, or Alghero, a town, with 8,000 inhabitants. Cuglikri (with 8,900 
inhabitants), and Bosa (with a magnificent cathedral, and 6,000 inhahttants), 
towns. OziERi (with 8,000 inhabitants), Oschiri (with 2,000 inhabitanta), and 
Pattada (with 8,000 inhabitants), towns. Tsmfio, chief town of the district 
of Gallura, with 9,600 inhabitants. To this district belong, moreover, thi* 
town of Terranova (with 1,600 inhabitants), and the isles of Tavoiara or 
Bucina, Maddalena, and Caprera. 



ITALT 115 

Daehy of Panna. 



a— THE KINGDOM OF LOMBARDT AND VENICE. 

Akxa: 17,694 square miles. 
Population: 6,068,000 inhabitants. 

Tms kingdom will be described together with the Austrian 
empire. 



UL— THE DUCHY OF PARMA. 

Aaxa : 2,279 etfiSTe miles. 
Population: 479,900 inhabitants. 

It is situated between the duchy of Modena and the conti- 
nental part of Sardinia, and on the north separated from Lom- 
bardy by the Po. 

The soil is generally very fertile, and agriculture in a rather 
high state of improvement. Yet the commerce and manufactures 
are of no great importance. 

The clergy are charged with the care of the schools. Most of 
the teachers are monks, and the schools for girls are under the 
direction of nuns. There was a university in the capital, founded 
in 1422, but it was abolished in 1832 and transformed into two 
higher special schools. The higher catholic clergy consist of 7 
bishops. There are stiU 21 convents in the country. 

The public revenue was of late about 7,200,000 lire (or francs), 
and the expenditure little more than 6,000,000 lire. The public 
debt amounted to 7,600,000 lire, or tl,428,800, in 1840. The 
military numbers about 800 men. There is an order of honor, 



116 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Duchy of Panna. 

called the CanstatUinian order of St, George^ originally institutecl 
by the Greek emperor Isaac, in 1 190, and in 1699 sold to the 
Duke Francis I. of Parma. In 1815, it was renewed by the late 
Duchess Maria Louisa. 

History. — ^The country embraces 8 duchies, vis.: of Parma, Piaeenza, and 
GuaataUOf of \pfaich the two first-iuuned were always united, while GoastaQa 
was not added to them until the year 1748. The cities of Parma and Pia« 
cen2a shared the fate of Upper and Middle Italy after the fisJl of the Western 
Empire, until in 1188 they succeeded in becoming independent, with repub- 
lican forms of government Yet in the next century they were unable to 
maintain their independence, and they were ruled alternately by the Viscmti, 
Este, Sforzas, and other dynasties, until in 1514 the apostolical see became 
possessed of them. Pope Paul IIL raised Parma and Piacenxa to tlie rank 
of duchies^ and invested with them his natural son, Peter Aloys Famem 
(father of the great warrior, Alexander^ of Famese), in 1548. In 1781 the 
male line of the house of Famese became extinct Philip Y. of Spain was 
married to a princess of Parma, and for this reason his son, Don Carlos 
became possessed of the duchies, which since (with the exception of a short 
interval) were ruled by Spanish Princes. First in 1802, and formally in 
1805, the duchies of Parma and Piacenza were incorporated into the French 
empire ; while the prince Borghese, Napoleon's brother-in-law, was invested 
with the ducJiy of OuastallcL In 1815, according to the determinatioQ of 
the congress of Vienna, the former empress of France, Maria Zou'imo, became 
possessed of these three duchies for lifetime. She died on the 18th of Decem- 
ber, 1847, and the duchies now devolved upon the legitimate heir, the Spanish 
prince, Charlen, until then (since the year 1824) duke of Lueca, which latter 
duchy is since annexed to the grand-duchy of Tuscany. 

The whole country is divided into the 5 districts of Parma, 
Piacenza, Borgo Sandonnino, Borgo Taro, and Ouastalla. Yefe 
in the description we shtdl retain the historical division of the 
duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and GuastaUa. 



(a) The dttchy of Parma, embracing the eastern half of the state, and 
taming: Parma, the metropolis and ducal residence, north-westward and 



ITALY. lit 

Du^y of Parma: Duchy of Modena. 

81 milee ^fltant from Modena, and northtrard and 92 mfles distant from 
lieghorD, with an extensive ducal castle, several remarkable churches, nunj 
literary institutions, and 41,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this duchy are : 
Colcmo (with 1,800 iuhalxtants), Fonwvo (with 1,200 mhabitants), and Saia 
(with an andent ducal castle). The ducal park at tho village of Ctuteiguel/o 
18 one of the finest in Italy. 

{b.) The duchy of Piacknza, embracing the western half of the state, and 
oontainmg : Piacsnza (in French, Plaisance), the capital of this dudiy, on 
the right bank of the Po, north-westward and 36 miles distant from Parma, 
with a beautiful cathedral and S0,000 inhabitants. Austria exercises the 
stipulated right of garrisoning the citadel of PiaoBnia. In the vicinity is the 
field of battle on the Trelna, where in 217 B. C, Hannibal defeated the 
Romans. Other towns of this duchy are : Bor^o Sandonnino (with 4,000 
inhabitants), and Barpo Sfhro (with 2,600 inhabitants), and Fiorenzuola (with 
8,800 inhalHtants). 

{c) The duehyo{ GuASTALtJk (area: 86 square miles; population: 88,600 
inhabitants), about 18 miles north-east of the city of Parma. Its ancient 
dukes belonged to the house of Mantua, and became extmct in 1746. The 
dudiy as' an imperial fee escheated now to the German emperor, who in 
1748 ceded it to the Spanish prince Don Carlos (see above). It contains : 
GuASTALLA, Capital of this duchy, on the Po, with a magnificent cathedral, and 
6,000 inhabitants. Besides this are to be remarked the villages of BaeeaneUo, 
San Giorgio, San Roceo, and Broeada, 



IV^THE DUCHY OF MODEVA. 

Abka: 2,109 square miles. 
PoFULATiON : 490,000 inhabitants. 

It is sitoated between Parma and the northern extremity of 
tiie popedom, has a fertile Boil, and is noted for its fine Carrara 
marble The mannfaotaring industry is of no great importanoe. 



118 EITROPE, PAST AND PRBSElTr. 



Dueh7 of Modena. 



There web in the capital a university, which, however, in 1832, 
was transformed into three higher schools. The higher catholic 
clergy consist of 6 bishops. There are sloll 14 monasteries 
and 9 nunneries in the country. 

The public revenue was of late about $540,000, and the public 
debt amounted only to $252,000. The army, on the peace foot- 
ing, numbers 1,860 men. 

.BUtory.-— Modena became in the middle ages a fee of the G^erman empire^ 
and in the 14tb century the renowned house of Ette was invested with it^ 
This house, whose ancestral seat of the same name is situated in the kingdom 
of Lomfaardy Venice, belonged to the most ancient families of Italy, and its 
ancestor was the margrave Albert of Este, who lived about the year 960, 
and was possessed of great estates in Lombardy. His greatrgrandsoo, 
Albert Aexo II., went to Germany and inherited there, by his wife, the laige 
possessions of the Quelphs ; while the collateral degrees of kindred remained 
in Italy. To these belonged margrave Bonot who m 1462, was raised to the 
rank of a duke of Modena and Reggio. In 1806 the male line of the house 
of Este became extinct, and the heiress of the duchy beipg married to the 
Austrian archduke Ferdinand, the reigning dynasty was henceforth called 
Austria-EUe, His grandson ^ancU V. (bom in 1819) is the reigniqg duke 
since 1846. 

The whole duchy is divided into the six provinces of Modena, 
Reggio, Garfagna, Massa-Oarrara, Lunigiana, and Frignano. Yet 
we shall, in the topography, follow the historical division into the 
duchies and principalities of Modena, Reggio, Correggio, Miran- 
dola, Novellara, and Massa-Carrara. 

MoDKNA, capital of the whole country and resldenoe of the duke, on a euial 
that unites the Panaro with the Secchia, south-eastward and 82 miles distant 
from Parma, and 60 miles north-north-west of FlcM-ence, with a magmfioent 
palace of the duke, numerous churdies (the high steeple of the eatfaedral is 
known by the name of Guirlandina), and 28,000 inhabitants (indusiTe 1,500 
Jews). Other towns of this district are : Satauolo (with 8,000 inhabitantoX 



ITALY. 119 

Duchy of Modeu. 



JUude (with 6,600 mhabitants), Frignano (with 2,000 iDbabitants), PamtUo 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), and Aequaria (with hot springs). Cartdnuovo cU 
ChnfoffnOf a town on the Serchio, with 3,000 inhabitants, was fonnerlj the 
capital of the Lordship of Garfaqna, which previonsly was annexed to 
Bologna. GAapi, a town situated northward and 9 miles distant frc»n Modena, 
has 6,000 inhabitants, and was formerly the capital of the principality of Carpi, 
thai in 1680 was ceded to Modena by the house of Pico, for the sum of 100,000 
ducota. JEtBGGio, the capital of the ancient duchy of Reggio, which has always 
been united with the duchy of Modena, is situated between the cities of 
Modena and Parma, and has 28 churches, several convents, and 19,000 inhab- 
itants. The renowned poet Ariosto, was bom here in 14T4. In the vicinity 
of this city, are to be found the ruins of the ancient castle of Canossa, where 
the Gterman emperor Henry IV. humbled himself before the Pope Gregory 
VIL, in 1077. £re$edlo, a fortified town on the Po, with 2,000 inhabitants. 
Tiie province of JJunitfiana contains the towns of AtUla (with 1,800 inhabi- 
tants), and Fosdinavo (with 2,000 inhabitants). CoaaEooio, ancient capital 
of a principality of the same name, which in 1636 was annexed to Modena, 
near the Po, with a remarkable cathedral, and 6,000 inhabitants. The great 
painter Antonio Allegzi, generally known hj the name of Correggio, was bom 
here. Miraxdola, andent capital of a duchy of the same name, which in 
1711 was annexed to Modena, on the Burana, with 6,600 inhabitants Con- 
eordto, a town on the Seochia, with 8,600 inhabitants. Novellaba, ancient 
capital of a principality of the same name, with which the duke of Modena 
was invested in 1787, 20 miles north-north-west of Modena, with 6,000 inhab- 
itants. The duchy of McMOrCarrarOt bordering on the sea, and having an 
area of 96 square miles, with more than 80,000 inhabitants, was annexed to 
the duchy of Modena in 1741, by marriage of its heiress with the hereditary 
prince of Modena. It contains: Massa, a city on the Frigido, and near the 
western coast of the Italian peninsula, with 10,000 inhabitants, and active 
commerce in olive oil and marbb. In its vicinity is situated the town of 
CAUiAaA, with 8,600 inhabitants, an academy of sculptors, and numerous 
workshops, where more than 400 artists are engaged in sculptural works. 
About 100 vessels are annually employed in exporting the marble of Oarrara. 
LmfenMo, m maritime town, with 1,800 inhabitants. 



190 EUROPE^ PAST AND PRESENT. 



Grand-Dooby of Tutcaajr. 



v.— THE GRAND-DUCHY OF TUSCANY. 

Akea : 8,844 square miles. 
PoFULAnoN : 1,752,000 inhabitants. 

This state, comprbing tbe nortH-western part of Middle Italy, 
consists, since the year 1847, of 7\iscany Proper (8,418 square 
miles, and 1,570,000 inhabitants), and the Duchy of Lucca (426 
square miles, and 182,000 inhabitants), which latt«r, according 
to the determinations of the congress at Vienna in 1815, was 
annexed to the grand-duchy as soon as the duchess of Panaa 
died, and the duke of Lucca became her successor (compare the 
History of Parma). 

The Etruscan Apennines extend across the north-eastern part 
of the country. The principal river of Tuscany is the Amo^ 
while the Tiber has its sources here. Besides these, the Ombpnte 
in Tuscany, and the Serckio in Lucca, may be mentioned. 

The soil is for the greatest part very fertile, although marshy 
at the mouth of the Arno, and along the coast, down to the 
frontier of the States of the Church. These marshes are known 
by the name of the Maremma. 

Agriculture flourishes in Tuscany proper, as well as in Lucca, 
and has attained here a high state of improvement. Besides the 
silk manufactures at Florence, Tuscany is renowned for its fine 
straw hats, and in the valley of the Arno thousands of country 
girls arc engaged in plaiting straw. The manufiictures in Lucca 
are various, and embrace chiefly silk, cotton, and woollen goods. 
AVith regard to the commerce, Leghorn msy be considered as ihe 
chief seaport of the Italian peninsula, and besides this, the 
inland trade of Florence is also very important. 

With regard to the means of education, there are 3 universi- 



ITALY. 121 

Tuflcanjr: Education — ^Revflone— Army, etc 



ties in Tuscany, viz. : tit Pisa (fonnded in 1338, and in 1841 
frequented by 580 students), at Siena (founded in i351, and in 
1841 with 257 students), and at Florence (founded in 1438, and 
in 1841 with 218 students). Moreover, there are 4 colleges for 
the sons of nobles, 16 gymnasiums, and 16 seminaries (see the ex- 
planatory note at the intrx)duction to Portugal). The common 
schools are numerous in Tuscany proper, as well as in Lucca. 

At the head of the Catholic clergy are 4 archbishops (one of 
them in Lucca) and 16 bishops. In 1840 Tuscany numbered 
still 133 monasteries (with 2,540 monks) and 69 nunneries (with 
3,907 nuns). In the duchy of Lucca the number of convents 
amounted to 23. 

Until the last revolutions in Italy, which commenced in 1847, 
the Tuscan government was absolute, but is now limited. 

The amount of the revenue, and of the expenditure, for the 
last year has been about $5,000,000 annually. In 1836 the 
revenue of Tuscany was exactly 25,104,898 lire, and the expen- 
diture only 23,078,029 lire (or francs). Since 1829, Tuscany is 
without any public debt. In the duchy of Lucca, whose public 
debt amounted to about 500,000 lire, the public revenue was of 
late 3,700,000 lire (or francs), and the expenditure somewhat 
less. 

The Tuscan army numbers on the peace footing 5,500 men. 
(The military of Lucca consisted of 700 men.) There are also 
some vessels of war, consisting of 4 schooners (one of them be- 
longed to the duchy of Lucca) and some gun-boats. 

The Tuscanese orders of honor are the following : — 1. The 
order of St. S^^A^n, instituted in 1562, and renewed in 1817, 
in 4 classes. 2. The order cf St. Joseph, instituted in 1807, at 
Wurtzburg (see below), and renewed in 1817 for Tuscany, in 3 
classes. 3. The order of the while cross, instituted in 1814. (The 
duke of Luooa had instituted the order of St. Louis, in 8 classes.) 

6 



122 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Tuscany: History. 



Sittory, — ^The present grand-duchj of Tuscany comprises for the greatest 
part the ancient Mruria, or the land of the Etruscans, which in 284 A. C. was 
conquered by the Romans, and, after the &11 of the Western Empire, came 
under the sway first of the Lombards, and then of the Franks. Charlemagne 
appointed margraves as governors of Ihttcia (as the country now was named), 
who in the course of time became independent^ but without being able to 
retain the whole of the country. For Fhrenee, Pisa, SienOf eta, became free 
cities or republics in the 18th century. (See History of Europe, § 17, c^ A, 
and t.) Pisa was for a long time the most powerful among them, but was 
subdued, first in 1407, then in 1509 by Florence, that in 1286 had purchased 
its independence from the emperor Rodolph of Hapsburg at the sum of 
600,000 gold florins. Among the eminent families of Florence were the 
Mediei, renowned for their attainments and riches, who became at last (espe- 
cially since the year 1434) the rulers of the republic. To Alexander of 
Medici was the ducal title conferred by the emperor Charles Y. in 1531, and 
to his son and successor Cosimo I. the title of a grand-duke by the pope in 
1569. In 1554 Spain had taken possession of the republic of Siena, whidi 
fOT the greatest part was ceded to Cosmo I. in 1557. In this way the former 
republic of Florence was enlarged to a grand-duchy of Tuscany. With John 
Gaston the race of the Medici became extinct in 1737. and now, according to 
former stipulations, the duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine (married to the 
renowned Maria Theresa, heiress of Austria) ascended the throne. He was 
subsequently elected emperor of Germany, and died in 1765. His successor 
in Tuscany was first his son Leopold, and then (in 1790) his grandson Ferdi* 
nand IlL In the treatj of peace concluded at Luneville in 1801, it was 
stipulated that the hereditary prince of Parma should become possessed of 
Tuscany by the name of a kingdom, of Etruria, in return for which the grand- 
duke Ferdinand III. was indemnified first by the archbishopric of Salzburg, 
and in 1805 by the grand-duchy of Wurtzburg (see introduction to Germany). 
Tuscany, or Etruria (as it was then called), was in 1807 annexed to the 
French empire, of which it formed a constituent until 1814, when Ferdinand 
IIL was reinstated. He died in 1824, and was succeeded by his son, the stin 
reigning grand-duke Leopold II. (bom in 1797). In 1849 he was obliged to 
leave the country on accoimt of a revolution which had the tendency to 
transform the grand-duchy into a republic But an Austrian army entered 
the country and defeated the republicans, whereupon the grand-dnke returned 



ITALT. 12S 

Tuscany: Goographical DiTialons. 



to Florence. About the aimezatioa of the duchj of Laoca, eee abore, and 
the History of Parma. 

Tuscany proper is divided into the 5 oompartimenti or proy- 
inces of FhreTice^ Fisa^ Siena, Arezzo, and Grossetto, which are 
subdivided into Territorii oomunitativi, or townships. Part of the 
eompartimenti of Pisa and Grossetto consists of the Siato degli 
Presidii, or the former territory of the ancient republic of Siena, 
which not before the year 1815 was annexed to the grand-duchy. 
For this reason we shall first give the topography of Tuscany 
proper, and then describe the Stato degli Presidii, and finally 
the duchy of Lucca. 

1. Ikueany proper cootaiDS : Flobsnok, the capital of the gnuad-ducfay 
and residence of the grand-duke, on the Arno, westward and 115 miles dis- 
tant from Ancona» and 60 east-north-east of Leghorn, with 105,000 inhabi- 
tants. Florence, one of the finest cities of Europe, is noted for its churches, 
palaces, galleries, and libraries. The most magnificent among the 172 
charches is the cathedral, which was reared in the period from the year 1294 
to 1448, and whose beautiful cupola rises to the height of 400 feet The 
palace Pitti, the usual residence of the grand-dukes, contains 900 apartments. 
Another palace, reared by Cosmo L, contains, besides the so-called Maglia- 
beochian library, the celebrated Florentine gallery of sculpture, paintings, and 
other works of art In the vicinity of the city are situated the beautiful Vilia 
Demidof (belonging to the Russian count Demidof ), and the grand-ducal 
mansions of Poggio ImperiaUf Poggio a C<yano, Pratolinc, and Cattello, On 
the Stella, 28 miles north-west of Florence, is situated the city of Pistoja, 
with 28 churches (among them, a magnificent cathedral), a manufiurtory of 
organs, various other manuiactories, and 12,000 inhabitants. The villages of 
Sraed and Signa^ are noted for their straw hats, which are plaited here in 
great quantities. Fixboli, a town in the vicinity of Florence, is remarkable 
for the remains of cydopic walls and other ancient buildings. Other towns 
of the oompartimento of Florence are : PratQ (with 11,000 inhabitants), Peacia 
(with 11,000 inhabitonts), Volierra (with 6,000 inhabitants), San Miniaio (with 
4,000 inhabitants), I^gliw (with 8,000 inhabitants), and Modigliano (with 
2»800 inhabitants). The town of ^er/aZdo is remarkable as the birth-place of 



IM EUROPE^ PAST AND PRESENT. 

TwBOUij fltatiiUoi. 

the poet Booeeda Ammmmo, capital of the eompartimento of the aame name, 
eonth-eastward and S7 miles distant from Florence, with a magidfioeot cathe- 
dral, and 9,500 inhabitants). The town of Montbfuloiako, with 8,000 inhab- 
itants, is noted for its wines. The town of Cmosi, which now has only 1,600 
inhabitants, was in the days of old, or about 600 years before Christ, the 
residence of Porsenna, and then named ClummL Siu, a town near the 
Axao, with cloth raanufiictories and 1,500 inhabitants. In its neighborhood is 
situated the celebrated abbey of Camaldoli, originated in 1012. Other towns 
in this compartimento are : Cortana (with 8,500 inhabitants), Borgo8anSepolcro 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), ^n^Aiari (with 8,000 inhabitants), and^t66ftf»a (the 
wealthiest town in the district of Catentino), Sikh a, the capital of the com- 
partimento of the same name, situated in a picturesque country, sonthward 
and 80 miles distant from Floi'ence, with a splendid cathedral ranking next to 
that of Milan, numerous palaces, a university and several other literary inatt- 
tutions, silk and other mannfartories, and 24,000 inhabitants. In the middle 
ages, when Siena was a republic (see above), the population of the dtf 
amounted to 100,000 inhabitants. Pibnza, a town formerly called Ciirmgnano, 
has 1,600 inhabitanta. Other towns of this compartimento are: CoiU (with 
4,000 inhabitants), Montalcino (with 2,600 inhabitants), and Radieofani (witt 
1,000 inhabitanta). Near the lastnamed town are the renowned waterii^ 
places of 8an Filippo and San Caaciano, Qaoeanro, fortified town and 
capital of the compartimento of the same name, southward and 70 milee 
distant from Florence, in a marshy and very unwholesome country, near the 
coast, with salt works, and 8,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province 
(besides those that belong to the State degli Presidii) are : Soana, or 8<mana 
(remarkable as the birth-place of Pope Gregory VII.). Ma»aa di Ma 
(with 1,800 inhalNtants), and Fiiigliano (with 2,600 inhabitants). Hie 
partimento of Pisa contains : Pisa, a city on the Amo, about 4 miles distant 
from its mouth, and 12 miles north-north-east from Leghorn, had in the middle 
ages, when it was a powerful republic (see above), a population of 150,000, 
but has at present only 22,000 inhabitants. Yet it is still a most remarkable 
city, not only for its celebrated universily, one of the best in Italy, but for its 
edifices and buildings. There are nearly 80 churdies, among them the highly- 
interesting cathedral founded in 1068, richly decorated in the interior, and 
enntaining the tomb of the German emperw, Henry VII (who died here in 
1818). Near the back part of the cathedral is the remarkable Campanfle^ or 
leaniqg tower, 168 foet high, and inclining 14 feet from the perpendienUr. It 



ITALY. 1S$ 

Tiucany: StetisUcs. 



was reared in 1174 Oa the other side is the Campo Saato, or drarch-jard, 
-with fine paiatings in fresco on the walls, with which it is surrounded. In 
the neighborhood of Pisa are mineral baths, whidi are much frequented. 
The grand-ducal fiirm of San Rouore, in the Ticinity of Pisa, is noted for its 
studs and a herd of camels that have been kept here since the jear 1622. 
LcoHoaM (in Italian, Ztvomo), the chief seaport of Tuscany, and the first 
eonunercial city in Italy, 50 miles west-south-west of Florence, with two 
harbors, ship docks, numerous manufiictories, and 88,000 inhabitants, among 
whom are nearly 25,000 Jews, who hare here one of the most splendid syna- 
gogues in Europe. In the vicinity is the picturesque mountain Montenero 
(or MonU Negroy, with a rich convent and numerous mansions. BxaoA, a 
t<ywn with 2,000 inhalatants, is situated in the district called OarfagrtA 
Oranducale, Fiviuano^ a town with a Benedictine nunnery, and 2,500 
inhabitants, is situated in the district called Lmiigiana. PoNraiMou, a town 
on the Magra, with a fine cathedral, a strong citadel, and 6,000 inhabitants. 
Other towns are : CasUUina Mariitima (with 1,000 inhabitants), Ctuidnucvo 
(with 1,000 inhabitants), Serravezza (with 4,000 inhabitants), and FietrcuarUa 
(with 8,000 inhabitants). 19 ear the coast, and at no great distance from 
Leghorn, are situated the isiea of Pianosa (to which Agrippa Po6thumu% 
grandson of the Roman emperor Augustus, was exiled), GiANvn, GiQuo 
(with 1,800 inhabitants), Momtb Caisio, Palicajola (between Elba and the 
continent), Gobgona (right against Leghorn), and MsLoaiA. 

2. The Stale degli PretdjcUi ((Cirea : 298 square miles) is a territory that once 
belonged to the ancient republic of Siena, and which, together with the city 
itself was conquered by Spain in 1564. When, in 1557, the city of Siena 
was ceded to Tuscany by Philip IL of Spain, he kept its territory, which since 
formed a coostituent part of the kingdom of Naples (then under Spanish 
awayX In 1801, Naples ceded it (or the Stato degli Preeidii) to France, 
which kept the island of Elba for itself while the principality of Piombino 
was given to Felix Baochiocbi, the brother-in-law of Napoleon, and the re- 
maining part of the Stato degli Presidii annexed to Tuscany. According to 
the stipulations of the confess of Vienna, in 1815, the whole was annexed to 
the grand-duchy. The Stato degli Presidii comprise the following towns on 
the continent: Obbitello, about IS miles distant from the frontier of the 
States of the Church, with 2,000 inhabitants, Erecle and San Sie/ano (little 
seaports) *, Piombino, a maritime town, and capital of the ancient principality 
of Piombino (whose princes of the booses of Appiani, Ludovici, and Buon- 



126 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Tiucaoy : Duchy of Lnocar-Statisttca. 



campagni, were under the soyereignty first of the Germzm emperor, then of 
Spain, Naples, etc.), with 1,000 inhabitants, Caldano, Searlino, and Lilt; and, 
moreover, the itland of Elba (area : 82 square miles, with important iron 
mines, and the towns of Porto Ferrajo, with 2,000 inhabitanta, and Porto 
Lwigone, with 1,000 inhabitants). In 1814, the sovereignty of this island 
was given to Napoleon in exchange for the imperial crown of France. He 
remained here until March, 1816. 

8. The (ftitfAy of LuooA (area: 426 square miles; population: 182,000 in- 
habitants), of which the statistical and geographical particulars have already 
been given abova It comprises the north-western extremity of the grand- 
duchy of Tuscany. Lucca became in the middle ages a fee of the Oemmn 
empire, and was ruled under this sovereignty by various families. But in 
1870 it purchased its independence from the emperor Charles lY., and since 
it was a republic, first with a democratic, but since the years 1480 and 1556 
with an aristocratic constitution. Lucca continued to be a republic until the 
year 1805, when Napoleon appointed his brother-in-law, Baochiochi, prince of 
Piombino, hereditary president of Lucca, and thus transformed the republic 
into a kind of monarchy. In 1815 it was transformed into a duchy, end the 
widow of the hereditary prince of Parma (see History of Tuscany) invested 
with it She died in 1824, and was succeeded by her son, the now (since 
1847) reigning duke of Parma (see History of Parma). Since the end of the 
year 1847 the dnchy of Lucca b annexed to the grand-duchy of Tuscany (see 
above). It contains the following places : Luooa, the capital and former resi- 
dence of the duke, near the Serchio, 12 miles north-north-east of Pisa, with 
an extensive and richly-decorated ducal palace, 22 churches (among them a 
Gothic cathedral reared in the 11th century), various manuiactoriea, and 
25,000 inhabitantSL The famous mineral baths of Lucca are in the neighbor- 
ing towns of BcLgnij Bagno alia Villa^ and Ponis a Seraglio. Other towns 
of the duchy are : Capofinori (with 8,000 inhabitants), Borgo (with 2,000 in- 
habitants), Camajore (with 4,000 inhabitants), and Viareggio (a maritime 
town, with 6,500 inhabitants). 



ITALY. W 

states of the Ohorch. 



VL— THE STATES OF THE CHURCH 

Aaxa: 17,280 square miles. 
Population : 2,970,000 inhafutaDta 

The territory forming the States of the Church, or the Pope- 
dom, occupies the centre of Italy, extending from the western 
coast of the peninsula to its eastern coast, and northward up to 
the mouths of the Po. The chief river of the Popedom is the 
7%ber. In the vicinity of Rimini, between Ancona and Ravenna, 
is the little river of ImsOj or l/so, emptying into the Adriatic 
Sea. It is the same rivulet which anciently was so renowned by 
the name of Rubicon. About the mountains of the States of 
the Church, see Introduction, ^ 7, d. Near the mouths of the Po, 
and along the high road between Rome and Naples, are extensive 
marshes exhaling bad air ; they are known by the names of Valli 
di Comacchio and Pontine marshes. 

The soil is generally good and fertile, but only in some parts 
of the country the agriculture is conducted with skill and dili- 
gence. The annual produce in grains is on an average computed 
at about 615,500 quarters of wheat, 295,600 quarters of maize, 
20,000 quarters of oats, and 11,200 quarters of barley. Suffi- 
cient corn for homo consumption is seldom raised throughout the 
country. The produce of the richest lands is only to the advan- 
tage of the clergy and nobility, while by far the most of the pub- 
lic charges press heavily upon the farmer. With the money got 
by the sale of his fruits, wines, olive-oil, hemp, flax, and silk, the 
farmer pays his debts, contracted beforehand, his taxes and 
necessaries of life. The numerous holidays and pilgrimages, 
jointly with the warm climate, are seducing the people into indo- 
lence, the more so as in many convents the poor can have their 



188 EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 



states of ttM Chareh: daana, Betnlar and Eoelesiafldcal. 

daily scanty food for nothing. NeTertheless a good deal of the 
population would starve but for their frugality, and the plenty 
and cheapness of a great variety of fruits. Though the rivers^ 
lakes, and coasts afford great facilities for the fisheries, yet these 
are by no means a great object of pursuit ; and as there are an- 
nually about 160 days of abstinence on which only fish meals 
are allowed, great quantities of dried fish are to be imported 
from foreign countries. The commerce in general is of do great 
nee, and the imports are far exceeding the exports. Thus, 
for inst^ce, in Civita Veochia, the only seaport on the western 
coast of the country, the imports for the year 1842 were valued. 
at $1,742,000, while the exports were only valued at §588,000. 
This being the actual state of things, the manu&ctures are, witli 
few exceptions, in a backward state. 

The nation is divided into four classes : the clergy, nobility, 
burghers, and farmers. The nobility comprises princes and 
dukes belonging to collftteral lines of the popes, the soHsalled 
senatorial nobility, or Roman aristocracy, and the lower degrees 
of nobility. The highest state offices are generally occupied by 
the cardinals, and most of the other public offices either by pre* 
lates or nobles. 

The Boman Catholic is of course the established church, which 
in this country is governed by 6 archbishops and 72 bishops. 
In 1847 there were, moreover, 53,000 secular and regular olergy- 
men, 1,824 monasteries, and 612 nunneries. Austins. Bama- 
bites, Benedictines, Camaldulenses, Capuchins, Carmelites, Cis- 
tercians, CoBlestians, Cordelians, Dominicans, Jesuits, Minims, 
Philippines, Becollectians, Somascians, Trinitarians. Theatins, 
etc. — all these religious orders are to be found in the States of 
the Church. As for the rest, all other religions are tolerated. 
In Bome are 8,000, and in Anoona 5,000 Jews. 

There are 7 universities : at Bologna (see History of Bniope, 



ITALT. 1S9 

m » I II I I I » I I I ■■■ ■ 

States of the Church: UBly«nltte»— GoTemmeat. 

^ 17,/; this Qniversity was in 1841 freqaented by 560 stadents), 
nt Rome (founded in 1248, and in 1841 with 680 stndenta), 
at Ferrara (founded in 1264, and in 1841 with 200 students), at 
Perugia (founded in 1307, and in 1841 with 210 students), at Ma- 
eereUa (founded in 1548, and in 1841 with 320 students), at Fermo 
(founded in 1589, and in 1841 with 235 students), and at Came- 
rino (founded in 1727, and in 1841 with 200 students). More- 
over, the clergy numbers many learned men, distinguished for 
their attsdnments in literature and science. Nevertheless the 
means of education in general are very deficient, and the mass 
of the people grossly ignorant. That Rome is the chief seat 
of fine arts, and at the same time noted for the value of its libra- 
ries, is universally known. 

The form of government is an elective monarchy. The States 
of the Church are ruled by the pape^ who is the head of the 
Catholic church, and is invested with absolute (although at pres- 
ent somewhat modified) power, both spiritual and temporal. He 
is elected out of the college of the cardinals (whose number is 
fixed at 70). The reigning pope, Fiw /X (previous to his elec- 
tion, Jos. Maria, Count Mastai Ferreti, archbishop of Imola, bom 
on the 13th of May, 1792, at Sinigaglia), was elected on the 16th 
of June, 1846. 

The public revenue was lately estimated at about $9,000,000, 
and the expenditure at nearly $0,800,000, thus a deficit of 
$800,000. The public debt is computed at $34,000,000. The 
clerical revenues (for dispensations, taxes from the property left 
by clergymen, etc.), which still in the last century amounted to 
more than $650,000 per annum, fall at present short of $300,000. 
The army numbered 12,669 men with 1,382 horses at the end of 
the year 1844. Besides these there were two regiments of 
Swiss, numbering 4,100 men. The navy consists of some small 
vessels. 

6* 



180 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT 

states or the Choreh : Wmorf. 

There are the following orders of honor : — 1. The ordtr of St. 
Gregory the Great, instituted in 1832. 2. The order of St, John 
the Baptist, also called the order of Christ, instituted in 1319. 
3. The order of the golden spur^ instituted in 1559. 

Eistory. — ^The pope, as ruler of the States of the Church, is ioTested with 
temporal, and as the head of the Catholic church, with spiritual power. We 
shall first spedk of the latter. In the days of the apostles the Christiaa 
church was goyemed hj seniors (presbyters), superintendents (bishops), and 
deacons, under the direction of the apostles. In the course of time it became 
the custom to select one of the seniors or superintendents, who by way of 
eminence was called bithopt and had a decisiFe Tote in the afibirs of the 
church community. About the middle of the third oentui^ the bishops of 
Rome, Carthage, Alexandria, Antiochia, and other principal cities of the Ro- 
man empire, began to enjoy higher credit than those of the remaining dio- 
ceses. At a later period the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, 
and Jerusalem, were called patriarchs^ and Rome being still reyered as the 
former metropolis of the Roman empire, the bishop or patriarch of Rome 
began to exercise more and more a kind of supremacy, until in the year 607 
Boniface 111. assumed the papal title for the first time. Thus the spiritual 
power of the pope, as head of the Catholic church, dates from this period 
For a long time, the popes of Rome had authority only in matters of religion, 
but in the 9th century and after the death of Charlemagne, they began to 
daim the authority of God*s agents or vicegerents on earth ; and towards the 
end of the 11th century Oregwry VII. (1073-1085) established the formal 
pririlege of the pope to dispose freely of temporal crowns and kingdoma 
He and seyeral of his successors exercised this right on the largest scale, ontil 
^iist in the beginning of the 14th century, King Philip IV. of France, an^l 
then above all the reformation in the 16th century, put an end to this usurpa- 
lioa (See History of Europe, § 17, and h) The temporal power of the 
pope dates ih>m the year 755, when Pepin the Little, king of the Franks, 
wrested the so-called exarchate (comprising, among others, the cities and 
towns of Ravenna, Forli, Frosinone, Velletri, and Rieti) from the Lombards 
and gave it to the holy See. His son, Charlemagne, enlarged this territory 
considerably. In the 11th century the duchy of Benevento, and in the 12th 
the duchy of Spoleto and part of the mark (margraviate) of Anoona, etc, 
were added by way of donation. The city of Rome did not become eabjeet 



ITALY. 181 

EMatM of tiie Cbarah: GeograpUoal DItIiIob. 



to the papal power until in 1216. In the year 12*78 the oountj of 
(in the French proyinoe of Prorenoe) was, by I^ing Philip lY. of France, 
ceded to the popes, who in 1848 porchaeed the city of Avignon (quite near 
to y enaisein) for 80,000 gold florins. In the 16th century Bologna, the dnchy of 
Ferrara, and the remaining part of the mark of Ancona, and in the 17th cen- 
tury the duchies of Urbino and Castro were acquired. In this way the 
States of the Church in Italy were gradually enlarged to that extent which 
they have now. Only Avignon and Venaissin, of which the Frendi took 
possession in 1790, were lost foreyer ; while the Italian territories wrested 
firom the Popedom by the French and Napoleon in the years 1797, 1808, and 
1809 (in the last-named year the pope, then Pius VIL, was completely de- 
prived of his temporal power), were restored by the detenmnation of the 
eongress of Vienna in 1815. 

Since the year 1832 the States of the Church are divided into 
21 provinces, of which 13 are styled Delegations^ and those of 
Bologna, Ferrara, Bavenna, Urbino-Pesaro, Forli, and Yelletri 
are styled Legations, while the province of Rome hears the name 
of Comarca^ and that of Loretto the appellation of Commissariai. 
In an historical relation the legation of Yelletri, the oomaroa di 
Roma, the delegations of Frosinone and Rieti, and the legations 
of Ravenna and Forli, comprise the above-mentioned exarchate^ 
given to the holy see in 755, or the ancient duchy of Rome and 
the Romagna, The delegations of Civita Yecchia and Yiterbo 
comprise the so-called estates oj Matilda, which were given to the 
popes in 1077 and 1102 by the margravine Matilda of Tuscany. 
The delegations of Spoleto, Camerino, and Perugia, comprise the 
ancient duchy of Spoleto (see above). The legation of Bologna 
comprises the ancient Bolognese, or the city of Bologna and its 
territory. The delegations of Ancona and Macerata, jointly with 
the commissariat of Loretto, comprise the ancient Mark of Ancona. 
The delegations of Fermo and Ascoli comprise the ancient 
Mark of Fermo, acquired in the 16th century. The legation of 
Fenara comprises the ancient duchy of Fermo, acquired in 1598 ; 



182 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



atatwortlie Choroh: BtaiMles. 



and the legation of Urbino and Pesaro oomprises the anoient 
dtichyof UrHnOj acquired in 1631. 

1. The eomarca di Roma oontams: Rom, the capital of the States of the 
Church, and reaideDoe of the pope, on the Tiber, at 18 milea distance from ita 
mouth, had, according to the cenauB of 1847, a population of 176,888 inhabi- 
tants, ezdusire of Jews, whose number was computed at 8,000. That Rome 
was once the capital of the Roman empire, is universally known; it bad then, 
or at least in the days of the Emperor Augustus, a population of 2,000,000 
inhabitants, and was 60 miles in circumference. Though now much decayed, 
and a great part of it in ruins, it is still one of the most interesting dties in 
the world, and is noted for its diurdies, palaces, oolumna, arches, and other 
monuments of splendid architecture, among which are the Coliseum (a fast 
amphitheatre for 82,000 spectators, built in the days of the Emperor Titus), 
the colwnn of Tkt^an, the arches of Titos, Septimus Severus, etc. Among 
the 864 churches of the city, ranks first St Petet^t^ the largest dmrcfa in the 
world (it was nearly 200 years in building, and not before the year 1626 
completely finished : it is 666 feet long, and 284 feet wide, and its magnificent 
cupola rises to the height of 408 feet). The Vaiican is the largest palace in 
the world : it is 1,080 feet long, and contains 4,422 saloons, halls, and apart- 
ments, moreover the most valuable library in Europe, and the finest works of 
Raphael and Michael Angela The popes have usually resided here in the win 
ter montfaa Other palaces are, the Quirinal (the residence of the pope in the 
summer season), the vast palace of Barberiui, the palaces of Faraese, Ooloona^ 
Borghese, etc. The number of literary institutions, academies of fine arts, 
etc, in Rome, is very great In the year 1846, there were at Rome 404 
foreign artists, of whom 14 were from America. The environs of Rome, 
comprising the ancient Latium, are at present known by the name of the 
Ccanpagna di Bama. Tivou, the ancient Tibur, a town on the Teverone, 18 
miles cast-north-east of Rome, with a beautiful cataract (60 feet in height)^ 
numerous remains of antiquity, and 6,800 inhabitants. Osha, a maritime 
town at the mouth of the Tiber, was once the seaport of Rome, but it is now 
almost deserted, co account of the bad air of the surroimdiog marshes. Other 
towns of the Campagoa di Roma are : Albano (with 6,600 inhabitants), Custel 
Gandolfo (with a palace of the pope, who resides here some weeks in the 
summer season), Fraaeati (fonnerly IStseulvm, with 4,000 inhabitants), Po/m- 
trina (formerly Pramette, with 2,600 inhabitants), Subiaeo (with 6,000 inhab- 



ITALT. in 

SuUm uf the Chnich: Blattittos. 

iUntsX aod JTumtctno (with 600 infaahitaDts). 2. The legation of Velletri, or 
JfariUima, coutaios: Yieluetri, chief town, south-eastward and 28 luiles 
distant firom Rome, with many remains of antiquity, and 12,000 inhabitants. 
TsR&ACWA (the ancient Afucur)^ a town near the coast and the frontier of 
Naples, amidst the Pontine marshes, with 8,000 iohabitants. Cori and Horma, 
towns with respectively 4,000 and 2,000 inhabitants. 8. The delegaium of 
Frotinone contains : FaosiNONs, chief town on the Cosa, 46 miles east-south- 
east of Rone, with 7,500 inhabitants. To this delegation belongs likewise 
the district of JPonieeorvo, northward and 23 miles distant from Gaeta, and 
entirely surrounded by the Neapolitan territory. It occupies a tract of 43 
square miles, has a population of more than 7,000 inhabitants, and belonged 
m the period from the year 1806 to 1810, to the late king of Sweden, 
Bernadotte. The town of Pontboobto has a population of 6,000 inhabitanta 
4. The dtUgatian of Rieti contains : Risti, chief town on the Velino, north- 
eastward and 37 miles distant from Rome, with 12,600 inhabitants. Magliono^ 
a town, with 5,500 inhabitanta 5. The delegation of SpolHo contains : Spolktp, 
chief town at the foot of the Apennines, and on the Mareggia, crossed by a 
handsome bridge, with a magnificent cathedral, an aqueduct built by the 
ancient Romans, and 8,500 inhabitants. Nami and Tcmi^ towns, with re- 
spectiyely 5,500 and 8,500 inhabitants 6. The delegation of Civita Vecehia 
contains : Civita Veocsia, a fortified maritime town, and next to Ancona, the 
chief seaport of the States of the Church, 37 miles north-north-west of Ostia, 
or the mouth of the Tiber, with 9,500 inhabitants. Other towns of this dele- 
gation are : Tolfa (with 2,800 inhabitants), Cometo (with 3,800 inhabitants), 
MontaltOy Canino, and Ponte Bodio, 7. The delegation of Viterho contains: 
YmcaBO, chief town at the foot of Mount Cimino, northward and 46 miles 
distant from Rome, with 15,000 inhabitants. Montefiasoons, a town on the 
Lake Bolsena, is noted for its excellent wines, and has 4,500 inhabitants. 
Other towns of this delegation are: Aequapendente (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
Honeiglione (with various manufactories), and BoUetia (with curious remains 
of antiquity. 8. The delegation of Orvieto contains : Obvieto, chief town on 
the Paglia, northward and 18 miles distant from Viterbo, with a beautiful 
Gothic cathedral, excellent wines, and 8,000 inhabitants. Civita Caeiellana, 
a town, with 4,500 inhabitants. 9. The delegation of Perugia contains : 
PsaUGiA, a city between the Trasunenian Lake and the Tiber, northward 
and 88 miles distant from Rome, with several remarkable churches, a unirer- 
fiity, and 82,000 inhabitants. Asszsi, a town renowned as the birth-place of 



IM EUROPE, PAST AIH) PRESENT. 

Slates of the Church: Slatlttici. 

St FnnciBcuB, author of the Frandscan order, with 6,000 inhabitanta. Oflier 
towns of this delegation are : Foligno (with 16,000 inhabitants), 8pdlo (with 
4,000 inhabitants), Ctta di CatUllo (with 6,000 inhabitants), Nocera (with 
8,000 inhabitants), and Cita deila PU»e, 10. The delegation of Atcoli, along 
the coast of the Adriatic, contains : Aaoou, chief town on the Trento, and 
near the Neapolitan frontier, with a citadel, and 9,000 inhabitants. Other 
towns are : Montalto and Bipa Tratuone, 11. The delegation ofFermo con- 
tains : Fzaico, chief town, near the Adriatic, with 20,000 inhabitants, a uni- 
yersity, and the little seaport Porto Fermo. 12. The deUgaiion of Camerino 
contains: Camerino, chief town, in the Apennines, with a uniirersity, and 
7,500 inhabitants. 13. The delegation of Maeerata contains : Macerata, chief 
town on the high road between Rome and Ancona, with a unirersity, and 
18,000 inhabitants. Tolsmtino, a town on the Chienti, south-westward and 
80 miles distant from Ancona, with 8,500 inhabitants, is noted for a trea^ of 
peace concluded here in 1797 between France and the pope, and for a battle 
in 1815, where King Murat, of Naples, was defeated by the Austrians. 
FahrianOf a town, with 7,000 inhabitants. 14. The Commiesariat of Loreto 
contains: Loreto, or Loretto, a town near the Adriatic, southward and 1$ 
miles distant from Ancona, has 8,000 inhabitants, and has, for many hundred 
years, been renowned for its holy shrine, or a little cottage, in which the holy 
Tirgin is said to haye lived, having been transported by angels from Gali- 
lee to Dalmatia, and thence to Loreta Iliis cottage, called Casa Santa, 
is in the interior of a splendid church. Loreto has, therefore, long been a 
place of great resort for pilgrims, but the number has of late decreased 
16. The delegatixm of Ancona (about the mark of Ancona, see p. 181) contains: 
Ancona, a fortified dty and chief seaport of the Popedom on the Adriatic^ 
north-eastward and 80 miles distant from Rome, with very important trade 
with the Levant, an excellent pier built in the days of the Roman emperor 
Trajan, a remarkable cathedral, and 82,000 inhabitants. Jeri and OeimOy 
towns, with respectively 6,000 and 7,000 inhabitants. 16. The legation of 
UHnno and Peearo contains : Urbino, diief town at the foot of the Apennines, 
westward and 46 miles distant from Ancona, is noted as the birth-plaoe of 
Raphael (bom in 1488, in a house which still exists), and has 14,000 inhabi- 
tants. Sinioaoua, a fortified maritime town on the Adriatic, is celebrated for 
its annual &ir, and has 11,600 inhabitants. Other towns and cities of this 
logatian are: Fano (with 17,000 inhabitants), Fouombrone (with 6,400 inhab- 
itants), Gvhbio (with 4,000 inhabitants), and Ptearo (with 16,000 inhafaitUktaX 



ITALY. Itt 

Stales of tbe Chureh: BtalMlct. 

17. Tlie legation of Forti contains : Forti, chief town in a fertile country, 
north-westward and 88 miles distant from Ancona, with a remarkable cathe- 
dral, and 17,000 inhabitants. Rixxni, a maritime town at the mouth of the 
Marecchia, with seyeral fine chmxihes and well-coneerred remains of antiquity, 
and 18,000 inhabitants. Cbbxna, a town on the Savio, with 16,000 inhabi- 
tants. 18. The legation of Ravenna contains: Ravenna, chief town in a 
marshy country near the Adriatic, north-westward and 87 miles distant from 
Ancooa, with several interesting remains of antiquity and edifices reared in 
the days of Honorius, Theoderic, etc, and 26,000 inhabitants. Ravenna was 
the residence of the last Roman emperors, of some Gothic king?, and of the 
exarch, or governor, of the Greek emperors. The seaport of Ravenna is 
called Porto Cortini, Other towns of this legation are : Cervia (with 4,000 
inhabitants), Faema (with 20,000 inhabitants), and Mola (with 9,000 inhabi- 
itants). 19. The legation of Bologna contains : Bologna, next to Rome the 
most important dty of the States of the Church, in a romantic country, south- 
eastward and 28 miles distant from Modena, and northward 46 miles distant 
from Florence, with a magnificent cathedral, and several other remarkable 
churches and palaces, a university, and a great variety of other literary insti- 
tutions, and 75,000 inhabitants. Cento and Medicincty towns, with respectively 
4,000 and 5,000 inhabitants. 20. The legation of Ferrara contains: Fkbrara, 
a ci^ on a branch of the Po, in a marshy, unwholesome country, 27 miles 
northruorth-east of Bologna, with a citadel, a vast Gothic castle, once the 
residence of the princes of Este (see History of Modena), a university, and 
28,000 inhabitants. Comacohio, a fortified town amidst the marshy Valli di 
Comacchio (see above), with 6,000 inhabitants. Fonie di Lago Seuro, a town 
on the Po, with 5,000 inhabitants. 21. The delegation of Benevento comprises 
the ancient duchy of the same name, is entirely surrounded by Neapolitan 
territory, and situated north-eastward and about 82 miles distant from the 
city of Naples. It occupies a tract of 89 square miles, and has a population 
of 25,000 inhabitants. The duchy of Benevento was created in 571 by the 
Lombards, and had a fiir greater extent than now. In 851 it was divided 
into three principalities, of Benevento, Snlemo^ and Capua. The Emperor 
Henry IIL gave Benevento to the holy See in 1058, and since that time it has 
formed a constituent part of the States of the Church In the period from 
the year 1806 to 1815, the French minister Talleyrand was in possession of 
this prindpelity, whose capital, Benevento, has a remarkable cathedral, many 
interesting remains of antiquity, and 15,000 Inhabitants 



It6 EUROPE, PAST AHD PRESENT. 



Bapablic of 8ao MariiMw 



Vn— THE REPITBLIO OP SAN MARINO. 

Akxa : 82 square mfles. 
Population : 8,200 inhabitants. 

The republic of San Marino is the smallest of all Baropean 
states with regard to the extent (for with regard to the popula- 
tion, the principality of Liechtenstein is inferior to it), is entirely 
surrounded by papal territory, and situated between Ancona and 
Florence. It is at the same time the oldest republic in Europe, 
dating its origin from the year 469. In this year St Marinus, or 
Marino, originally a mason from Dalmatia, retired to a solitary 
mountain here, and led a hermit's life. He soon became famous 
as a holy man, and the proprietress of the mountain, a pious 
lady, gave it to him. A great number of devouts joined him, 
and in this way the little state came into existence. The consti- 
tution is partly aristocratic, partly democratic. The executire 
power is vested in two Capitani reggenti, who are elected only 
for the period of six months. The amount of the revenue, and 
of the expenditure, is about $6,000. The regular military con- 
sists of only 24 men and 7 commissioned and non-commissioned 
officers, but the militia comprises 850 men. Besides the capital, 
there are only four villages in the country. 

San Marino, the capital and the Beat of government) is ntoated on the 
above-mentioDed mountain, and has 5 churches (in one <^ them is the tomb 
of San Marino), 8 convents, and 6,000 inhabitantsL Hie 4 viUagea allnded to 
are : SerrtmaiU, FaeianOy Aequaviv€it and Fe^lio. 



ITALY. x#t 

Kingdom of the Two Bielltoi. 



VIIL— THE KINGDOM OP THE TWO SICJLIES. 

Abjea : 42,110 squiure miles. 
Population : S^StS^OOO mhabitaat8. 

This state, oommoDly called the kingdom of Naples^ comprises 
the whole of Lower Italy, together with the island of Sicily and 
some neighboring isles. 

With the exception of 80,000 Greek Christians and 2,000 
Jews, the inhabitants are Catholics, under the church authority 
of 16 archbishops and 77 bishops. In 1842 the whole kingdom 
numbered 32.360 priests, 12,751 monks, and 10,056 nuns. 

About the Neapolitan Apennines and Abruzzi, the Crran Sassu 
^Italia and Mt. Vesuvius on the continent, and Mt. Elna^ etc., on 
^ the island of Sicily, see Introduction, § 7, d. In the Abruzzi is 
the lake cf Celano, about 15 miles long and 5 miles wide. Be- 
sides the VoUurno and Garigliano (see Introduction, § 10), there 
are no rivers worth mentioning. 

The climate is in most parts of the country very delightful, 
and even during the winter months the trees are covered with 
green leaves. On the island of Sicily the sugar-cane and other 
tropical products thrive very well. The wine which grows in 
the environs of Syracuse is excellent, like that on Mt. Vesuvius, 
known by the name of Laorymae Christi (see Introduction to 
Italy). On account of the peerless fertility of the soil in Sicily, 
wheat is raised here in such quantities, that in some years it has 
been exported at the value of 4,500,000 Neapolitan ducats ; not- 
withstanding that the agriculture is in a very backward state 
throughout the kingdom. Besides wheat and wine, the staples 
are olive-oil, silk, and sulphur. That the Neapolitan horses are 
of a very fine breed, has already been mentioned in the Introduc- 
tion to Italy. The kingdom of Naples is the only country in 



188 EIJROFEp PAST ASJ) PRESENT. 



The Two SleiUef^Edacalion, etc. 



Earope where the porcopine is met with. Mannfacturee have of 
late improved, both on the continent and in Sicilj. 

With regard to the means of education, there are 4 universi- 
ties: at iVa^/«5 (founded in 1224, and in 1841 frequented bj 
1,550 students), at Catania (founded in 1445, and in 1841 with 
600 students), at Palermo (founded in 1447, and in 1841 with 735 
students), and at Messina (founded in 1838, and in 1841 with 60 
students). Moreover there are Ijceums at Salerno, Bari, Catan- 
garo, and Aquila, 4 gymnasiums in the otj of Naples, and in each 
province at least one gymnasium. The number of Latin schools 
amounts to 780 ; and in the continental part of the kingdom 
there are 2,130 common schools. (About the terms of gymna- 
sium, etc., see the note annexed to the Introduction of Portugal.) 

The government is almost absolute, as it was before the last 
revolution, which in 1849 has been completely suppressed. 

The public reventie and expenditure is computed at about 
26,000,000 Neapolitan ducats annually ; and the public debt at 
86,000,000 ducats. 

The army numbers on the peace footing 60,000, and on the 
war footing nearly 100.000 men, besides several regiments of 
Swiss. The Tiavy consists of 1 ship of the line, 3 frigates, 4 
sloops of war, and 4 smaller vessels. 

There are the following orders of honor : — 1. The order of Si, 
January, institviied in 1738, in one class. 2. The order of St. FW- 
dinand, instituted in 1 800, in 3 classes. 3. The order of St. Con- 
staTitiu, conferred by the king in his quality as heir of the house 
of Farnese (compare Parma). 4. The order of the two Sicilies, 
instituted in 1808, in 3 classes. 5. The order of Francis the First, 
instituted in 1829 by King Francis I., in 5 classes. 

Sittory. — ^Tbe greatest part of the present kingdom of Naples was at an 
early period occupied hy Greek oolonists, and for this reason called Oreat* 



ITALY. 1S9 

Kingdom of Kaplet: History. 



Qreeee (see History of Italy). At a Utter period the Carthaginians took poa- 
aessioo of some parts of Sicily, aud vhen in 212 B. G. the Romans conquered 
tliia island, the continental part of Magna Oreda had long since been subdued 
by them. After the fidl of the Western Empire in the 5th century, Naples 
and Sicily became a prey of Germanic tribes, especially of the Ostrogoths 
Since the year 6S5 Lower Italy and Sicily were under the sway of the Greek 
emperors, until in 842 the island of Sicily, and soon after Calabria too, was 
conquered by the Arabt, Meanwhile, the Greek governors of sereral other 
parts of Lower Italy had made themselves independent. Greeks and Arabs 
now combated for the possession of Lower Italy, and finally the German 
emperors partook in this struggle and conquered the principalities of Bene- 
vento and Capua, and even part of Calabria. In 1016 Norman warriors 
firom Normandy came accidentally to Salerno, where they defeated the 
Arabs, and were richly rewarded for it by the Christian inhabitants The Nor- 
mans now remained in the country, others of their coimtrymen joined them, 
and thus they established themselves here permanently. Their valiant 
nders belonged to the famous fiEunily of Hauteville, and the conquests of 
the Normans had, before the end of the 11th century, extended to Sicily 
(since the year 1061), and tlie greatest part of Lower Italy. Roger IL 
of Hauteville was crowned by the pope as king of the 7koo Sicilies, yet 
at the same time suffered himself to be enfeoffed with this kingdom by 
the holy father. Towards the end of the 12th century the male line of 
the hotise of Hauteville became extinct with William IIL, and the only 
rightful heiress of the kingdom was Constaniia, daughter of William III. 
She was married to the German emperor, Henry YL, of the house of Ho- 
henstaufen. When she died in 1198, she bequeathed the kingdom to her 
BOO, the &mou8 emperor Frederic II. of Hohenstaufen, who during his reign 
was' ever at variance with the holy see. Alx>ut the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury the pope, filled with hatred against the house of Hohenstaufen, invested 
Charles of Anjou (brother of King Louis IX. of France) with the kingdom 
of the two Sicilies. Charles took possession of it, but lost the island of Sicily 
in 1282, when the French were exterminated there by the inhabitants. This 
massacre is known in history by the name of the Sicilian Vespers, The 
Sicilians now elected Peter III. of Aragon (who was married to a princess 
of the house of Hohenstaufen) their king, while the continental part of the 
kingdom continued to be under the sway of the house of Anjou until the 
year 1442, when Johanna IL, the last heiress, died. Naples and Sicily were 



140 EUROPB, PAST Aim PRESENT. 

Kingdom of Nftples: HMory mmL Stirfiatictu 

now united Bgain by King Alphonso V. of Sicily and Aragon. He sobse* 
quently invetfted his natural son Ferdinand with the onntineotal part» bat in 
1608 both parts of the kingdom were united permanently. Since that time 
the two Sicilies continued to form a constituent part of the Spanish kingdom, 
until by the treaties of peace, concluded at Utrecht and Rastadt in 1718 and 
1714, the house of Austria became possessed of them ^see History of Spain). 
Bat in 1734 tliey were wrested from it again by the Spaniards, and the Span- 
ish prince, Charles, was acknowledged as king of the two Siciliea, When in 
1759 Charles ascended the Spanish throne, he ceded the kingdom of Naples 
to his third son, Ferdinand^ with complete 60?ereignty for him and his de- 
scendants. Towards the end of the last century the French conquered the 
continental part of the kingdom, and in 1806 Napoleon a^qiointed first his 
brother Joseph, and in 1808 his brother-in-law Murat king of this part, while 
Ferdinand, assisted by the Englisli, kept possession of the island of Sicily. 
Li 1816 Ferdinand was reinstated into the whole of his kingdom. He died 
in 1825, and was succeeded by his son, Francis I., who died in 1880, and was 
succeeded by his son, the at present reigning king, FenUiMnd IL (bora 
in 1810). 

The Neapolitan continent is divided into 15 provinces, of which 
the section Terra di Lavoro comprises 4 (Naples, Terra di Lavoro 
propor, Principato citeriore, and Principato ulteriore), the sectioa 
Abruzzi comprises 3 (Abruzzo ulteriore I., Abrozzo ulteriore II., 
and Abruzzo oiteriore), the section Apulia oomprises 4 (Molise, 
Capitanata, Terra di Bari, and Terra di Otranto), and the section 
Calabria comprises 4 (Basilicata, Calabria citeriore, Calabria 
ulteriore I., and Calabria ulteriore IL). The island of Sicily is 
divided into 7 wd^ or provinces. 



' ITALT. 141 

Kiaffdom of N m fk m N e«potiUm Omthimt, 



X-THS NEAPOLITAN OONTINSNT. 

Abiba : 81,656 square miles. 
PoPVLATioN : 6,S28,000 inhabitaota. 

1. Thra di Lawra^ compneing : Naflbb (in ancient ages called Parthenope\ 
the eapHal of the vhole kingdom, and residence of the king, on a beantifnl 
hay of the same name, near the base of Mount Vesnyius, south-eastward and 
110 miles distant from Rome, is the largest dty in Italy, and bad, aooording 
to the census of 1845, a population of 400,818 inhabitants (among them were 
8,401 priests, 1,764 monks, and 1,446 nuns). The houses have, for the most 
port, five or six stories, with flat roofs decorated with mrangeiy and flowers. 
There are many palaces, and some of them have been reared in the days of 
the Normans and Hohenstaofen. The theatre of San Carlo is the largest 
opera-house in the world. Among the 122 churches, the most remarkable is 
the magnificent cathedral where the pretended blood of St Januaiy is pre- 
served. The number of convents in the dty amounts to 149. Besides a 
university, there are many other Uterary institutions. Among the inhabi- 
tants are about 80,000 Laaaroni, or people of the lower dasses, who seldom 
dwell in a house, and only do any work (as porters, day-laborers, etc) when 
they are compelled to it by hunger. The environs of Naples are highly 
interesting by the numerous remains of antiquity, among whidi are those of 
JSeradaneum and JPompefiy that were buried under the lava and ashes of 
Vesuvius in 79 A. D. Near these andent towns, digged out since the last 
century, are situated the town of Portioi, with a royal palace and 7,000 
inhabitants, and the large village of Henna, with a mansion of the prince of 
Salerno, and 9,000 inhabitants. Other towns of ihis province are: Ihrre 
deWAnnunxiata (with 9,000 inhabitants), CasteUamare (with 15,000 inhalH- 
tants), and Sorrento (with 5,000 inhabitants). At the entrance of the bay of 
Naples are situated the following Udands : PaoaoA (witli a population of 
18,000 inhabitants), Ischia (very fertile, and much resorted to for bathing; 
its population amounts to 24,000 inhabitants), Capri (with 4,000 inhabitMits; 
the Roman emperor Tiberius lived here many years ; immense flodcs of quails 
are caught here annually), Niaida (beautiful like a garden), and Pwrgatmro, 
Cabsbta, or Coterto NuovOf chief town of the province of Terra di Lavoro 



14S EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

KlBgdom of NaplM— Neapolitan Oontlneat. 

proper, romaotically situated, nortbwBrd aod 18 miles distant from Naplen^ 
with a most splendid royal palace, and 5,000 inhahitanta. Gasta, one of the 
stroi^est fwtresses in the woild, on the bay of the same name, north-westward 
and 42 miles distant from Naples. Close by is situated the town of Ghi^ta, 
with 16,000 inhabitants. Capua, a fortified town on the Vultomo^ northward 
and 18 miles distant from Nafdes, with a remarkable cathedral, and 8,500 
inhabitants. Momts Cassino, a celebrated Benedictine abbey, founded in 
528, on a steep hill, 46 miles north-north-west of Naples. Quite near is 
situated the town of San Oermano, with 6,000 inhabitants. Other towns ai 
this proyince are : Nola (with 9,000 inhabitants ; here died the Roman emperor 
Augustus), Piedimonte (with 5,000 inhabitants), Arpino (with 12,000 inhabi- 
tant^)^ Santa Maria Maggiore (with the remains of the ancient Capua, 
destroyed by the Arabs in 844; has a population of 9,000 inhabitants), 
Cajaxto (with a remarkable cathedral, and 4,000 inhabitants), Aeerra (with 
7,000 inhabitants), Averta (with a mad-house, and 16,000 inhabitants), Madr 
daloni (with 11,500 inhabitants), Fondi (with 6,000 inhabitants), Sena (with 
4,000 inhabitants), and Aquino (noted as the birth-place of the holy Thomas 
of Aquiuo). South-westward from Gadta are situated the Pontine^ or JPonmi 
ItUt, with rather few inhabitants. Salerno, chief town of the province of 
Prindpato dteriore, on the bay of the same name, 28 miles easteouth-east 
of Naples, with an ancient cathedral, where Pope Gregory VII. is buried, 
yarious manufactories, aod 12,000 inhabitants. (About the once-renowned 
medical faculty, or seminary of Salerno, see History of Europe, § 17, /.) 
Amalfx, a town on the bay of Salerno, south-eastward and 23 miles distant 
from Naples, with 3,000 inhabitants. In the middle ages, Amalfi was ooe of 
the emporiums of Europe (see History of Europe, § 17). Other towns of 
this province are: Capaecio (with 2,000 inliabitants, and the ruins of the 
ancient town of Paettum), Ebcii (with 6,000 inhabitante), Campagna (with a 
beautiful cathedral, and 7,000 inhabitants), Diano (with 4,000 inhabitants). 
Cava (with 19,000 inhabitants), Samo (with 18,000 inhaUtants), and Noeera 
(with 7,000 inhabitants). Avxluno, chief town of the poTinoe of Prindpato 
ulteriore, at the foot of Mount Vergine, eastward and 28 miles distant frxmi 
Naples, is noted for its nuts, and has a population of 15,000 inhabitants^ 
Quite near are the Cauditdan Passes, known by the Ronum history. Other 
towns of this province are: Ariano (with 12,500 inhabitants), Solofra (with 
6,000 inhabitants), Peseo Pagano (with 4,000 inhabitants), drnxa (with 4,000 
inhabitants), MorUe/archio (with 6,000 inhabitants), Montefusco (with 3,000 



ITALY. 148 

Kingdom of Naples^Neapolttan CkMittoenL 

infaabitaiits), AtripaldOf or Atribaldo (with 5,C0O inhabitaiits), and Roeea San 
Fdiee (with 2,500 inhabitants). 

2. The sectioD of the Abruuiy oompriring the meet northerly part of the 
Neapolitan continent* contains : Tbramo, chief town of the province of Abruzzo 
nlteriore I., on the high road between Naples and Anoona, north-eastward 
and 88 miles dtstant from Rome, with a botanic garden, and 10,000 inhabi- 
tants. Teramo was in ancient ages called Interannnia^ and subsequently 
AhrwaOf hence the nomination of the AbruzzL Other towns of this proTince 
are : Atri (with 5,000 inhabitants), Civitdla del Tranto (with 2,000 inhabi- 
tants), JPenne, or Civita di Penne (with 10,000 mhabitaots), and Senariea 
(whose inhabitants are altogether nobles, and endowed with varioas prinleges). 
Aqotla, fortified capital of the province of Abruzxo ulteriore II., on the 
Atemo, soQth-westward and 28 miles distant from Teramo, belongs to the 
most industrious trading places of the kingdom, and has a population of 
14,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are : Sulmona (with 10,000 
inhabitants), Avexzano (with 6,000 inhabitants), Celano (with 2,200 inhabi- 
tants), Cvrita Ducale (with 10,000 inhabitants), and TagliaeoMzo (a small town 
sitoated south-westward and 28 miles distant from Aquila, and eastward and 
42 miles distant from Rome, noted for the battle in 1268, which the unhappy 
Conradin, of Hohenstaufen, lost against Charles of Anjou). Ghteti, or Civita 
M Chietit capital of the provdnce of Abruzzo citeriore, on the Pescara and 
near the Adriatic, northward and 101 miles distant from Naples, with a 
beautiful cathedral, and 14,000 inhabitant& From this town, formerly called 
Tkeaie, or Teaie, the monastic order of the Theatines has derived its name. 
Lanciano, the most important trading town of the Abruzzi, on the Feltrino, 
and quite near the Adriatic, with 15,000 inhabitants. Ortona a Mare, a town 
on the Adriatic, with 6,000 inhabitants. Peeeata, a fortified town on the river 
of the same name, and on the Adriatic, with 8,000, or, according to others^ 
only with 600 inhabitants. 

8. The section of Apulia (area: 9,861 square miles; population: 1,526,882, 
according to the census of 1844), comprising, exclusive the Abruzzi, the 
eastern half of tbe Neapolitan continent, and cootaming : Lkoce, capital of 
the provmoe of Terra di Otranto (wliich comprises the eastern great tongue 
of land of Italy), in a fertile plain, eastward and 207 miles distant from 
Naples, with 12 churches (among which is a remarkable cathedral), 8 con- 
vents, several higher schools, and 21,000 inhabitants. OraAirro, a fortified 
town at the strait of Otranto (entrance into the Adriatic Sea), with a citadel. 



IM EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Kingdom of NafilM— NoapoUtao OontlneBt. 

A remarkable cathedral, and 4^00 inhabitanta. BaiNoisi, the aneieni 3nmr 
thmutn (the oommon place of pasaing over to Dyrradiiuin on the opponte 
coast of Epirus), a maritime town on the Adriatic, 46 miles north-north-west 
of Otranto, with Roman antiquities, and 7,000 inhabitants (in the period of 
the crusades the population amounted still to 60,000 inhabitants). Takamto, a 
fortified town on a bay of the same name, with 8 churches, great salt-worlo, 
and 19,000 inhabitants. In the &th century B. 0. Taranto had a population of 
800,000 inhabitants. Gallipou, a fortified maritime town, on the bay of Ta- 
rantOk with very important trade in olire-oil, and 10,000 inhabitantB. BjlBI, 
fortified capital of the province of Terra di Bari, on the Adriatic, opposite to 
Gattaro in Dalmatia, with a renowned chapel to which pilgrims resort, and 21 ,000 
inhabitants. TaANi, a fortified maritime town on the Adriatic, with a beauti* 
ful ancient cathedral (whose steeple is one of the highest in Italy), and 16,000 
inhabitants. Other towns of this province are : Barleiia (with great salt- 
works, and 22,000 mhabitants), Molfetta (with 13,000 inhabitants), ThriiMn 
(with 12,000 inhabitanta), Ruvo (with 10,000 inhabitants), AUamura (with 
16,000 inhabitants), Monopoli (with 16,000 inhabitantB), Mola, surtmmed dS 
Bari (with 8,000 inhabitants), Giaoenazxo (with 6,000 inhabitants), Bitee^ 
(with 10,000 inhabitants), j^ttofito (with 16,000 inhabhantsX and Cano9a{iA 
the Ofimto^ with 4,000 inhabitants). In the vicinity of Ganosa is situated, 
106 miles east-north-east of Naples, and 193 miles east-south-east of Rome, 
the little town of CanM^ in ancient times called Caknax, so renowned for the 
victory Hannibal gained over the Romans in 216 B. 0. Foooia, capital of 
the province of Capitanata, on the Oervaro^ north-eastward and 88 miles dis- 
tant from Naples, with an annual ihir much resorted to, 20 churches, and 
26,000 inhabitants. San Sevkbo, formerly the capital of this province, with 
a medical foculty, and 18,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this ptovinoe are : 
Manfredania (with important commerce, and 6,000 inhabitants^ Lmeera (with 
8,000 inhabitants), Monte SanfAngdo (with 12,600 inhabitants), Ateoli, sur- 
named di Satrumo (with 9,000 inhabitants), ^oeino, (with 8,600 inhabitants), 
and Vietti (with 6,000 inhabitants). To the province of Capitanata bekmg 
also the 4 2Wmi^ta9» /i/m, or UoU d$ TWmttt, lying in the Adriatic Sea, 
but of which only two, viz. : San Nicola or Tremiti^ and Domtiio^ are in- 
habited. Cahpobasso, capital of the province of Molisa, 66 miles north- 
north-east of Naples with important corn-trade, and 9,000 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this province are: Itemia (with 6,000 inhabitants), Trhiwto (with 



ITALT. 145 

Kiogdom of Naples— Nnpolitaa Ouutl i i e tt t. 

8,000 inhftbitants), Bofano (with 2,600 inhabitants), Sepino (with 5,000 inhab- 
itaots), and A^ytume (with 7,000 inhabitants). 

4b The section of Calabria (area: 10,107 square miles; population: 
1,670,824 inhabitants, according to the census of 1844), comprising the west- 
ern half of the Neapolitan continent, and ooatainiug : Riooio, capital of the 
proTiDoe of Calabria nlteriore L (which comprises the most southern part of 
the western great tongue of land of Italy), on the straits of Messina and in 
an exceedingly fertile country, with 12 churches, various mannfkctories, very 
aetiTe trade and 20,000 inhabitanta. Other towns of this province are : G&raee 
(with 6,600 inhabitants), Seiglic (near the promontory which the ancients 
oalled Seyila, has a population of 4,600 inhabitants), Semknara (with 9,000 
inhabitants) and PalvU (with 6,600). Gatanzaho, capital of the province of 
Calabria ulterior II., northeastward and 74 miles distant from Reggio, with 
important trade in silk and olive-oil, and 13,000 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this province are: Monteleone (with 7,000 inhabitants), Nieastro (with 10,000 
inhabitants), SqutUaee (with 2,000 inhabitantsX Tropea (with 4,000 inhabitants), 
Coifrme (anciently Orotwi^ with 6,600 inhabitants), Santa Severina (anciently 
Sybercnay with 1,800 inhabitants), Pizxo (with 6,600 inhabitants ; here was 
Joachim Murat in Oct 1816 taken and shot), and SiUo (with important iron 
mines). Cosbii za, capital of the province of Calabria citeriore, in a romantic 
and fertile country, south-eastward and 165 miles distant from Naples, with 
a beautiful cathedral, and 16 other churches, an orphan asylum for 700 chil- 
dren, considerable trade in sQk, and 8,000 inhabitant& Quite near, in the bed 
of the little river of the BtBensio, lies buried Alaric I., king of the Visigoths, 
who died here in 410 A. D. , Other towns of this province are : Caurmo 
(with 7,000 inhabitants), Cattr&fnUan (with 6,000 inhabitanU), Corigliano 
(with 7,000 mhabitants), Ronano (with 8,600 inhabitants), AnuuUra (with 
S,600 mhabitants). Panda or Pacta (with 6,600 inhabitants ; the holy Frauds 
of Paula was bom here). Longdbuoo (with iron mines), and AUonumU (with 
salt mines). Potsnza, capital of the province of Basilicata (comprising the 
ancient Xiieanta), in the Apennines, 92 miles east-south-east of Naples, with 
10,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are: Matera (with 12,000 
inhabitants), Moniepeioao (with 5,000 mhabitants), Mdji (with a remarkable 
cathedral, and 8,000 inhabitants). Turn (with 6,000 inhabitants), Vmo$a (with 
4,600 inhabitants), Lagcnegro or Lagonero (with 6,600 inhabitants), Franea- 
vUta (with 12,000 inhabitantH), Aeererua (with 1,800 inhabitants), and Ber- 

naUa or Bemaldo (with 8,000 inhabitants). 

7 



146 Europe; past and present. 

Kingdom of N^>les— Island of SicU7. 



A—THE ISLAND OF SICILY. 

Abza : 10,564 square miles. 
Population : 2,050,000 inhabitants. 

This island is, as has already been mentioned, divided into 7 val, or pror- 
iooes, bearing the name of their respective chief towns. In the following de- 
Bcription we shall separate them from each other bj dashes. — Paleuco, 
capital of the whole island, and the seat of it? governor, on a small bay of the 
northern coast) 198 miles south-south-west of Naples, and westward and 124 
miles distant from Messina, is splendidly and regularly built, and has 60 
churches (among which are to be noted the magnificent Gothic cathedral. Si. 
Joseph's, and the church of the Capudiins, the latter remarkable for its vaults), 
a vast and ancient royal casUe, 8 abbeys and 71 other convents, a university, 
ond numerous other similar institutions, a great many mannfitctories, consider- 
aUe trade and commerce, and 180,000 inhabitants. The environs of Paleimo 
are adorned with numerous and magnificent villas. In the vicinity of the 
dty is situated the town of Monbbals or M<mtreaU^ with a splendid cathe- 
dral, and 14,000 inhabitants. In Monreale it was, where, on the 30th of 
March, 1282, the massacre of the French, or the Sicilian Vespers (see His- 
tory of the kingdom of the two Sicilies), commenced. Ban Martino, a cele- 
brated abbey of the Benedictines, in whose church is one of the greatest 
ojgans in Italy. Txemixi, a maritime town, with renowned hot spriqga, and 
19,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are: Cefalu (with 10,000 
inhabitantB), Oorle<me (with 16,000 inhabitants), CifuH (with 4,500 inhabi- 
tants), Polizxi (with 4,500 inhabitants), Cattronuovo (with 6,500 inhabitants), 
Busaehino (with 9,000 inhabitants). Piano de'Oreei (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
and Carini (with 8,000 inhabitants). Northward and 18 miles distant from 
Palermo lies solitary in the Mediterranean. Sea the little island of C/slieo, 
with 2,400 inhabitants. — ^Teapaki, a strongly fortified town on a peninsula, 
westward and 46 miles distant from Palermo, with 18 churches, 24 convents, 
important salt-works, and 26,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province 
are ; Aleamo (with 15,600 inhabitants), MonU Giuliano (with 10,800 inhabi- 
tants), Cattellamare (with 6,500 inhabitants), Calaiafimi (with 11,000 in- 
habitants), BaUmi (with 12,000 inhabitanU), C<utelvetrano (with 16,000 



ITALY. 1« 

■*^— ^^^— — - - . . ^_^__ 

Kingdom of Naples: blaod of SICU7. 

nihabitantsX MoMzara (with a remarkable cathedral, and 9,000 inhabitaDts), 
and Marsala (noted lor its Tines, and with 16 churches, 14 oonyentsy salt, 
-works, and 28,400 inhabitants). Marsala is situated close by the pnMnontory 
of Boeeo, anciently renowned by the name of LUyhaeum, Westward from 
Trapani, at a distance of about 20 miles from the coast, are lying in the 
Ifediterranean Sea the Aboadxs or Aegadian Idandsy with 12,000 inhabitants. 
The krgest and most remarkable of them are: Favignana (with 4,000 in- 
habitants), Levafuo (woody, with rearing of cattle, and 5,000 inhabitants), 
and Maretimo, or Maritimo (with a castle for state-prisoners). — GiaoEnn, a 
town on the southern coast, 60 miles south'south-east of Palermo, with a 
remarkable cathedral, and 18,000 inhabitants. Quite near was situated the 
80 renowned ancient city of Agrigenty which in its most flourishing days had 
a population of 800,000 inhabitante. Favaba, a town with 9,000 inhabitants, 
and situated in the midst of the so-called nUphur-tUstrictgj which occupy a 
tract of 696 square miles, and where in 150 mines about 4,400 workmen are 
occupied, earning annually about 1,000,000 quintals of sulphur. CaniesM, 
J*ian<ty MezzafiuOy and Palazzo Adriano, 4 towns which together bear the 
anHmon name of Casals db 'GaBOCHi, and whose inhabitants are descendants 
cf emigrated Albanians who settled here in the year 1480. Other towns 
of this province are: Aragona (with 6,000 inhabiiants), Seiacca (with 18 
diurches, 14 convents, and 15,000 inhabitants), Bivona (with 6,000 inhabi- 
tants), CatoUea and Regalmuto (with 8,000 inhabitants). Westward and 69 
miles distant from Giigenti, and at about 36 miles distance from the Tunesian 
coast, lies the exceedingly fertile Jtland of Pantblaria, or PanUdarviy with 
a town of the same name (also known by the name of OffidM)^ mineral 
springs, and 7,000 inhabitants. Other smaller isles in its yicinity are : Lam- 
peduta, Lampioney and Cinosa. Only the first-named is inhabited since the 
year 1884. — Caltahibetta, a town situated in a fertile elevated plain, towards 
the midst of the island of Sicily, south-eastward and 64 miles distant from 
Palermo, with 17,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are : Piazza 
(with 18,000 inhabitants), Naro (with 10,000 inhabitants), Caziro Giovanni 
(with 12,700 inhabitants), AltcatOy commonly called Lieata (with 12,000 in- 
habitants), Terranova (with 9,800 inhabitants), Mazsarino (with 10,000 in- 
habitants), C(mnu;a^t (with 17,000 inhabitants), and Po/ma (with 6,000 inhab- 
itants). — SvaACiTsa, a fortified city on the eastern coast of Sicily, southward 
and 88 miles distant from Messina, is renowned for its excellent wines, and 
has two seaports, 22 churches (among which is the cathedral, anciently a tern- 



148 EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Kingdom of Napl«0 : Maiid of Sicily. 

pie of Minerva), and 18,000 inhabitants. The celebrated audent Syracueo 
-was 28 miles in circuit, and said to have had a popolation of 1,200,000 in- 
habitants. NoTo, a town south-westward and 18 miles distant from Syra- 
cose, with a remarkable cathedral, and 19,000 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this province are : Mbdiea (with 26,000 inhabitants), Raguaa (with 21,600 
inhabitants), Spaccafomo or Spaocafwmo (with 9,000 inhabitants), ViUoria 
(with 10,000 inhabitants), AgoHa (with 15,000 inhabitants), Avola (with 7,000 
inhabitants), Pachino (with 1,600 inhabitants), ChiaramonU (with 6,500 in> 
habitants), Cknniw (with 11,500 inhabitants), ^Mcan (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
and Flaridia (with 4,600 inhabitants). — Catanba, or Oatatna, a city on the 
Sicilian east coast, and at the foot of Mount Etna, northward and 86 miles 
distant firom Syracuse, with a university, a magnificent cathedral, 26 convents, 
considerable silk mann&ctories, ond 60,000 inhabitants. Near the town of 
Mateofi (with 8,000 inhabitants), at the foot of Mount Etna, is the renowned 
chestnut-tree, considered as the largest tree throughout Europe. The circum- 
ference of its trunk is immense. Other towns of this province are: Aei 
ReaU (with 20,000 inhabitants), NieoloH (with 2,400 inhabitants), Oiare (with 
17,700 inhabitants), Nicona (with 18,000 inhabitants), Patemo (with 10,700 
inhabitants), Andemo (with 18,600 inhabitants), Mineo (with 8,800 inhabi- 
tants), Caltagirone (with 21,600 inhabitants), Vizssini (with 11,100 inhabitants), 
ZenHni (with excellent potteries, and 7,800 inhabitants), BronU (with 11,000 
inhabitants), Bianeavilla (with 6,600 inhabitants), Sperlinga (with 1,500 in- 
habitants), Leonforte (with 10,000 inhabitants), and San FUippo d'Argyn 
(with 7,600 inhabitants). — Messina, a dty on the strait of the same name, 
with a university, considerable commerce, and 86,000 inhabitanta. Hie dta- 
*'*"yf this dty is very strong. Taokxiva, a town at the southern entrance 
inh a h t tan w^. ^f Messina, and on a steep and almost inacceesiUe rock, with 
tants), Poliui (wi Jq the middle ages this town sustained a dege of 80 
Jhuaehino (with 1 known in history. Other towns of this province are: 
and Carini (with ^ (^th 9,200 inhabitants), Booealwnera (with 12,000 m- 
Palermo Ues soUtajth 6,000 inhabitants), BaredUma (with 10.000 inhabitants), 
with 2,400 inhabitooo inhabitants), Randaaao (with 16,000 inhabitants), and 
westward and 46 15,000 inhabitanta). At a distance from 18 to 46 miles 
important saltrwor, coaa^ of the province of Messma, are lying, in the Medi- 
an : Aleamo (withraPARi Idanda (andently called the Aeolian Mamk), 18 in 
tants), CaiUllaman^er of volcanic origin, although they produce wines, figs, 
habitants), Salmi ^ remarkable of tliem are : Lipari (the prindpal island* 



ITALY. 149 

Island of Malta: Geqgnphioal DeaeripUon. 

106 sqnsre ndlaa in extant, with hoi mineral Bi»ingB» and 16,000 inhabitants), 
Volcano (uninhabited, with two boming Tolcanic mountains), SaiuM (with 4 
villages, salt-works, and 4,000 inhabitants), Btromboli (a yoleaiuc mcyuntain, 
eonatantly burning, and called the lig^t-hoose of the Mediterrammtt; only 
with 300 inhabitants), Fdiciidi (with 1,200 inhabitants), and VoUtmeuo (un- 
inhabited). 



IX.— MALTA. 

Abxa: 218 square miles. 
Populatiom: 140,000 inhabitante. 

Tbis groap, conBisting of the islands of Malta, Gozio, and 
Comino (together with the uninhabited isle of Cominotto), is 
lying in the Mediterranean Sea, between the island of Sieily and 
the northern coast of Africa, and belongs to GrecU Britain since 
the year 1800. 

The islands are in themselves, it is true, bare calcareous rocks, 
yet for the most part covered with fertile mould. The climate is 
peerlessly mild and pleasant, and the inhabitants being very 
diligent in cnltivatiDg the soil, they raise com, cotton, wine, 
sngar-cane, and other tropic productions. Besides this, sheep, 
gosts, and donkeys, are reared. 

The inhabitants, for the most part Catholics, and speaking a 
corrupted Arabian, intermixed with modem Grecian, Italian, and 
French words, do not only till the ground, but are also manu£u- 
turing cotton goods, and carry on a considerable trade. 

They have retained their ancient laws and privileges, and are 
ruled by a British military governor. In 1829, the public reve- 
nue amounted to £133,072, and the expenditure to only £103,610. 



160 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Island of Malta: History, etc 

JSutory.^-Malta was primitively called Iperia, and subsequently Ogtfgia 
(though the island of Gtozzo traa properly denoted by this latter name) ; at a 
later period, the Greeks named it Meliie, which the Arabs finally transmuted 
into Malta. The most ancient inhabitants were Phteacians ; however, they 
were expelled by the Phoenicians, and these again by the Greekai Subse- 
quently the islands came under the sway of the Carthaginians, from whom 
they were wrested by the Romans. At last they formed a constituent part 
of the Eastern, or Greek Empire, until in 818 the Arabs took possession of 
them. In 1090 the islands were conquered by the Sicilian Normans, and 
since that period, Malta and Sicily were under the sway of one and the same 
ruler. The Emperor Charles V^ in his quality as king of Spain, Naples, 
and Sicily (see History of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies), ceded, in 1530, 
Malta to the knights of St. John (see History of Europe, § 17, A), who since 
assumed the name of knights of the order of Malta, They had engaged 
themselves to wage war continually against the Turks and pirates, and kept 
for this purpose a navy, which in 1770 consisted of 4 ships of the line, 1 
frigate, 4 galleys, and several other smaller vessels. In 1798 the Frendi con- 
quered Malta, but in 1800 it was wrested from them by the British, who since 
have continued to be in possession of the islands. We shall now describe 
them in the following succession : — 

1. The island of Malta (area: 128 square miles; population: 120,000 in- 
habitants), contaming : La Valetta, capital of the whole group, and one ci 
the strongest fortresses, with numerous ancient and modem palaces, a univer- 
sity, a public library with 100,000 volumes, a botanic garden, ship docks, two 
seaports, connderable commerce, and 50,000 inhabitants. In the midst of the 
island is situated CrriA Yeohia (also called Malta, or Mdite\ the andeot 
capital, with a remarkable cathedral, several convents, and 6,500 inhabitants. 
Other towns are : Phtto (with 4,000 inhabitants), Zorriea (with 8,500 inhabi- 
tants), and 2^bug (with 4,000 inhabitants). 

2. The island of Owtxo (area: 88 square miles ; population : 19,000 inhabi- 
tants), containing: Gozso, chief town, with 8,000 inhabitants, and the little 
fortress of RabaUo, Ohambra is a mansion of the English governor. 

8. The island of Comino, with a fortress of the same name, has only a pop- 
ulation of 1,000 inhabitants. 
4w The isle of Oominotto is uninhabited. 



SWITZERLAND. 

Area: 16,816 square miles. 
Population: 2,400,000 inhabitunta 

Switzerland (instead of which, the ancient name of Helvetia 
is sometimes used) is situated between Germany and Italy, and 
on the west bordered by France. 

In point of religion, the Swiss are divided into Rrformists (or 
Galvinists) and Caiholics ; in some cantons the former, in others 
the latter prevail. Of Lutherans, there are perhaps only 400 
to be found throughout the country. In 1845, the total popula- 
tion amounted to 2,363,000 inhabitants, of whom 998,000 were 
Catholics, and about 1,364,000 Reformists. The Catholics are 
tinder the church-authority of 5 bishops, viz. : of Lavaanne 
(residing at Friburg), of Basle (residing at Soleure), of Sion (for 
the canton of Yalais), of Chur and St. Gall (residing alternately 
at Char and St. Gall), and of Como (for the canton of Tesino). 
The number of Jews in Switzerland amounts to about 2,000. 
What regards the origin, the majority of the Swiss belongs to 
the great family of the Germanians, and the remainder (speaking 
partly French, partly Italian, and partly the so-called Ladinian 
language, or a corrupted Latin) to the great family of the Romor 
nians (see Introduction, ^ 12). 

Switzerland is thoroughly mauTUairunis, and traversed by several 
branches of the Alps (see Introduction, ^ 7), while the Jura 
Mountains form the boundary on the west towards France (see 
the particulars in the just-named paragraph of the Introduction). 



16S EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Swiuerlaad: Geognphlcal Feaiures. 



Two of the principal rivers of Europe rise in SwiUerland, vis. : 
the Rhine (whose tributaries are here the 211, Thur, and Aar^ 
which latter receives here the Emme, Reuss^ and Limmai)^ and tlic 
E.HONE, which has no remarkable tributaries in Switzerland. 
Moreover, the TesinOj or Ticino, tributary of the Po, and the Inn, 
tributary of the Danube, rise here. The lakes exclusively belong- 
ing to Switzerland, are described in ^ 9 of the Introduction, 
where also the particulars about the lakes of Constance and 
Geneva are to.be found. 

The climate is wholesome throughout the country, although of 
course the temperature varies according to the higher or lower 
elevation of the country. In the higher mountainous regions the 
air is much cooled by the glaciers, or extensive fields of ice that 
cover the lofty summits of the Alps. It may be mentioned on 
this occasion, that sometimes vast masses of snow, called ava- 
lanches, break away from the glaciers, and slide down the declivi- 
ties with a tremendous roar, overwhelming in a moment the 
villages below. Remarkable winds are. the Bise, coming from 
east or north-east, and the Foehn, a humid south wind. 

Notwithstanding the mountainous character of the country, 
some parts of it are very fertile. Many valleys have i^ rich soil, 
and renowned for their nutritious and aromatic herbs are the 
excellent 'Alpine pastures. Pasturage and the making of cheese 
are therefore the chief objects of the farmer. The Swiss breed 
of cattle is, in some respects, considered as the finest in Europe. 
The rearing of sheep is inconsiderable, but goats abound every- 
where. The horses, which generally are strong and durable, are, 
together with mules, used as sumpters, to carry goods on their 
backs across the mountains. The Swiss delight in hunting the 
chamois, which dwells among the highest precipices of the Alps, 
while the ibex is not more, or at least very seldom, found. The 
principal other wild animals found in Switzerland are, the bear, 



SWTTZERLAin). m 



Ifaaqftctiires—Poliyaa DlTlrioii. 



wolf^ lynx, and marmot. The iiTers and lakes abound in Tarions 
kinds of excellent fishes, and the Alpine brooks especially in 
trouts. In some of the western and sonthem cantons, the vine 
is cnltivated. 

There are a great many manufadaries in Switzerland, especially 
of eoUan, iilks^ waUhesy etc. The trtide is considerable, and, besides 
the mannfiactnred goods, chiefly cattle, cheese, and dmgs, are 
exported. 

Concerning the means of education^ there are 3 nniversities : at 
JBiule (founded in 1459, and frequented by about 130 students), 
at Zurich (founded in 1833, and in 1845 frequented by 125 
students), and at Berne (founded in 1834, but not much resorted 
to). Moreover, there are so-called academies, or fiu^ulties, at 
Geneva and Lausanne, and gymnasiums in most of the cantons. 
At Friburg is a college of Jesuits, and at Hofwyl (near the city 
of Berne) a celebrated boarding-school, founded by Mr. Fellen- 
berg. Common schools are numerous. 

Switzerland is divided into 22 caTUans, and the government is 
that of a federal republic (also called Helvetic Republic), Each 
canton is independent, and has the exclusiTe control of all 
concerns merely local ; but the defence of the country, and the 
general interest of the confederacy are committed to a general 
government, or rather Diet — a kind of congress, called Tagsatzung^ 
and composed of two deputies from each canton (Berne and 
Zurich have the privilege of sending each three deputies, while 
Glarus sends only one). During the time when the Diet is not 
assembled, the so-called Vororty that is the directory or directorial 
government, vested alternately in the cantons of Beme^ Zurich, 
and Lucerne^ for two years at a time, manages the a&irs of the 
confederacy. 

The ordinary public expenditure of the confederacy was in 
1818 fixed at 539,275 Swiss francs (these are somewhat more in 



164 EUROPE; PAST AM) PRESENT. 

HJilory. 

yalne than the French francs) annually ; its public debl which 
in 1814 amounted to 3,000,000 francs, is long since paid. The 
total revenue of the cantons may be computed at 10,000,000 
francs. The wealthiest cantons are Berne, Yaud, and Zurich 
(the revenue of the first-named amounted in 1844 to 3.055,400 
francs, that of the second to 1,655,200, and that of the third to 
1,100,000 francs), and the poorest are Unterwalden, Lug, and 
Uri, with a revenue of respectively 20,000, 11,000, and 10,000 
francs. 

The Helvetic Bepublic has no standing army, but keeps in 
time of peace only a small number of regular troops, not exceed- 
ing 1,200 or 1,300 men. Yet in time of war the confederacy 
raises a federal army, whose strength is fixed at 64,019 men, with 
3,426 horses. 

Btttary.^Switzerland, until the year 406 A. D. a Roman proviDoe and 
inhabited by Germanic tribes, called Helyetians by the Romans^ was, since 
the beginning of the migration of nations, occupied by the Burgmtdians and 
Alemanni (belonging to the great tribe of the Sueveb; compare History of 
Europe, g 8), and came about the year 500 under the sway of the Frankt, 
After the death of Charlemagne, many Swiss counts and barons made them- 
telves independent) while part of the country belonged to the BurffundUm 
empire (see History of Europe, §§ 8 and 8, and History of burgundy under 
France). The German emperors were to be considered as sovereigns of this 
empire, and consequently of Switzerland too, and the latter would 4>erhap8 
jntil the present day have formed a constituent part of the German empire, if 
not the political interest of the country itself and of France had prevented it 
In Switserland, the dergy was possessed of considerable estates and tracts of 
land, beside the barons, among whom the most powerful were the counts of 
Sapwbwrgt Kyborg, Toggenburg, JfetichateU Thierstein, and Savoy, the barons 
of Wyssenburg, Grandson, etc All these lords acknowledged the sovereignty 
of the German emperors, at least nominally, as also those dtjes and towns 
did, that were endowed with imperial privileges, and ruled by imperial gov- 
ernors, or bailiff of the em^^e. Cantons did not then exist ; however, there 
were privileged prorinoes, of which Uri, Schweitx, and Unterwalden, elected 



SWrrZERLAKD. . 166 



Hlstoiy— Geogiapby. 



in 1267 the mighty Count Rodolph V^ ooont of Hapsbm^ (labaeqaently 
Oerman emperor), their protector, but refiised ftllegiimoft to his son, Emperor 
Albert L, beeawe they pretended to be injured by him in their privileges. 
In the beginning of the year 1808, they destroyed the castles of the imperial 
governors (among whom was one, named Gesler), and united into a confederacy, 
at first far ten years. In the course of time, other provinces joined in this 
confederacy, and as the canton of Schweitz was then the most powerful, the 
German name of SehweiU (Switxerland), for denoting the whole country, came 
into Yogue. In 1618, the number of cantons was 18, since and before the 
year 1808, six other joined them, and in 1816 the whole number of 22 wis 
completed by the addition of Yalais, Neuchatel, and Geneva. Not before 
the Westphalian treaty of peace, concluded in 1648, the independence of the 
Helvetic Republic was formally acknowledged by the foreign powers. It 
must be remarked here, by the way, that many modem historians are of the 
opinion that WiUiam Tell did never exists but all what is related about him is 
to be considered as a legend, derived firom the Scandinavian tawlitions. Be 
this as it may, the fact is, that the above-named three cantons united into a 
confederacy without William Tell, and that also in every other respect he did 
not exert the slightest political influence on the revolution of the year 1808. 
In this respect it made no difference, whether he shot Gesler or not To 
place the political institutions and liberty of Switzerland on a par with those 
of the United States, would be a great mistake; for since the end of the last 
century the Helvetic Republic has been in a very unsettled condition, whidi 
in the last twenty years has almost degenerated into complete anarchy. 
Liberty and lawlessness are at present nearly synonymous in the opinion of 
the great majority of the Swiss ; and sooner or later the country will doubt- 
less become a prey of the adjacent powersi which, hitherto, only the jealousy 
among them has prevented. 

In order to fiicilitate the finding out of the seyeral cantons, ire 
shall describe them in an alphabetic order; and it only be 
remarked hero, that Schafkausen is the most northerly, Valais the 
most southerly, Vaud the most westerly, and Grisons the most 
easterly canton. The population stated in the following descrip- 
tion is according to the last census of 1845. 



156 . EUROPE; PAST AND PRESENT. 

Switzerland— <JBiitonB of AaigMi mmI AppenaoU. 

1. The canton of Aaboau (area: 511 square miles; populatioo: 190,000 
inhabitants, speaking Oennan, and for the most part RefwrmMU, while onlr 
90,000 are Gaiholie9\ between the cantons of Basle and Zoiidi, crossed by 
the Aar river, and on the north separated from the German grand-dochy of 
Baden by the Rhine. It belonged formerly to the canton of Berne until in 
1808, when it became an independent canton, and contains : Aarau, capital 
of the canton, on the Aar, south-eastward and 26 miles distant from Basle, 
with cotton, silk, and hardware manufactures, considerable trade, and 4,500 
inhabitants. Aarboko, a town on the Aar, south-westward and 9 milee die- 
tat^t fi-om Aarau, with the only fortress of all Switzerland, and 1,700 inhabi- 
tants. Baden (sometimes also called Oberbadenf to distinguish it from the 
grand-ducal Badish town of the same name), a town on the limnuity north- 
westward and 14 miles distant from Zurich, with renowned hot mineral 
springs, and 2/)00 inhabitants. On the 7th of September, 1714, a treaty of 
peace between France and the German empire, was concluded here. Mou, 
formerly a rich and celebrated abbey of the Benodictuiea, wliich was founded 
either in 991 or in 1027. This remarkable building is 725 feet long, dose by 
is the town of the same name, with a silk manufiActory, and 1,800 inhabitanta. 
Bbuog, or Bruek, a town on the Aar, has 1,000 inhabitants, and was once tha 
property of the counts of Hapsburg, of whose ancestor's castle Hafsbcro 
considerable remnants are still extant in the neighborhood. This castle was 
reared in 1027. Not fiu* from here, near the village of WindUeh, it was 
where, on the 1st of May, 1308, Emperor Albert L was murdered by his 
nephew. His widow and daughter reared a nunnery on the very place, named 
Komigsfeldeny which in 1528 was transformed into a hospitaL ZonKonr, a 
town on the Wigger, with various manu&ctures, and 8,400 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this canton are : Bremgarien (with 1,050 inhabitants), Lauburg 
(with 2,200 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (with 1,600 inhabitanUX Lm^fnlmrg 
(with 1,000 inhabitants), KUngnau (with 1,600 inhabitants), Zunaeh (with 
1,000 inhalHtants), VUlmergm (with 1,400 inhabitants), Frick (with 2,000 
inhabitants), WeUingen (with 1,050 inhabitants), Ober-Kulm (with 1,700 inhab- 
itants), and UnUr-Kulm (with 1,800 inhabitants). 

2. The canton of Appknzxll (area: 149 square miles; population: 54,000 
inhabitants, speaking Chrman, and partly Reforminti^ partly Catkolie*\ en- 
tirely surrounded by the territory of the canton of St Gall and situated near 
the lake of Constance. It became an independent canfon in 1518, and was 
since the reformation divided into two diitinct districLs, called Inner-Khodco 



SWITZERLAND. Ul 



Oanlon of Baale. 



and Auseer-IUMxleD, the former inhabited only hj CathoUcB, and the latter 
only by Refonnists. IiMer-Rhoden coDtains : Appknzxll, capital of the whole 
cantoQ, 00 the Sitter, southward and 7 miles distant from the city of St Qall, 
aod 26 miles south-south-east of CoostaDce, with a Qothic church, 2 coDvents, 
lioeo trade, and 8,200 inhabitants. Weiubad and Oonten^ villages, with 
mioeral springa A wtter-Rhoden contains : Tkooen, chief town of this district^ 
with considerable linen trade, and 2,600 inhabitants. Other towns of this 
district are: Heruau (noted for its mannfartures, with 7,900 inhabitants), 
Teuffen, (with 4,200 inhabitants), Zwn Stein (with 3,000 inhabitants), Umaettek 
(with 2,100 inhabitants), Gau (noted for its whey, with 2,900 inhabitants), 
and Hundwyl (with 1,100 inhabitants). 

3. Tlie canton of Baslb (area: 192 square miles; population: 66,000 inhab- 
itants, of whom only 6,600 are Catholics, while the majority consists of 
RefcrmitU^ aU speaking German^ on and near the Rhine, bordered on the 
west by France, and on the south by the canton of Soleure. It joined the 
confederacy in 1491, and is since the year 1888 divided into BatU-CUy and 

* 

BatU-Campagne. The former contains: Basle, capital of the canton, on the 
left bank of the Rhine, which is crossed here by its only stone bridge (all the 
other bridges over the Rhine are constructed by boats), southward and 78 
miles distant from Strasburg, and northward and 46 miles distant from Berne, 
is noted for its considerable trade and manufactures, its university and board 
of missions, its ancient Gothic cathedral (founded in 1010; the council or 
synod of the years 1481-1448 was held here; and, moreover, it contains the 
Bepulchre of the renowned Erasmus, of Rotterdam), and has a population of 
23.000 inhabitants. One of its suburbs, called JAWe Ba$U (Klein-Basel), is 
situated on the right bank of the Rhina Basle, founded in the 4th century, 
was until the year 1629 the seat of the catholic bishop of Basle, who at the 
same time was a prince of the German empire, and sovereign of a territory, 
which in 1814 was annexed to the canton of Berne. The present bishop of 
Basle resides at Soleure, while his antecessors since the year 1629 resided at 
Pruntrut (see next canton). To the district of Basle-city belong, moreover, 
the small townships of BeUingen^ Biehen^ and KUinkueningen (Little Huenin- 
gen). Basle-Garapagne contains: Lxxstall, or Lteehttallf chief town of this 
district, on the Ergolz, south-eastward and 12 miles distant from Basle, with 
various manu&ctures, and 2,200 inhabitants. Other towns of this district are : 
BtMoek (with 1,200 inhabitants), Waldenlntrg (with 800 inhabitants), ArleBkeim 



158 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Switzerland — Canton of Berne. 



(with 800 inhabitants), and Muttenz (with a remarkable old church, and 1,H50 
inhabitants). 

4. The canton of Bicrne (area: 2,576 square miles ; population: 440,000 
inhabitants, for the most part speaking German, but in the western part^ 
JlV-ench ; the majority consists of Beformists, and only 58,000 are CathoHciy, 
occupying nearly the centre of Switzerland, and on the south bordered by the 
canton of Valais. It joined the confederacy in 1352 ; and until 180S the 
present cantons of Aargau and Vaud formed parts of it In 1815, it was 
indemnificated by the former territory of the bii^hop of Basle (see above). It 
contains : Bebne, the capital of the canton, on the Aar, southward and 46 
miles distant from Basle, and north-eastward and 82 miles distant from 
Oeueya, with a university and several otlier schools and literary institution?, 
various manufactures, considerable inland trade, and 24,000 inhabitants. 
About 4 miles distant from here is situated the estate of Hofvoyl^ where is 
the before-mentioned school of Fellenberg. Laupen, a town on the Saane, 
with 900 inhabitants. In the district of Ober-Aarpau (Upper -Aargau) are 
situated the towns of Aarwamgen (with 1,450 inhabitants), and Wcmffen 
(with 900 inhabitants). In the romantic valfey of the Emme (noted for its 
fine cattle, dieese, and industry) are ntuated the towns of Langekthal (north' 
eastward and 28 miles distant from Berne, with 2,800 inhabitants), Langnau 
(with* 5,700 inhabitants), Huttweil, or Hutvoyl (with 900 inhabitants), and 
Burgdoff (with 2,800 inhabitants). Saanen, chief town of the valley of tlie 
same name (noted for its cheese), and in French called Oesteixay. In the 
BO-called Bemer Oberland (Highlands of Berne) are situated : Thun, a town 
on the lake of the same name, 16 miles south-south-east of Berne, is the seat 
of a military academy of the confederacy, and has a population of 5,000 
inhabitants. Near the village of Laitterbrunnen are the celebrated falls of 
the Staubbach. Meyringen^ on the Aar, is the chief town of the Haslithai 
(valley of Hasli), whose inhabitants are noted for their fine shape. WimmU 
is the chief town of the eminently cultivated valley of the Simmen, or Sim- 
menthol. Other towns in the Bernese Oberlands are : Fruiingen (with 1,800 
inhabitants), and Unterseen (with 1,260 inhabitants). Interlaken^ or Tnter- 
laeJien, formerly a renowned monastery of Austin friars, founded in 1130. In 
the district called Seeland (lake-land, because it is bordered by the lake of 
Biel) are situated : Eblach (in French, Erlier^ or Cerlier\ a town on the lake 
of Biel, 19 miles west-north-west of Berne,' with 1,200 inhabitants, Kidau (a 
tows, with 1,000 inhabitants), Bueren (a town on the Aar, with 1,850 inhabi- 



SWITZERLAKD. 159 



ObhUkimi of Freiburv •«! St GalL 



tantsX Mid Aarherg (a town od the Aar, with 800 inhabitants). In the former 
territory of the bishop of Basle (see above) are situated : PauimuT (in French, 
Pvreniruy), a town on the Hahune, 87 miles north-nortli-west of Berne, was 
mitil 1803 the seat of the bishop of Basle, who resided here in a magnificent 
palace, and has a population of 2,700 inhabitants. Biel (in Frencli, Bienwe), 
a town on the lake of the same name, with 2,800 inhabitants. Other towns 
of this district are : DeUherg^ in French, JDelenumt (with 1,450 inhabitants), 
SL Uraanne, or 8t UraUz (with 1,000 inhabitants), Laafm (with 900 inhahi- 
tanta), and JieuenUadt, in French, NeuvevUle, or Bonneville (with 1,800 inhabi- 
ianto}. 

6. Hie canton of Frihurg^ or Feeiburo (area : 564 square miles ; popula- 
tion: 95,000 inhabitants, partly speaking French^ and partly German, and 
the majority consisting of Cathaliee^ only 6,400 being JteformUts), bordered on 
the north-west by the lake of Neuchatel, and on the east by the canton of 
Berne. It joined the confederacy in 148 1 , and contains : F aEiBUHG, or Friburg, 
the capital, on the Saane (crossed by a wire suspension bridge, which is 834 
feet in length, and 145 feet above the surface of the water), south-westward and 
19 miles distant from Berne, and north-eastward and 78 miles distant from 
Geneva, is the seat of the bishop of Lausanne, and has the above-mentioned 
college of Jespits (in 1842 with 676 pupils), a Qothic cathedral (whose steeple 
is 865 feet in height), 8 convents, and 9,200 iulmbiUuita In the vicinity is 
sitoaied the Cistercian monastery Altenn/ff in French, Hauterive, Muetxn 
(in French, Morai\ a town on the lake of the same name, is noted for the 
battle against Charles the Temerarious, of Burgundy, in 1476, and has 1,700 
inhabitants. Other towns of this canton are : Oreyerz, in French, Orugiree 
(noted for its cheese, and with 1,050 inhabitants), Romont (with 1,400 inhaU- 
tantsX and StaeJUy in French, Eetavayer (with 1,800 inhabitants). 

6. The canton of St. Gall (area: 744 square miles; population : 172,000 
inhabitants, speaking Oennan, and in point of religion at the ratio of 106,000 
Catholies and 66,000 ReformieU), separated by the Rhine (before this river 
enters the lake of Constance) from TyroL This canton, which joined the 
confederacy in 1798, was until then (with the exception of the dty of St 
Gall) the territory of the Benedictine abbey of St, OaU^ whose seiEt was in 
the just>named city, though separated from it by a high wall. The abbey 
originated from a cell, built by the holy Gallus (from Ireland, and a pupil of 
Columban), who in the beginning of the 7th oentury came here to preach the 
gospel to the neighboring Allemanl He converted many of them, who set- 



160 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

SwllzerlaiKt— OtnUn of G«iieTik 

tied tiiemselTes around him, and at last a monastery was biiilft> whoae fint 
regular abbot was elected in 720. The abbey was endowed with many 
privileges ; the abbot was only subjected to the pope, and in his temporal 
quality as prince of the German empire, to the emperor, and was at the same 
time sovereign of a pretty large territory. Since the year 1461 he partook 
in the direction of the general affiurs of the Helretic Republic, without beii^ 
an actual member of the confederacy, until in 1798 the whole bishopric (or 
the territory of the abbeyX together with the city of St Qall, was trans- 
formed into a canton. (About the present bishop of St Qall, see above.) 
The canton contains : St. Gall, its capital, on the Steinach, 20 miles souths 
80uth-eaj«t of Constance, and eastward and 9 miles distant from Zurich, with 
the former edifice of the abbey, now the residence of the govemmentt 6 
churches, several schools and valuable libraries, important linen trade, and 
11,500 inhabitants. PpETFEas (in French F€nfiire\ a viUage situated in the 
wild, romantic Tamina Valley (Taminathal), and noted for its warm baths. 
Hero is also a Benedictine abbey, founded in 720. WUdhaut, a village near 
the head of the Thur river, remarkable as the birth-place of the reformer 
Zwingli, who was bom here in 1484, in a house which is still extant Roa- 
scHACH, a town on the lake of Constance, with important commerce, and 1,700 
inhabitanta Other towns of this canton are : Rappssswyl, or JUappertekweil 
(with 2.000 inhabitants), Sargant (with 760 inhabitants), WcUUnsituU (with 
800 inhabitants), i2A«iiM0i: (with 1,800 inhabitants), iZo^ate (with 1,300 in- 
luibitants), Werde7^>erg (with 950 inhabitants), LielUensUiff (chief town of 
the ancient county of Toffgenburg, with 7,500 inhabitants), and Wyl (with 
2,400 inhabitants). 

7. The canton of Gznxva (area: 92 square miles; population: 65,000 in- 
habitants, speaking French, and for the most part BeformUUf only 19,700 
being Calholiet), situated along the south-west corner of the lake of Geneva. 
It partook since the year 1558 in the direction of the public affiurs of Swit- 
zerland, without being on actual member of the confederacy. In 1798 it was, 
by the name of Leman-department, annexed to France, but in 1815 restored 
to its independency, and now it became a formal member of the confederacy. 
It contains : GxifavA, fortified capital, on the lake of the same name, and on 
the Rhone (at the point where this river issues from the lake), south-westward 
and 82 miles distant from Berne, and north-eastward and 69 miles distant 
from Lyons, is the most populous and industrious city of Switserland, and 
especially noted for its extensive manufactures of watches and jeweUeries 



SWITZERLAin). Attl 



CuitoiM of Glaros and Griaons. 



(aimuaUy about 60,000 onnces of gold, 6,000 marks of silver and precious 
stones, at the value of 600,000 francs, are used up for this purpose), and 
moreover for its literary institutions, and has a population of 81,000 inhabi- 
tants, among whom are 6,800 Catholics. Geneva was founded by the Alio- 
brogi (a Gaulic tribe in the south-eastern part of Gaul and in the adjacent 
country, now called Savoy), came in the beginning of the 6th century of the 
Christian era imder the sway of the Burgundians, and formed since part of 
the Burgundian kingdom, but was at the same time held in some dependency 
of the bishop of Geneva. In 1478 the bishop and the city entered into a 
league with the cantons of Berne and Freiburg, which in 1626 was renewed, 
till in 1668 (the bishopric being meanwhile dissolved) matters were arranged 
in the above-mentioned manner. The territory of the city contains, among 
others, the towns of Vebsoix or Verioy (with 1,200 inhabitants), and CAaoUQB 
(with 4,000 inhabitants). 

8. The canton of Glaaus (area: 276 square miles; population: 82,000 in- 
habitants, speaking Oerman, and for the most part RefonusU, only 4,300 
being Gatholie$)t situated in the interior of Switzerland, at about 14 miles 
(ystance from Tyrol, and on the south bordered by the canton of Grieons. It 
joined the confederacy in 1362, and contains: Glarus, capital on the Unth, 82 
miles south-south-west of St Gall, and south-eastward and 36 miles distant 
from Zurich, with numerous cotton and doth manufactures, important trade, 
and 6,000 inhabitants. Mollii, Schwanden, and NaeftUy towns with re- 
spectively 2,600, 2,200, and 1,800 inhabitants. Naefels is noted few a battle 
in 1888. 

9. Ilie canton of Grisons (area : 2,981 square miles ; population : 92,000 
inhabitants, of whom about two parts are BeformiMta and one part CcUholicty 
speaking partly German, partly Italian^ and partly the above-mentioned 
XjoJinian, or corrupt Latin language), comprising the south-eastern part of 
Switzerland, and bordered by Tyrol and Lombardy. There are not less than 
241 glaciers and 170 valleys in this canton, from which two great roads crass 
the Alps to Italy ; one over the Bemardin, and the other over Mount Spliigen. 
Grisoms, once a constituent part of Rhaetia (as Tyrol anciently was called), 
came in the 6th century under the sway of the Ostrogoths, and in 629 under 
that of the kings of Austrasia (see History of Europe, § 8), who annexed it 
to the dnehy of Swabia, or Alemaonia. The German emperor, Otho L, and 
the duke Louis of Alemannia endowed in 961 the bishop of Chur with 
varioua privikgeein this city, which subsequently were extended over a great 



168 EUROPE, PAST AmO PRESENT. 

8witz0rlaiid--Cuiton8 cX Griaons, Liu«nie and Neochatd. 

part of Grison^ where, moreover, free oommiinities had arisen. The latter 
entered into three league*^ viz. : the Grey League^ the Qod^t-house League, and 
the League of the ten Jurisdietione ; while about the same time, or in 1419, 
the bishop and the city of Chur entered into a ocmfederacy with Zurich. Yot it 
wa3 not until the year 1798 Grisona became a canton and actual member of llic 
Helvetic Republic The government of the canton consists of representatives 
of the above leagues, still existing ; and it may be remarked that Chur is 
the chief town of the so-called GodVhouse League, Htmz that of the Grey 
League, and Meyenfeld the chief town of the League of the ten Jurisdictions. 
The canton contains : OHua, capital of all Grisons, near the sources of the 
Rhine, southward and 46 miles distant from St Gall, with a remarkable 
cathedral, 2 convents, considerable transit trade, and 5,800 inhabitants. 
Especially in the valley of Engadin the Ladinian language is spoken, and 
many of its inhabitants are spread over all Europe as expert oonfectionera 
and keepers of coffee-houses. Puachlaf, or Poaehiavo and ZizerSy towns with 
respectively 900 and 800 inhabitants. Ilanz (see above), the uppermost 
town on tlie Rhine (the nethermost is Leyden, in Holland), westward and 18 
miles distant from Chur, with 750 inhabitants. Splugetiy a town at the north- 
em foot of Mount Splugen, 28 miles south-south-west of Ghur, with 800 in- 
habitanta Other towns of this district are : DiaentU (with 1,200 inhabitants), 
and Thufis (with 900 inhabitants). Meyenfeld (see above), a town north- 
ward and 12 miles distant from Chur, with a remarkable old castle, transit 
trade, and 1,200 inhabitants. Davo», a town with 1,100 inhabitanta Pretti- 
gem, a valley noted for its fine cattle. 

10. The canton of Luzerne (area: 595 square miles; population: 128,000 
inhabitants, all Catholics, and speaking German), near the centre of Switzer- 
land, and bordered on the north by the canton of Aargau. It joined the 
confederacy in 1882, and contains: Luzerne, the capital, on the Rcuss, 46 
miles east-north-east of Berne, with 5 churches, 4 convents, several literary 
institutions, manufactures, transit trade, and 8,600 inhabitants. The town of 
Sempach, with 1,500 inhabitants, is noted for a battle in 1386. Other towns 
of this canton are : Wiliiaau (with 2,200 inhabitants), and Swtee (with 8,000 
inhabitants). 

11. The canton of Neuohatel (area: 297 square miles; population: 66,000 
inhabitants in 1845, but 67,200 inhabitants in the beginning of the year 1847 ; 
they speak, for the most part, I^^eneh^ but also German; the majority eoonsCa 
of Reformists, and only 8,500 are Catholies), situated on the west side of the 



SWrrZERLANI). 16t 



OuiUmw of Nsnebatel and SehafbmiiMii. 



lake of Neuchatel, and on the vest bordered by the Frendi prorioee of 
Fhmehe Cornt^ This canton, since the year 1816 a member of the confed- 
eracy, but in other respects subjected to the soyereignty of the king of Prussia, 
was in 1082 annexed to the Oerman empire as an almost sovereign county, 
(subsequently />rifia^t/y), which since the year 1S24 changed hands, until 
towards the end of the I7th century the Prince William IIL, of Oranffe (king 
of Great Britain in the period 1689-1702), became possessed of it. From 
him, his nephew, King Frederie Z, of Pruuia, inherited the principality, and 
took possession of it in 1707. Since that time, Neuchatel has continued to be 
under Prussian sway, with the exception of the period from the year 1806 to 
1814, in which it formed part of France. In 1648 the people declared them- 
selves independent from the Prussian crown, but it is very doubtful whether 
they will be able to maintain their independence, the more so as the king of 
Prussia has not at all acquiesced in it The country is noted for its industry ; 
and at the end of the year 1848, there were 8,825 watch-makers, 8,066 lace- 
makers, 1,994 linen-weavers, 10,021 vine-dressers, eta, etc Politically, or 
historically, the country is divided into the prineipalitif of Neuchatd^ and the 
eownJhf of Valangin. The former contains : Nkuchatxl, the capital ,of the 
whole canton, on the northern bank of the lake of Neuchatel, westward and 
27 miles distant from Berne, with a castle, reared in 1250, and since the seat 
of the sovereigns of the country, most of whom are buried in the Gk>thic 
church of Our Lady here, manufactures of watches and laces, considerable 
trade, and 6,800 inhabitants. TraverSy a village in the valley of the same 
name, whose 6,000 inhabitants are for the most part watch- and lace-makera 
Bounar, a town noted for its wines, with 1,700 inhabitants. Laxdkron, a town 
on the lake of Biel, with 1,000 inhabitants. Cortaillod, a village on the lake 
of Neuchatel, with calico printings, and 1,100 inhabitants. Valamoin, chief 
town of the ancient county of Valangin, in a deep valley, north-westward 
and 2 miles distant from Neuchatel, with a Gothic church and 6,000 inhabi- 
tants. LooLK, a town near the French frontier, is noted for its roanu&ctures 
of watches, and has a population of 6,000 inhabitants. Also the town of 
Chaux db Fondb (with 8,600 inhalMtants) is noted for its manufactures of 
watches. 

12. The canton of Sobaphausen (area: 117 square miles; population: 
85,000 inhabitants, speaking Oerman^ and being Reformists, with the excep- 
tion of only 600 CaMo/t«f), the most northerly canton, and almost entirely 
forroiinded by-the territory of the German grand-duchy of Baden. It joined 



164 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

SwitEorland— CantooB of Sdiweitz and Botoiire. 

tlie eoofederacy in 1501, and contaiiis: Sohafhaobsii, the capital, od the 
Rhine (whoee celebrated faMa are not far from here, doae by the village of 
Laufen, which, however, belongs to Zurich), north-eastward and 82 mileg 
ditttant from Berne, and 27 miles north-north-east of Zurich, with 8 churches, 
manufactures of silks and cotton goods, and 7,600 inhabitants. Stein, or 
Stein am Rhein (because tliis town is situated on the Rhine), is noted for its 
wines, and has 1,800 inhstbitants. Quite near the town is the ancient castle 
of HohenJdingen, Other towns of this canton are: Neukirch (with 1,000 
inhabitants), Taeyingen (with 700 inhabitants), Unter-Hallau (with mineral 
baths, and 8,100 inhabitants), and Wilchingen (with 900 inhabitants). 

18. The canton of Sohwettz, or Schwyz (area: 840 square miles; popula- 
tion : 43,000 inhabitants, speaking Oerman, and being Caikolied), situated on 
the south side of the lake of Zurich. It was one of those three cantons which 
in 1808 first entered into a confederacy, and contains: Schwyz, or Sehweitz^ 
the capital, at the foot of Mount Myten (6,790 feet high), eastward and 65 
miles distant from Berne, and south-westward and 69 miles distant frt>m St. 
Oall, with 2 convents, and 5,000 inhabitants. Emsisnaui, a town on the 
Sibl, 9 miles north-north-east of Schwyz, with 6,000 inhabitants, and a cele- 
brated Benedictine abbey (founded in 906), whose holy shrine is annually 
visited by about 150,000 pilgrims. Other towns of this canton are : Lachen 
(with 1,800 inhabitants), Geraau (with 1,600 inhabitants), Afih (with 2,600 
inhabitants), and Ktiewnacht (with 1,700 inhabitants). In this canton is also 
Mount Rigit 6,700 feet high. Between this mountain and another, called 
Ruuberg (4,800 feet in height), was situated the town of Ooldau, which on 
the 2d of September, 1806, was totally buried by a terrible &I1 of earth. 

14. The canton of Solku&b (area : 255 square miles ; population : 66,000 
inhabitants, speaking German^ and being CcUholies), situated on the south side 
of the canton of Basle. It joined the confederacy in 1481, and contains: 
SoLKuaR, the capital, on the Aar, northward and 20 miles distant from Basle, 
with 8 churches, 6 convents, considerable transit trade, and 4,600 inhabitants. 
Gilgenherg, an ancient remarkable mountain-castle, whose waUs are 14 feet 
thick. Oltkn, a town on the Aar, with important inland trade, and 1,800 
inhabitants. Other towns of this canton are : BallHall (with 800 inhabitants), 
Trimmbaeh (with 1,100 inhabitants), Schoenenwerih, or Bellowertk (with 800 
inhabitants), Begendorf (with 1,100 inhabitants), and Grenehen (with 1,200 
inhabitants). 

16. The canton of TaaiMO (area: 1,044 square mUes; population : 114^000 



swrrzBRLAND. ie» 



Canlomi of Teslno and Tburgan. 



nhftbitants in 1846, but 121,000 mhabitants in 1847, speakmg, for the moet port, 
HUtlian, and being Gatholica), utoaied between Griaons (on ih» east) and 
Yalais (on the west), and on the eouth bordered by Lombardy. It consists 
of the 7 former Italian bailiflships of Bellinxona, RiTiera, Bollenz, Lugano^ 
Locarno, Meynthal, and Mendrisio, which were allied to the Swiss cantons^ 
until in 1808 they joined the confederacy as a canton by the name of Tesino 
(derired firom that of the river crossing the country). It is sometimes called 
Italian Switzerland, has no permanent capital, the towns of Bellimsona, Lugano^ 
and Locarno, being alternately the seat of government, and contains : Bklun- 
soNA, a town on the Tesino, or Tidno, south-eastward and 116 miles distant 
from Berne, with 8 castles, one of which is strongly fortified, 2 churches, 8 
eooyents, transit trade, and 1,600 inhabitants. Biviera, or Polue, chief town 
of the former baiUfiship of the same name. Crtio, or Oevio, chief town of 
the former bailifEship of Meynthal, has a population of 600 inhabitanta 
BoLLXNz (also called PalenxertheU), formerly a bailiflfehip, which in 1600 allied 
to the cantons of Uri, Scfaweitz, and Unterwalden. Lugano (in German, 
XoMU, or Lttvie), a town on the lake of the same name, southward and 19 
miles distant from Bellinaona, with 16 churches, 6 convents, various manufiio- 
tures, important tnide, and 4,700 inhabitants. Agno and Ponte Treea, towns, 
with respectively 1,900 and 860 inhabitants. Looaano, a town at the northern 
end of the lake Maggiore, westward and 9 miles distant from Bellinzooa, with 
1,700 inhabitants. Aeeona and Dongio, towns, with respectively 1,800 and 
1,000 inhabitants. Mxndkisio, or Mendris, a town near the lake of Lugano^ 
northward and 80 miles distant from Milan, with 8 convents, silk spinning, 
and 1,800 inhabitants. Airolo (with 1,100 inhabitants), and Oiomieo, or 
Imit (with 2 remarkable churches, and 900 inhabitants), towns situated in 
the valley of fjevantineu Other towns of this canton are : Balemo (with 760 
inhabitants), Staino (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Chiaaeo (with 800 inhabi- 
tants). 

16. The canton of Thukgau (area : 266 square miles ; population : 92,000 
inhabitants, speaking Oerman^ ami being Reformitite, with the exception of 
19,800 Caih4}lie9), on the western bank of the lake of Constance, on the west 
bordered by the canton of Zurich. This canton, the most fertile of Switzer- 
land, joined the confederacy in 1808, and contains: FaAUXMnu), the capital, 
on the Murg, south-westward and 18 mfles distant from Constance, with silk 
manufiu^tnres, and 2,200 inhabitants. Gottldcbkn, a town on the Rhine, and 
near Cooatanoe, with an old castle, where John How and the pope, John 



166 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Switzerland— Coatona of Unterwalden Kod Uri- 

XXIIL, were kept prisooers in 1415, transit trade, and 600 i 
Other towns of this canton are : Arbon (with yarious mannfactnrea, and 
1,100 inhabitants), Wein/elden (with 2,400 inhaUtants), Sleekbom (with 
2,200 inhabitants), Dietttenhofm (with 1,300 inhalntants), SMkofiuil (with 
2,600 inhabitants), Ermatingen (with 2,800 inhabitants), and Hawptweil (with 
2,200 inhabitants). 

17. The canton of UNTsawALDEN (area: 266 square miles; populataon: 
26,000 inhabitants, speaking GermaHf and being dxtkotien), situated in the 
interior of Switzerhind, on the south bordered by the canton of Berne, and 
on the north-west by the canton of Luzerne. It is crossed from &e south to 
the north by a forest, called Kemioaldf which divides the canton into t'vro 
districts, known by the names of NidwUden and Obwaiden (beneath and 
above the forest). Unterwalden is one of the three cantons, whidi in 1808 
first entered into a confederacy, and has no capital, Stanz (eastward and 46 
miles distant from Berne, with 2 convents, and 8,500 inhabitants) being the 
chief town of Nidwalden (which besides it contains the towns of Bueha, with 
1,600 inhabitants, and Stanzstad, or Stansstadi, with 800 iuhabitants). Hm 
chief town of Obwaiden is SAaNSV, on the lake of the same name, 9 miles 
west-south-west of Stanz, with a beautiful church, 2 convents, and 4,000 in- 
habitants. Sachsblk, or Saxeln, a village on the lake of Samen, with 2,200 
inhabitants, and a church, where the renowned hermit, Nicholas von der Flue 
(-|- 1487), is buried. Engelherg and Melchthal are two romantic vilbigea. 
Kemtt and Afpnachj or Altnacht^ towns with respectively 2,900 and 1,800 
inhabitants. 

18. The canton of ITri (area: 426 square miles; population: 14^500 in- 
habitants, si^eaking Gertnan^ and being Caiholies\ situated on the east 
of Unterwalden, and on the south-east and south bordered by the 
of Orison and Tesino. It was one of the the three cantons, whidi in 1908 
first entered into a confederacy, and contains : Altorf, the capital, on the 
Reuss and the lake of Luzerne, eastward and 55 miles distant from Berne, 
and southward and 86 miles distant from Zurich, with 2 convents, transit 
trade, and 1,900 inhabitants. Here it was, where Gessler (see History of 
Switzerland) lived. Not far from here b the wild, romantic valley, celled 
Sckaeehenthnl. Fluelxn, a village on the lake of Luzerne, with ooosiderefaie 
transit trade, and 650 inhabitants. Ooeachenerif a village on the new road 
over Mount St. Oothard (whose highest peak, called GalmOoeky is 11,900 
feet high), which at the same time leads over the Dmtt-hridgeiJaiaSli in 



SWrrZEBLAND. ie7 



OnntOBS of Uri, Valali bimI Vftod. 



em time, and oonsiatii^ of an «rcfa 55 feet wide, and built at the height of 
90 feet oyer the Reuss : the old DevilVbridge is still extant). In the vallej 
of Urmren is sitoated the Tillage of AndemuUtj with 1,400 inhabitants 

19. The canton of Yalaib (area : ld67 square miles ; population : 80,000 
inhabitants, being CaikolicB, and speaking partly French^ partly Otrman^ and 
partly Italian), the most southerly canton, bordered on the south by Pied- 
moot It belonged first to the Burgundian, and since the year 1082 to the 
German empire, became in the years 1475 and 1529 a member of the Swiss 
confederacy, was in 1810 annexed to the French empire (by the name of de- 
partment of Simplon), but in 1815 restored to independency. It is divided 
into Upper and Lower Valais, and contains : Sion (in Oerman Bitten), the 
capital of the canton, and chief town of Upper Y alais, near the Rhone, south- 
ward and 54 miles distant from Berne, and northward add 82 miles distant 
from Torin, with 6 churches (among which is a remarkable cathedral), a col- 
lege of Jesuits, and 8,200 inhabitanta Leuk (in French, Loueche), a town on 
the Rhone, is noted for its warm baths, and has 750 inhabitants. Simplon, a 
Tillage on the mountain of the same name (11,780 feet high), and on the road 
crossing the latter. Briff, Natert, and Bieder; towns on the Rhone and in 
Upper y alais, with respectively 750, 2,500, and 1,000 inhabitants. Maxtiont 
(in German, Martinaeh), chief town of lower Yalais, on the Dranse, south- 
westward and 9 miles distant from Sion, with vine culture on a large 
Bcale, considerable transit trade, and 1,250 inhabitants. Between this town 
and the frontier of Piedmont is the valley of Bagne, with 4,000 inhabitants. 
Here commences the road over the Gre€U St. Bernard (10,400 feet high, and 
belonging to the Pennine Alpe^ by which the French army passed into Italy 
in the month of May, 1800, and at whose top is a Benedictine monatiery 
(reared in the midst of the 10th century), where annually about 15,000 trav- 
eUen are hoepitaUy entertained. St. Mauxiox (in German St Moritx), a 
town on the Rhone, with considerable transit trade, and 1,200 inhabitants. 
Monthey, a town on the Yieze, with 1,100 inhabitants. 

20. The canton of Yaud (area: 1,186 square miles; population: 208,000 
inhabitanta, for the most part ReformitU, and of Frentih origin, only 0-,000 
speaking Qermam, and no more than 8,000 being Caikdiei), situated between 
the lakes of Geneva and Neuchatel, and in common life also called Frendh 
SmizeHand It belonged formerly to the canton of Berne, but joined the 
confederacy in 1798 as an actual member. It contains : Lausanhs, the capi* 
tal» CO the northern bank of the lake of Geneva, with a beautiful Gothic 



1«8 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

SwitzArland^Ckntoos uf Vaudt Zug, and Zorteh. 

cathedral and 2 other churcfaes^ sereral higher schools and literary institationi^ 
yine culture, and 10,000 inhabitanta. Qraiiimon (in German, Oranme)^ a 
town on the lake of Neuchatel, ia noted for a battle in 14*76, and has 1,000 
inhabitants. Ykvat, or Vimty a town on the hike of Geneva, with mannfitc- 
tures of watches, etc, and 4^700 inhabitants. Other towns of this canton are : 
La T<mr, sumamed de FeiU (with 800 inhaUtants), VUUneme (with 1,500 in- 
habitants), St, Saphorin (with 800 inhabitants), OuUy, or CuUly (with 2,900 
inhabitants), Luatri, or Lutry (with 1,500 inhabitants), Morg&i, or Mvnee 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), Avhonne (with 1,800 inhabitants), Nyon, in German, 
NeuM (with 2,800 inhabitants), Cappet (with 600 inhabitants), Yverdmi, or 
Jverdufif in German, Ifferten (with 8,200 inhabitants), Moudofi, in German, 
Miiden (with 1,600 inhabitants), ^veM<;A«t, in German, Wtfflitburg (with 1,100 
inhabitants), CoMohay (with 1,200 inhabitants), Payeme, in German, Peter' 
lingen (with 2,400 inhabitants), Romaiwinougtieri (with 1,200 inhabitanta^ 
EchallefUt in German, T»eherlitz (with 700 inhabitants), Orbe^ io German, 
Orbach (with 2,000 inhabitants), Aigle, in German, Aelen (with 1,900 inhabi- 
tants), and Bex (with the only salt- work in Switzerhuid, and 2,400 inhabitants). 
The valley ofloux is noted for its manufactures of watches, swords, hard-ware, 
etc., and has a population of 8,000 inhabitants. 

21. The canton of Zno (area: 85 square miles; population: 16,500 inhabi- 
tants, speaking Gemtan, and being Catholiei)^ situated on the south side of 
the canton of Zurich. It joined the confederacy in 1352, and contains: Zne, 
the capital, on the lake of the same name, southward and 14 miles distant 
from Zurich, with transit trade, and 8,500 inhabitanta South-eastward and 
miles distant from Zug is the little mountain or hill of Jiorgarten, noted for a 
battle in 1815. Boar and Cham, towns, with respectively 2,500 and 1,300 
inhabitants. Other towns of this canton are : Aegeri (with 2,800 inhabitants), 
Walehwyl (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Maentingen (with 1,500 inhabitanis). 

22. The canton of ZuaioR (area: 686 square miles; population: 280,000 
inhabitants, speaking Qemum, and being BrformiHt, with the exoeptioD of 
2,000 Catholiet), m the northern part of Switcerhuid, at about 20 miles distance 
from the lake of Ckmstance, on the north bordered by the canton of SdMf- 
bausen. It joined the confederacy in 1851, and contains : Zuaicn, the capital^ 
on the lake of the same name, and on the Limmat, 46 miles easteonth-eaai 
of Baflle, with a university (see above), 4 churches (at St Peter's, the cele- 
orated Lavater was minister), several literary and charitable institutional 
varioos manufactures, considerable trade, and 15,000 mfaabitants. In I79»» 



SWITZERLAND. 169 



Canton of Zurich. 



a battle was fought here between the French and the Anstro-RusBians. 
WnmaTHua, a town, situated north-eastward and 14 miles distant from 
Zurich, with various literary institutions, manufoctures, and 8,050 inhabitanta 
Pf^kon^ Wold, and AffoUem, extensive and highly industrUraa villages, with 
respectively 8,600, 5,000, and 1,900 inhabitants, Ztmfn^ a village near 
Schafhausen, and on the Rhine, whose falls are hero. Cappel, a village near 
the frontier of the canton of Zug, is noted for a battle, in which the Reformists 
of Zurich were defeated by the Swiss CathdUos, and where Zwingli was killed. 
KvBiTao, a town, situated south-eastward and 14 miles distant from Zurich, 
with an ancient mountain-castle, reared in 1079, and onco the seat of renowned 
and powerful counts of Kyburg. Other towns in this canton are : ^eumunsier 
(with 4,400 inhabitants), H&rgen (with 4,000 mhabitants), Byelach (with 3,000 
inhabitants), MeUen (with 5,100 inhabitants), Staefa (with 3,600 inhabitants), 
SgfUau (with 1,800 inhabitants), Andelfingen (with 2,900 inhabitants), Chrue- 
ningen (with 1,400 inhabitants), Wdedenaehwyl, or WaedentwU (with 6,000 
inhabitants), RichteMchweU (with 2,800 inhabitants), Marthalen (with 1,450 
inhabitants), Mlg (with 2,500 inhabitants), Urter (with 8,200 inhabitants), and 
Oouau (with 8,600 inhabitants). Upper and Lower Stammheim are two 
towns, which together have a population of 2,500 inhabitants, and mineral 
baths. 



8 



FRANCE. 

Asia : 204,826 square mfles. 
Population: 86,401,000 inhabitant& 

France, lying on the south-west side of Gennanj, and on 
the south separated from Spain by the Pyrenees, touches the 
North Sea only with a small part of its northern extremity, is 
separated from the British Islands by the Strait of Dover and 
the English Channelj and is bounded on the west by the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Bay of Biscay^ and on the south by the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and the Gulf of Lyons. (See Introduction, or General 
View of Europe, § 8.) 

In France, every fifth year a census is taken ; and the above- 
stated population is according to the last one, of the year 1846 ; 
and the number of inhabitants was then exactly 35,400,486. 
According to the census of 1841 the population was 34,173,234, 
and according to that of 1836 it was 33,540,910 inhabitants. 
Thus in the period from 1836 to 1841, the population had 
increased by 632,324, and in the period from 1841 to 1846 by 
1,227,252 inhabitants. In the year 1700 (when Corsica and 
LorrMue were no^ yet annexed to France) the population amounted 
to 19,669,320 inhabitants, and in 1773 to 23,531,000 inhabitants. 

The great mass of the people consists of French, belonging to 
the great family of the Romanians (see General View of Europe, 
^ 12). The number of Germans (chiefly in Alsace and Lorraine) 
is about 1,500,000; and in French Flanders live about 180,000 
Flemings (see Introduction, ^ 12). In the Frenoh province of 



9RAN0E. 171 



OeograplilG«l FmIotm. 



Brittany are nearly 1,200,000 Breyzardsj or desoendants of the 
ancient Briians, who settled here in the 5th century (see History 
of Europe, ^ 4), and in Oasoogne ahout 150,000 Basques. (See 
General View of Europe, ^ 12). Near the Pyrenees are to he 
found Crypsies, perhaps 9,000 in numher. 

There is no estahlished religion in France, all denominations 
being equal in the eye of the law ; but the great mass of the 
people are Roman Catholics (under the church-authority of 14 
archbishops and 66 bishops); while only about 4,000,000 are 
Frotestanis (nearly 3,000,000 Reformists, and about 1,000,000 
Lutherans). There are nearly 4.000 convents with 24,000 
religions, of whom, however, 18,000 are sisters, or nuns, who have 
devoted themselves to the attendance and care of the sick and 
to the education of children. 

The face of the country is moutUainous in the south and east, 
levd in the north, and diversified in the centre. For the moun- 
tain ranges which, beside parts of the Pyrenees, Alps, and Jura, 
belong to France, see General View of Europe, ^ 7, A. 

The 4 principal rivers of France : Sdm^ Loirey Garonne, and 
Rhone, are together with their chief tributaries, and with the 
other rivers, as: Var, HerauU, Aude, Somme, etc., described in 
General View of Europe, ^10. The principal canals in France 
are the following : the canal cfLanguedoc, connecting the Garonne 
with the Mediterranean Sea ; the caruU of the centre, connecting 
the Loire with the Saone ; the Rhine^anal, connecting the Rhine 
with the Saone, and the canal of Burgundy, connecting the Seine 
with the Rhone. It may be mentioned here, that at the present 
time railrroads are crossing many parts of France. The most im- 
portant of them, are those which connect Havre de Grace with 
Paris, and this capital with Strasburg. 

The climate is in general temperate, France lying between the 
parallels of 42^ and 50° N. lat In the south, it is sometimes 



lit fiUBOPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Natiml npodods of Franoe. 

yery hot ; bat thero, as well as in other parts of the eoontry, it 
has sometimefi also been yery cold, especially in 1608, in the 
beginning of last oentory, and in 1776. 

The soil is, upon the whole, fertile, yet there are also many 
barren and desert tracts, together amonnting to 7,799,672 hec- 
tares, or 30,279 square miles (nearly one seventh of the total 
area of France). Of the arable land, about 14,000,000 heo- 
tares (or 54,346 square miles) are appropriated to gndn-raising; 
and in 1843 there were 5,338,043 hectares (257^ hectares are 
nearly equal to one English square mile) cultivated with wheaij 
2,638,948 with rye, 1,300,186 with barlep, 2,840,360 with oaiSj 
700,890 with buckwheat, and 595,227 with maize and millet. Upon 
an average, the annual produce is about 333,000,000 bushels of 
grain, 128,000,000 of which consist of wheat (Beside which, 
the annual harvest of potatoes may be computed at 170,000,000 
bushels.) All the grain raised in the country is at times not 
sufficient for home consumption, and in the period from 1815 to 
1841, grain has been imported from foreign countries to the 
amount of 464,000,000 francs in value. The agriculture in France 
is generally in a backward state, or at least inferior to that of 
England, Belgium, and Germany. Of fuc greater importance 
is the vine culture^ to which purpose 2,134,822 hectares were 
appropriated in 1843. At all events, Franoe ranks first among 
the wine countries in the world, and its annual produce in winea 
may on an average be estimated at 720 million gallons (next to 
France, follows the Austrian empire, inclusive Hungary, with an 
annual produce of about 603 million gallons ; then Spain, with 
about 153 million, and then Germany, with about 81 million 
gallons). Other productions of the vegetable kingdom are prin- 
cipally : madder (in the environs of Avignon, and other parts of 
Provence, and in Languedoc), firwits (apples in Normandy and 
Brittany, plums in Gascony)^ sugar beets (of which at least 28 



FRANOK 178 



FoiMt»— Beving of OirtUe— Mineral Prodacla. 



million poands of sugar are made anoually), dives (reiiowaed is 
the olive-oil from Provence), tobacco (cultivated only in Brittany, 
Qaaconjj French Flanders, and Alaace, the tohacco trade being 
a monopoly of the government), capers, almonds, and truffles 
(renowned are the truffles of Perigord). Before the revolution 
of 1789, France had extensive and valuable forests, bat they have 
since been thinned so extravagantly that in 1843 no more than 
7,422,315 hectares, or only about the seventh part of the total 
area of France, were still woodland, of which moreover only the 
14th part consisted of forests of tall trees. 

The rearing of cattle is in France, even more than agriculture, 
in a backward state, and in 1843 the total number was only 
9,130,632, whereas for instance Austria numbered in the same 
year 1 1,389,001 heads of black cattle. The best breed is that of 
Normandy and Auvergne. For the home consumption, the cattle 
reared in France are not found sufficient. The number of horses 
throughout the country is estimated at 2^ million ; the finest 
breed is to be found in Normandy and Limousin, but even these 
horses are inferior to those of Mecklenburg, Oldenburg, and 
other parts of Germany, from which countries numerous horses 
are annually imported to remount the French cavalry. In Poi- 
tou and Auvergne are reared fine mules. The numbers of sheep 
(the finest breed is in Berry) amounted in 1843 to 29,130,231 
(in the same year in Austria there were numbered 31,809,481 
sheep). Of goats, the fine breed from Angora and Thibet, intro- 
duced into France since 1819, thrives well in the southern prov* 
inoes. In these provinces the rearing of sUk-^uHfrms is also very 
important 

Of mineral products, France has only iron and coal in somewhat 
oonsiderable quantities. Most of the iron mines are in Cham- 
pagne, Burgundy, Franche-Comtd, Lorraine, Nivernais, Lyonnais, 
and Berry, and in 1842 the total produce was 6,954,100 



W4 EUROPE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

Manufiustaras and Ck>mmeroe of Fnnoe. 

metric quintals of iron of various descriptions. The total pro- 
duce of coal amounted in the same year to 35,920,843 metric 
quintals, but being not sufficient for home consumption, nearly 
17 million quintals had to be imported from Belgium and 
England. Of precious metals, only silver is obtained in Baa- 
phiny; and the annual produce of copper (chiefly found in 
Navarre and Beam, Dauphiny, Lyonnais, and Lower Alsace) may 
be estimated at 3,000 quintals. SaU is made in rather large 
quantities by evaporation of sea-water at Gette and other mari- 
time towns. France abounds in warm springs and mineral vtaiersj 
on account of which especially Bagn^res and Bardges (in the 
Pyrenees), Bourbon I'Archambault and Yichy (in Bourbonnais), 
etc., are much visited. 

The manufactures are various and numerous, and the value of 
the annually manufactured goods (cotton, woollen, silk, and &ncy 
goods, hard- ware, jewelry, perfumes, paper, etc.) is estimated at 
9400,000,000 to 9500,000,000. Many of the French shawb rival, 
if not in fineness and softness, at least in the elegance of pat- 
tern, those of Cashemere. The French paper is almost unrival- 
led ; and in some respects the same may be said of French doth. 

Next to Great Britain, France ranks first as a commercial staie^ 
and its exports and imports for the year 1843 were in value 
2,179,000,000 francs (about 8436,000,000), the exports being in 
value 992,000,000 francs (or about 9198,500,000), and the im- 
ports in value 1,187,000,000 francs (or about 8237,500,000). 
(In 1840 the total value of the exports and imports of the Uni- 
ted States was about 8214,500,000, but with the difference that 
here the exports exceeded the imports by nearly 820,000,000, 
while in France the imports were by 195,000,000 francs, or nearly 
839,000,000 more in value than the exports. Moreover, the 
commerce of France does not extend to all parts of the world, 
like that of the United States ; as for instance, its intercourse 



FRANCE. 1Y6 

. ^ 



Edaeatlon— UniTenltte. 



with China and India is comparatiyelj very insignificant.) Tho 
French exports are chiefly silks^ cations^ toooUens, vfvne^ brandy^ 
madder^ paper and paper-hangings, looking-glasses and plate-glass, 
laces, and fiincy articles of all kinds, oliye-oil, fruits, etc. The 
ehief imports are cotton^ raw sUky wool, grain^ sugary coaij timber, 
fars and hides, iron, and indigo. 

Of the means of education in France it may be said, that there 
is much ado about nothing. All schools (with the exception of 
military, mining, and other similar academies) are under the spe- 
cial direction of a supreme board at Paris, styled the university, 
which however has nothing to do with teaching or instructing 
like other institutions bearing this name. It is a characteristic 
evidence of the system of centralization prevailing in France, 
that just as 27 tribunals are subjected to the control of the court 
of cassation (or supreme court), so 27 academies (as they are 
styled) are subjected to the control of the university ; while all 
common and other inferior schools are again subjected to these 
academies. France has no universities like those of Germany, 
etc., that is with all 4 faculties united (see the explanatory note, 
page 95), btU the faculties are separated, though they have re- 
tained that name. The university of Paris, so renowned in the 
middle ages (see History of Europe, ^ 17,^*), is still extant, and 
was in 1841 frequented by about 7,000 students, >^but it con- 
sists at present of three faculties (of theology, of jurisprudence, 
and of medicine), separated from each other. It is the same 
with that of Toidouse (founded in 1233, and in 1841 with 1,250 
students), and of Strashurg (founded in 1638, and 880 students 
in the last-named year). The former universities of Lyons 
(founded in 1300), ^tx (founded in 1409), JBorieavr (founded in 
1447), and Rouen (founded in 1800) are now reduced to faculties 
of catholic theology (only in Aix is also a faculty of jurispru- 
dence) ; — those of Caety (founded in 1433), Dijon (founded in 



nS EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Bdoeatkm in Franee— Form of GoTernmeiit. 

1722), Poitiers (founded in 1411), and Rennes (founded in 1801), 
to faculties of jurisprudence ; — that of Monipellier (founded in 
12S9), to a faculty of medicine ; that of MofUaiiikin (founded in 
1800), to a protostant theological faculty; and that of Besan^on 
^founded in 1564), to a faculty of philosophy. Moreoyer, there 
Ate faculties of science and literature (as they are styled) in Paris, 
Oaen, Dijon, Grenoble, Montpellier, Strasburg, and Toulouse. 
W^ith regard to secondary schools, there are 358 public colleges 
^numbering 57,278 pupils in 1844), 1,100 private schools (with 
35,000), and 120 clerical schools (with 20,000 pupils). The 
primary schools throughout France were in 1840 frequented by 
2,881,679 children. (The common schools of Germany are an- 
lually frequented by more than 6 million children.) In 1837 
':here were 7,682, and in 1840 still 4,196 French communities 
oiihout schools at all (in Germany even not the smallest parish is 
\nthout a school), and according to the statement of a credible 
French statistician (Legoyty in his '^ France statistique''), out of 
3very one thousand French 405 (upon an average) can neilher 
eadnor write. In 1843 there were out of 50,352 schoolmasters, 
.lot less than 23,048 who had only an annual salary of 200 francs 
{or little more than 840) each, while that of the remainder 
miounted to no more than 300 francs. Now the sum for the 
iustenanoe of a galley-slave in the bagnos of Toulon, Rochefort, 
iud Lorient is fixed at 319 francs annually ; thus the wants of 
:)ulprits are indeed better provided for, than those of teachers in 
bhe public schools. 

The form of government is at present, i. e., since the year 
1848, republican ; the legislative power being vested in an As- 
iembl^Q f Congress, and the executive power in a President, 
chosen x<^0(^4 years. How long this form may last, nobody can 
at present ^ay; yet it is at all events a curious fact, that 
France has had not less than ei^ht constitutions since its first 



PRANCE. m 

Flnaneial PBrticalan. 



revolutioDy vis. : in 1791 (limited monarohy), 1793 (republic, with 
terrorism), 1795 (republic with aristocratism), 1799 (republic 
with absolutism), 1804(uDlimited military monarchy), 1814 (lim- 
ited monarchy), 1830 (forms of limited pionarchy with actual 
absolutism and money-aristocracy), and 1848 (republic with ten- 
dency to monarchical reaction). 

It is evident that under such circumstances the public finances 
of the country could not prosper. Shortly before the reyolution 
of 1789 the public debt amounted to about 4,200 million livres, 
or francs; in 1838 it had increased to 4,590,876,111, and at 
present it amounts to more than five thousand miilion francs, not- 
withstanding the confiscation of several thousand millions of 
church, private, and other property, in the time of the first revo- 
lution. In 1787 the deficit in the public revenue and expenditure 
was 180 million livres, and in 1846 the deficit amounted to 
421,462,992 francs 1 In 1788 the ratio in tax-paying of the 
French people fell short of 22 livres per head, and in 1846 this 
ratio had increased to almost 79 francs. None of the French 
rulers since the first revolution has extorted more money from the 
people than Louis Philipe. In the year anterior to the revolution 
of 1830 the amount of the public expenditure was 977,935,329, 
and in the year posterior to this revolution it was 1,233,000,000 
francs ; in 1832 it was still more, and so it increased in regular 
progression until in 1846 it had reached the height of 1,727,999,- 
673 francs! In 1829 the public revenue and expenditure had 
yielded a surplus of 1,180,382 francs, and every year posterior to 
the revolution of 1830 brought a.deficity which in 1843 amounted 
to 39,826,728 francs, in 1844 to about 157,750,000, in the follow- 
ing year to 350,000,000, and in 1846 to 421,462,992 francs 1 
We repeat, it was not the amount of the public debt, nor the 
public expenditure, but a real and plain deficit. Neither the P^bUo 
debt nor the expenditure were affected by such a \Ti1iey th^ former 

8* 



178 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Floaooes, Aimy ond Navy of Franoe. 






reqniriDg at the samo period nearly 375 million francs for pay- 
ing interest, and the latter amounting (as has been stated above) 
to nearly 1,728 million francs. In short, at the beginning of the 
year 1846 the account stood exactly thus : 

Interest of the public debt, 874,846^86 franca. 

Other branches of the expenditure, 1,868,161,187 

The deficit of the last year, 421,462,992 

Arrears of the former deficits, 293,660,267 " 

Extraordinary loan contracted by the government, to 
make head against temporary embarrassments, and 

for which public forests were mortgaged, 860,000,000 " 

Total amount^ 2,798,019,982 franoL 

Divide this enormous sum by the population of Franoe, then 
amounting to about 35,400,000 inhabitants, and it will be found 
that each inhabitant had to contribute almost 79 francs. The 
revolution of 1848 has anew increased the public expenditure, 
and in 1849 a fresh loan of 200 million francs was required. 

The French army comprised in 1846, according to official 
statements, 340,000 men, and 81,669 horses ; and the navy con- 
sisted in 1845 of 23 ships of the line, 30 frigates, 22 sloops of 
war, 154 other vessels, 4 steam frigates, and 41 other steam 
vessels, all in active service ; while 23 ships of the line, 20 frigates, 
3 sloops of war, and 2 schooners, were in the navy yards, and 4 
steam frigates, and 18 other steam vessels, still on the stocks. 

The monarchy having been again abolished, honorary orders 
are of course out of question, at least for the present ; the more 
BO as since the revolution of 1830 only the order of the legion 9' 
hotu>r (instituted in 1802 by Bonaparte) was retained and distrib- 
uted by Louis Philipe in such an immense number (more than 
50,000), that it was almost degraded to dbdain. The farmer 



FRANCE. 179 



HMoiy—- The 0^>et DynartT*. 



orders of honor, distributed before the reyolution of 1789, and in 
the period from 1814 to 1830, were the following: — 1. The order 
of the Holy Ghost, instituted by King Henry III., in 1 579. 2. The 
order of St, Louis (instituted by Louis XIY., in 1693, for Catholic 
officers of the army and navy). 3. The oider of St, Michael 
(instituted by Louis XI., in 1469, and renewed in 1665). 4. The 
order of Miiita/ry Merit (instituted by Louis XY., in 1759, for 
protestant officers). 

Higlcry. — ^The aborigines of the country were the IberianSy and subeequently 
the Cdti (see Introdoetion, or General View of Europe, § 12), by the Romans 
ealled ChxuU, The country itself was then, and until the 5th century, only 
known by the name of OayL In the period from the year 124 to 60 R C, 
the Romans subjected the whole country. The changes brought on since the 
beginning of the 6th century, by German tribes, especially by the FrankM^ 
have been reUted in the History of Europe (g§ 8, 8, and 14), where we have 
learned that by the terms of the treaty of Verdun in 848, Charles the Bald 
acquired France. He died in 877, and his descendants and successors being 
weak kings, the race of the Flrench OarloTingians was towards the end of the 
10th century excluded from the throne, upon which in 987 the mighty duke of 
Francia (subsequently called Isle de France, and comprising the dty of Paris), 
JJugh Capetf was raised to it by the French barons, or yassals of the crown. 
With him, the reign of the OApniNOXAifB commenced (Louis Fhilipe, as well 
as other members of the House of Bom'bon, are descendants of Hugh Capet). 
Hugh Capet, or as King, Hugh /, died in 996, and was succeeded by his son 
Robert I. (996-1081); then followed in succession: Henry I. (1081-1060), 
PhUip I. (1060-1108), LwU VL (1108-1187), Zww VU. (1187-1180). The 
hiRt-named king was succeeded by Philip 11^ sumamed Awjwstu^ who reigned 
from the year 1180 to 1228, and in this period the wara hetioeen Prance and 
England commenced. King Henry IL, of England, being at the same time 
duke of Anjou and Normandy by birth, acquired moreover, by marriage and 
inheritance, Brittany, Guyenne, Poitou, etc, and became thus possessed of nearly 
the whole western half of France. The French king refusing to acknowledge 
the claims of Henry II., the wars commenced, and lasted, though with many 
intervals, two centuries and a half, without a final success on the part of the 
^SHgl«*fc The successors of Philip II. were the following: Loms VUI. 



180 EUROPE» PAST AND PRESENT. 

Home of Boarbon— Pint Frendi ttevolotloii— Napoleon. 

(1223-1226), LmeU IX., sunuuned the ffoly (1226-1270), PhUip III (1270- 
1286), FhUip IV^ sarnamed the Fair (1286-1314), and in the short period 
from 1314 to 1328, PhUip the Fair's sons Louie X, Philip V., and CharUe IK 
With the last-named king, the chief line of the Capetingians hecame extinct, 
*md now the collateral line of the House of Valoie ascended the throne in the 
person of Philip VI. (great-grandson of Eing Louis IX^ and reigning finom 
1828 to 1350). His soocessors (belonging, like him, to the House of Valois) 
were the following: John, sumamed the Oood (1360-1364), Chariee V^ sur- 
named the Wiee (1364-1380), Chariee VL (1380-1422), CharUe VIL (1421^- 
1461 ; at this time lived the fiEunous Maid of Orleans, named Joan of Arc), 
Lome XL (1461-1483), CharUe VIIL (1483-1498X ixmu XIL (1498-1516), 
Franeie I (1616-1547), Henry IL (1647-1659), Fronde IL (1669-1660), 
Chariee IX. (1660-1674 ; during his reign, in 1572, the horrible murder of 
French Protestants, in the night of Saint Bartholomew's day, occurred), and 
Htnry IIL (1674-1689). With Henry IIL, who was murdered by a nnxik, 
ihe House of Valois became extinct, and now the House of Bowrhon ascended 
iie throne. The first king from this house (whose ancestor was Robert of 
Clermont, second son of Eing Louis IX.) was Henry IV. (1689-1610), whose 
Cather, Anton of Bourbon, was married to Johanna, heiress of Navarre, from 
which cause, Henry became possessed of this kingdom (l e., its part lying on 
he north side of the Pyrenees) too, and bequeathed it to his descendants and 
successors on the French throne. Henry was murdered on the 14th of May, 
1610, by Ravaillac, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIIL (1610-1643). 
The following kings were: Lome XIV. (1648-1715), Lome XV. (his greats 
^andson, 1716-1774), and Lcmie XVI. (grandson of Louis XV.), who 
ascended the throne in 1774, and was a good-natured and honest man, but 
not at all qualified for a ruler. Being of an extremely weak and yieldii^ 
Lemper, he made one concession after the other to the leaders of the jin^ 
hVench revolution (see History of Europe, § 18), and this was the surest way, 
irst to be deprived of his royal prerogatives (on the 3d of September, 1791), 
and then of his life on the scaffold (on the 21st of January, 1793). The rei^ 
of terror lasted for more than a whole year, viz.: from the 24th of July, 1798, 
to the 28th of July, 1794, and that of the so-called Directory (govenunent of 
dve members) from the 26th of October, 1795, to the Ipth of November, 
L799, when BonaparU attained the power, first as Contul^ and in 1804 as 
EmperoT,hj the name of Napoleon. In 1814, he was compelled by the other 
European powers to surrender the imperial crown of France, in exchange for 



FRANCE. 181 



Second and Third Revolution— Departments and ProTiooea. 



the sovereignty of the little island of Elba (see page 126), the Bourbons returned 
to France, and LomtXVIIL was established on the French throne. In March, 
1816, Napoleon suddenly landed on the French ooast^ and in a few days his 
banner again waved triumphant over all France, but in the battle of Waterloo, 
oa the 18tb of June, 1815, he was utterly overthrown, and the Bourbons returned 
for a second time. Louis X VIIL died on the 1 6th of September, 1 824, and was 
succeeded by his brother Charles X, By the revolution of 1880, the Bourbons 
were banished anew from the French territory, with the exception of the 
duke of Orleans (a descendant of Philip of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV.), 
who by the name of Lofuin Philip was proclaimed king of the French, but 
experiened at last the very same fate which he had prepared to his cousin 
and antecessor, eighteen years before. By the revolution of February, 1848, 
be was compelled to make his escape to England, and the French citizen- 
kii^hood was transformed into a republic 

Before the first French revolation France was divided into as 
many provinces (32 great, and 8 smaller ones, ^hich latter were, 
except Corsica, inclosed by the former), as there had been baro- 
nages, or duchies and counties, in the middle ages. In 1790 this 
arrangement was abolished, and the country divided into 86 (at 
first into 63) departments^ and their names derived chiefly from 
the rivers, mountains, and other natural objects within their 
limits. The departments are subdivided into districts (363 in all), 
the latter into cantons (2,846), and the cantons again into commu- 
nities (37,295 in aU). Each department is governed by a prefect, 
each district by an under-prefect, and each canton and commu- 
nity by a mayor. But as the names of the provinces have all 
since continued to be used in common life, and as they moreover 
continually occur in history and other reading, we have retained 
them in the following description, and combined them at the 
same time with the departmental division, in a manner that it 
easily can be found out which and how many departments each 
province comprises. The chief toions of departments are marked 
by a cross i-^\ 



18S EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Tlie French Prorlnoe of Isle de Fnuioe. 

L IsLB DB Frakob. — ^This proTince, ODoe called J^Vanein (see History of 
France), and subeequenUy Isle de France, or Island of France, on account of 
its insular situation amidst the risers of Seine, Mame, Oise, etc^ comprises 5 
departments, viz. : the AiMu Department (part of which belongs to Picardy ; 
its chief town is Laon), the Oite Department (chief town Beauyais), the Seine 
and Oiee Department (chief town Versailles), the Setne Department (with 
P^uis), and the Seine and Mame Department (chief town Melun). I. Tha 
Seine Department contains : -|~Pabib, the capital of all France, on the Seine, 
165 miles south-south-west of Brussels, with a population of 1,068,907 inhal> 
itante, according to the census of 1846. It embraces (beside 14 suburbs) 
three parts, called vt//e, eite^ and univereUy, The viUe is situated on the 
north side of the Seine, the cit6 (city proper) on the islands of the river, and 
the university on the south side of the Seine. Paris is next to London the 
first dty in Europe for sice ; and its numerous public buildings and palaces 
generally excel those of the British capital It contains about 30,000 houses 
(numy of which are eight stories high), 1,160 streets, 76 public plaeee (aooong 
which are, the place of Vendome with the statue of Napoleon on a column 188 
feet high ; the place of Concord, formerly called place of Louis XV., where 
Louis XVL was executed, and which is at present adorned by an obelisk 
from Luxor, and the place of Victory, with an equestrian statue of Louis 
XIV.), 22 bridffes (among which the Pont Neuf, 1,020 feet long and 72 feet 
wide, with an equestrian statue of Henry IV.), 41 ehurchee (^e most remark- 
able of which is the Gothic cathedral of Notre Dame), 26 hospitals, 84 bai^ 
racks, 24 theatres, and 8 former royal palacea The most prominent among 
these palaces are the Tuileriea (reared in 1664 and the followiiig years by 
Queen Catharine of Medici), connected by side-wings with the Lovvre (founded 
in 1528 by Francis L), and the Palaie Royal (reared by the cardinal Riche- 
lieu in the years 1629-16S6, presented by him to Louis XIIL, and subse- 
quently by Louis XIV. to his brother Philip of Orleans, who bequeathed it 
to his descendants). Other remarkable public buildings are : the palace o^ 
Luxembourg (founded in 1612 by Queen Ifory of Medici, widow of Henry IV.), 
the Hotel oflnvalide (since 1840 containing the mortal remains of NapuleooX 
the palace of Justice (reared in the 9th century, and until 1481 the roiyal 
residence), the Hotel Dieu, the Salpetridre (containing 4,000 tenants), etc. 
The most remarkable of the public gardens is the Jardin dee plantet, or 
botanic garden, with 7,000 exotic plants and a menagery. Paris is also noted 
lor the value of its puhlie librariee (43 in all, and the principal pubUe Ulniy 



FRANOK 188 



The ProTince of lale de Fnmoe. 



ooDtnios 700,000 volomes, and 70,000 mantiscripts), collections of pictures, etc:, 
and literary insiiiutioiiB ; and moreover for its numerous and yarious mano- 
laetures. Its inland trade is very important Paris was founded already 
before the Christian era, but then known only by the name of Lutetia ; it 
was burnt down by the ParUutns, a Celtic tribe, but built up again by the 
Romans, and since that time the name of Paris came into use. The kings of 
the race of the Merovingians and Carlovingians resided here only at times, 
but the Capetingians permanently, except in the period from 1672 to 1790, 
during which the kings of France resided at Versailles. Louis Philipe used to 
reside during the sunmier season in his palace at Neuilly, a town with 8,000 
inhabitants. St. Dbnis, a town near the right bank of the Seine, with 9,500 
inhabitants, and a formerly renowned Benedictine abbey (founded in the year 
600 by King Clotar IL), in whose magnificent church is the sepulchre of the 
Toyal fiimily of France, the mortal remains of 26 kings of France, 16 queens, 
and 88 princes and princesses having been deposited there. Other towns of 
this department are : Patsy (with 8,100 inhabitants), Vincennes (with 6,000 in- 
habitants, and a renowned castle, reared in 1887 by Philip of Valois), Cha- 
renion (near the junction of the Mame with the Seine, with a mad-house, 
and 1,500 inhabitants), 8eeaux (with important cattle fiurs, and 1,800 inhabi- 
tants), and Bourg la Reine (with a manufitctory of porcelain). 2. The Seine 
emd Oiee Department contains : -f-V sasAiLLBs, chief town, 9 miles west-south- 
west of Versailles, with 80,000 (before the revolution of 1789 with nearly 
100,000) inhabitants, and a vast palace (1,800 feet long), reared by Louis 
XIV., and the splendid royal residence in the period 1672-1790, with a 
highly remarkable park and water-works. About 4 miles distant from here 
is Marly, a town on the Seine, with 1,500 inhabitants, and a former royal 
palace. Within the limits of the park of Versailles is situated St. Cyr, 
formerly a convent of Austin nuns, instituted in 1686 by Madame de Mainte- 
nan (married to Louis XFV. with the left hand), at present a military acad- 
emy. Not fiir from here are the former royal palaces of Great and Little 
THanon. St. Gbkxain, sumamed en Laye, a town on the left bank of the 
Seine, opposite St. Denys, with 11,000 inhabitants, and a great former royal 
palace, reared by King Frauds I., and in which Henry II., Charles IX., and 
Louis XIV. were bom, and where James IL of England lived until his 
death. St. Cloud, a town on the Seine, opposite the Bois de Boulogne 
(which is connected with the garden of the Tuileries at Paris), with 8,000 
and a former royal palace, in which Henry IIL was murdered^ 



184 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



The Frendi ProTlnoe of Isle de France. 



Kot fiir from here are Sevbib (a town with 4,000 inhabitants, and a oelehrated 
manufactory of porcelain), and Malmauon, once the fiei7orite palace of Napo- 
leon, where his ccNssort Josephine died in 1814. Momtmosknct, a town in 
the romantic valley of the same name, with 1,900 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this department are : RueU (with 8,000 inhalntants, and a palace, once the 
frequent abode of the cardinal Ridielieu), Rambcmllet (with 8,200 inhabitants, 
and a palace, where Francis I. died in 1647), PontoUe (with 5,800 inhabit 
tants), Eeouen (with 1,600 mhabitants), Argenieml (with 6.000 inhabitantB), 
Corbeil (with 3,900 inhabitants), Mantes (with 4,400 inhabitants), EtampeB 
(with 8,500 inhabitants), Meudon, (with 8,000 inhabitants), Paisty (with im- 
portant cattle fiurs, and 3,000 inhabitants), and MerevUle (with the most 
considerable fairs of the Department). 8. The Seine and Mame Departmeni 
contains: 4~Mklum, chief town, oo the Seine, south-eastward and 28 miles 
distant from Paris, with a remarkable church, and 7,000 inhabitants. Fom- 
TAiNBBLKAU, a towu on the Seine and in an eztensive and beautiful forrest^ 
87 miles south-south-east of Paris, with 8,800 inhabitants, and a celebrated 
yast palace, the frequent seat of the last members of the House of Yaloist 
and where in 1657 Monaldeschi, equerry of the Swedish queen Christiana, 
was murdered by her command. Other towns of this department are: 
Nenwwrs (with 4.000 inhabitants), Nangia (with 2,500 inhabitants), and Brie 
mr YereSf or Brie ConUe Robert (with 8,000 inhabitants). These three last- 
named towns belong to the ancient district of la Briefran^tnae (la Brie duon- 
penoise is within the limits of Champagne, and comprises the towns of 
Meauz, Provins, Coulommiers, and La Fertd sous Jouarre, which in adminis- 
tratiye regard belong to the Seine and Mame Department). 4. The Oim 
Department contains : -|~Bkau7ais, chief town on the Therain, eastward and 
46 miles distant from Rouen, and 46 miles north-north-west of Paris, with a 
remarkable Gothic cathedral, important mannfifictures of carpets, doth, eio, 
and 14,000 inhabitants. CoMPixGin, a town on the Oiae, 46 miles north-north- 
east of Paris, with an andent palace (where in fanner times the royal court 
used to reside in the summer season), several Gothic diurdies, and 9,500 in- 
habitants. CLKRMOin', sumamed en BeoMnaieie (at present also called C^et' 
monl'Oiae\ a town eastward and 18 miles distant from Beauyais, with nnmer* 
ous manufactures, and 2,000 inhabitants. Saleney^ a village on the Oise, 
noted for its feast of roses, celebrated annually on the 8th of June, and insti* 
tulcd in the 5th century by the holy Medardua. Cbspt, or Creepy en Valeie^ 
a town southward and 13 miles distant from Compidgne, with 2^00 inhabit 



FBANOS. IM 

The ProTincet of Ue de France and Nonnandy. 

tants, 18 noted for a treaty of peace, oonclnded here on the 18th of Septem- 
ber, 1544, between Francis I. and the emperor Charles V. Other towns of 
this department are : 8&nlU (with a beautiful Gothic cathedral, whoee steeple 
is one of the highest in France, and 6,500 inhabitants), CKanUUy (with 2,000 
inhabitants, important manufactures of laces, etc, and the remains of a once 
renowned palace of the princes of Oonde), and Creil (with 2,000 inhabitants). 
5. The Aune DeparttnerU contains : -{"Laon, chief town, on a hiU and surrounded 
by fortifications, north-eastward and 74 miles distant from Paris, with a vast 
and remarkable cathedral, and 9,000 inhabitants. Soissons, a town on the 
Aiane, north-eastward and 60 miles distant from Paris, with a remarkable ca> 
thedral, and 8,500 inhabitants, is noted for a battle in 486, in which King CIotis 
L defeated Sjagrius, the last Roman goTemor in France. Other towns of this 
department are : Chauny (with 4,000 inhabitants), La Ferte MUon (with 2,000 
inhabitants), Craonne (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Or&ipy en LdofutU (north- 
eastward and 86 miles distant from Crespy en Valoia, with 1,400 inhabitants)^ 
Premontre, formerly the chief convent of the Premonstrants. Of the other 
towns, belonging to this department, those of St Quentin, La Fdre, V ervine, 
St. Gobin, and Aubenton, are situated within the limits of Picardy, and Cha- 
teau Thierry within the limits of Ohampagna On the other hand the 
following towns of the Ewre and Loit Department (see Orleanais) are situated 
within the limits of Isle de France : DaEUX, a town on the Blaise, westward 
and 32 miles distant from Versailles, with 7,000 inhabitants, is noted for a 
battle in 1562 between the Catholics and Protestants, in which the prince of 
Cond^ was taken prisoner. Anety a town with 1,800 inhabitants, and a 
palace reared by King Henry IL, and inhabited by his mistress, Diana of 
Poitiers. 

IL NoaMANDY. — ^This province, between Paris and the English Channel, and 
crossed by the Seine, was in 911 given to the NormanM in feoffment (t$ee 
Ukstory of Europe, § 15), and reunited witli the French crown by King 
Charles VIL It comprises 6 departments, viz. : the Lower Seine Department 
(chief town, Rouen), the Sure Department (chief town, Evreux), the Calvadoa 
Department (chief town, Caen), the Ome Department (chief town, Alen9on), 
and the Manche Department (chief town, St Lo). 6. The Lower Seine 
Department contains : -f- Rouen, ancient capital of Normandy, on the Seine, 
north-westward and 69 miles distant from Paris, and southward and 115 miles 
dJatant from Calais, with a magnificent Gothic cathedral (where many of the 
dokea of Nonnandy are buried), very considerable commerce, numerous and 



186 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The Frandi nnovinee of Normandy. 

important manufactores of cotton, eUx, and 100,000 iohafaitantfli. Koted for 
their manufiictures are also the neighboring towns of Bolbee (with 9,000 inhab- 
itante), Caudebte (with 8,000 inhabitants), and LUiebonne (with 2,100 inhab- 
itants). Elbbdf, a town in the vicinity of Rouen, with 11,000 inhabitants, is 
one of the principal seats of cloth manufactures. Havek (sumamed de Grace, 
but by the French commonly called Ze Havre), a fortified commercial city at 
the mouth of the Seine, may be considered as the port of Paris, is the diief 
seat of the commerce with America, and has 80,000 inhabitants. Dikppk, a 
maritime town on the English Channel, 82 miles south-south-west of Calais, is 
renowned for its sea-baths, and has 17,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this 
department are : Neufehdiel (with 8,800 inhabitants), Oinarmay (with 8,000 
inhal»tants), Fecamp (with 9,000 inhabitants), 8L Valeryy sumamed «f» Camx 
(with 6,600 inhabitants), ^»//y (with 1,800 inhabitants), JS^« (with 4,000 inhab- 
itants, and a former royal palace), Treport (with 2,600 inhabitants), Aumale 
(with 2,260 inhabitants, and mineral springs), Yveiai (with renowned linen 
manufactures, and 10,000 inhabitants), Har/ieur (with 2,800 inhabitants), and 
Moniivilliere (with 4,000 inhabitants). 7. The Eure Department oootains : 
4~ Etkkux, chief town on the Iton, southward and 27 miles distant frum 
Rouen, with a beautiful Gothic cathedral (whose steeple is 262 feet in height), 
and 13,000 inhabitants. In its vicinity is situated the palace of Navarre, 
reared in 1686 by a duke of Bouillon, and inhalnted by the Empress Josephine 
in the period from 1810 to 1813. Louvraas, a town on the Eure, and one of 
the principal seats of doth manufactures, with a magnificent cathedral, and 
11,000 inhabitants. Quilleifoeuff a maritime town on the left bank of the 
Seine, opposite to Havre, is to be considered as the port of Rouen, and has 
1,600 inhabitants Ivrif, a town on the Eure, with 1,600 inhabitants, is noted 
for the victory Henry IV. obtained over the Liguists, or Catholics, on the 14th 
of March, 1690. Other towns of this department are: 0<mehe$ (with 2,000 
inhabitants). Buglet (with 2,000 inhabitants), Vemeuil (with renowned pot- 
teries, and 4,600 inhabitants), Vernon (with 7,000 inhabitants), Lee Andd^ 
(with 6,600 inhabitants), Pont Audemer (with 6,800 inhabitants), and Bemay 
(with important horse-marts, and 8,000 inhabitants). & The Calvadae Depart- 
ment contains : -\- Caen, chief town near the mouth of the Ome, with lace 
mimufiustures, a church containing the mortal remains of William the Con- 
queror, and 48,000 inhabitants. Coureeule, a village on the Eqglish Channd, 
is noted for its oysters, of which about 1,000,000 are sent every week to Ptois. 
Man^eur, a maritime town on the south side of the mouth of the Seine, oppo- 



FRANOE. 187 



The ProvlnoM of Nonnandy and Picardy. 



sHe to Harflenr and Hayre^ with 11,000 iDbabitants, many of whom are 
engaged in whale and cod-fishery. Other towns of this department are : 
I*mU PEvique (wHh 2,800 inhabitants), Vire (with 8,500 inhabitants), (hnde 
9ur Novnau (with 6,000 inhabitants), Bayeux (with a remarkable cathedral, 
and 11,000 inhabitants), Itigny (with 2,000 inhabitants), Libieux (with impor- 
tant Hneo and doth manuikctnres, and 12,A00 inhabitants), and Falaisk (with 
10,000 inhabitants, renowned dyeries and hosieries, the remains of an ancient 
castle where William the Gonqneror was born in 1027, and celebrated fieurs in 
its suburb Ovihray), 9. The Manehs Department contains: St. L6, chief 
town on the Vire, westward and 82 miles distant from Caen, with important 
manufiicturee of coarse woollens, two beautiful and remarkable churches, and 
9,600 inhabitants. CHEBBomto, a fortified maritime town and naval dep6t on 
the English Channel, is fiunous for its breakwater and docks, and has a popu- 
lation of 20,600 inhabitants. On the 18th of August, 1880, Charles X. em- 
barked here with his family for England. Westward and 28 miles distant 
firom here is Cape La Hogue, noted for the naval battle in 1602, between the 
French and British. Mont St. Michel, a strongly fortified town on a prommi- 
tory, which twice daily is separated from the continent by the tide, with a 
castle, where state-prisoners are confined, and with Gothic chapels belonging 
to a Benedictine abbey, instituted in 966. Other towns of this defiartment 
are : Cautaneet (with one of the finest cathedrals in France, and 9,500 inhab- 
itants), Valogne (with 7,000 inhabitants), Moriain (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
OranmlU (with 8,600 inhabitants), Avfatufhea (with 8,000 inhabitants), and 
VUleduu lea Poiles (with 8,000 inhabitants). 10. The Ome Departmeni 
contiuns : -f- Alen^on, chief town on the Sarthe, 110 miles west-south-west of 
Paris, with various manufiEUstures, and 16,000 inhabitants. The manufiicturing 
of lace, straw hats, and crystal wares, for which Alenfon formerly was 
renowned, are at present almost left of£ Other towns of this department are : 
Seei (with a beautiful cathedral, and 5,800 inhabitants), ArgerUan (with 6,500 
inhabitants), Vimcutiera (chief seat of linen manufactures, with 4,000 inhabi- 
tants), BAigle (with needle manufiictures, and 6,000 inhabitants), Tlnekebray 
with 8,500 inhabitants), and Dnnnftimi (with 2,600 inhabitants). The towns 
of Mortagne, La Trappe, eta, belonging to this department, are situated within 
the limits of Perche (see province XVIIL). 

ni. PicARDT. — ^Hus province, on the north side of Normandy and Isle de 
France, and bordering upon the English Channel between Dieppe and Calais, 
was since the year 828 ruled by mighty counts, who, however, continued to 



188 EUROPE, PAST jUND PRESENT. 

The Froneb Pkortnoe of Pteardy. 

be more or less dependent oo the French crown. Out of its chief tenitory 
has been formed the Bomme JDepafimentj yet being of hr greater extent, tho 
province of Picardy comprises also parts of the Pas de Calais and Aisne 
Departments 11. The Somme Department contains : 4~ Ambxbi the fortified 
ancient capital of Picardy, on the Somme, northward and 78 miles distant 
from Paris, with a cathedral considered as a masterpiece of Gothic arcfaiteo- 
ture, important manuiactures of velvet, carpets, etc, considerable inland trade, 
and 48,000 inhabitants. Treaty of peace concluded here between France and 
Great Britain, on the 25th of March, 1802. Abbevills, a fortified town oo 
the Somme, with velvety doth, and other manufaotores, considerabLe tnule, 
and 19,500 inhabitants. Pkeonnb, a fortified town on the Somme, on the 
high road between Valenciennes and Paris, with a remarkable old castle (in 
which Charles the Simple was kept prisoner and died in 929, and where also 
Louis XL was confined for three days by Charles of Burgundy, in 1468), and 
4,200 inhabitants. Cricyt or Cresity, a town, with 1,600 inhabitanta, is noted 
for the batUe of the 26th of August, 1846, in which Philip of Vakis was 
defeated by King Edward IIL of England. Ham, a town on the Somme, with 
an ancient strong castle, whose walls are 86 feet thick, and where, among 
other state-prisonera, Polignac and bis fellow-ministers, Louis Napoleon Bona- 
parte, eta, were confined. Other towns of this department are : Conti (fitnn 
which Bourbon princes of a collateral line dwived their title), DaulUfu (with 
4,000 inhabitants), SL VaUry (north-eastward and 42 miles distant finom St 
Valery en Caux, with 3,500 inhabitftitB, and a harbor where WiUiam the 
Conqueror embarked for England in 1066), Rue (with 1,600 inhabitants), 
Crotvy (with 1,000 inhabitants), ^W< (with 1,400 inhabitants), and Montdidier 
(with 4,000 inhalntants). Of the towns belonging to the Aiene Department 
(see Isle de France) are situated within the limits of Picardy the following: 
St. Qusntin, a fortified city on the Somme, eastward and 87 miles distant 
from Amiens, with important manufiustures of laoes, shawls, etc, and 20,000 
inhabitantsL Battle in 1557 between the Spaniards and Freo/iL St. Gobaut, 
a town, with 2,000 inhabitants, is renowned for its looking^ass manufactory 
which makes plate-glasses of more than 160 inches in height, and more than 
90 inches wide. La Fxbb, a fortified town on the Oiae, with an artillery 
school, and 8,000 inhabitants. Vervine (noted for a treaty of peace concluded 
here in 1598, between France and Spain) and Aubeniofit towns, with respect- 
ively 3,000 and 1,500 inhabitants. Of the towns beloi^^ to the PaeA 
Oalaie Department (see Artois) are situated within the limits of Picardy the 



FRAKOE. 189 



The ProrlnoM of Plcardyt Artoitt and Boulonnaia. 



foOowiDg : OalaB) a fortified town oo the Strait of Dorer (here about 18 milet 
wide), with important cotton numufacturea, aea-batha, and 12,000 inhabitant* 
A daOy intercourse with Dover is kept up here by steam navigation. Edward 
I£L of Enghmd conquered Calais in 1846, and the English since continued to 
be possessed of it until the year 1568, when the French wrested it firom them 
again. Ardre$y a fortified town in the midst of marshes, with 2,800 inhabi* 
tant& Near this town, Francis L held an interview with Henry VIII. of 
Bngland, in 1620. MontretiiU and 8t, Pierre^ towns, with respectiveiy 4^100 
and 7,000 inhalntanta. 

IV. Amfom. — ^This province, comprising a tract of land between Amiens 
and Lille, once formed part of Flanders and Hainault, and was in 1180 
brou^t in dowry by Isabella of Hainault, to her consort Eing Philip IL of 
France. It comprises at present: 12. The Pom da CalaU Deparimentf which 
oontains: -|~-^a^^ fortified ancient capital of Artois, on the Scarpe, north- 
eastward and 82 miles distant from Amiens, with a strong citadel, a remark- 
able Gkithio cathedral, manufiftctures of lace, cotton goods, etc, and 24,600 
infaabitantB. St. OMza, a fortified town on the Aa, south-eastward and 28 
mHea distant from Calais, with tobacco manu&ctories, and 20,000 inhabitanta 
Other towns of this department are : 8L Pol (with 4,000 inhabitants), Bapmtm$ 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), Bethune (with 7,000 inhabitanto). Aire (with 9,000 
inhabitants), HeicUn (with 4,000 inhalntants), and Lm» (with 2,800 inhabitants). 
Hie village of Agineowrt is noted for the victory King Henry V . of England 
obtained over the French, on the 26th of October, 1416. 

Y. BouunvKAia — It is situated on the Strait of Dover, sooth of Calais, and 
onoe formed part of the ancient county of Flanders, until it was acquired by 
Louis XL, who then invested with it the church of Our Lady at Boulogne, 
but considering himself as a vassal of this diurch, he offered to his feigned 
lady paramount a golden hearty 6,000 livres in value, in acknowledgment of 
ber right This ceremony was kept on by his successors until the first Freodk 
revolution. At present the former province of Boulonnais forms part of the 
Pmg de Calaii J>epartmmt (see above), and contains: Bocloonx, andeoi 
oapital of Boulonnais, and a fortified maritime town, on the Strait of Dover, 
or rather on the English Channel, 28 miles south-south-west of Calais, with 
frequented searbaths, considerable fishery, and 26,600 inhabitants. Boulogne 
ia the residence of many English familiea Etafus, a maritime town on the 
English Channel, with 1,800 inhabitants, and a harbor, where Julius Ossar 
dmU have embarked for Britamna in the years 66 and 64 & 0. AttheUttle 



190 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

French Flnnden. 

nuuitiine town of AmhUtetue it was, where James IL Unded, vheo be bad 
made his escape from England. 

y I Frbmcm Flandxbs. — ^This province, also called the IVmch JfetkerUmdi, 
because it comprises only former Netherlandish territories, Ti& : a great part 
of the ancient coonty of Flanders, the so-called country of Oambresis, and 
parts of Hainault and Namur. At present it comprises the whole Nord 
Department, and a part of the Ardennes Department 18. The Nord Dtpart- 
meiU contains : "|- Lillb (in Flemish, called Ryuel), formerly the capital of 
the province, on the Deule, northward and 188 miles distant firom Paris, is 
one of the strongest fortresses of France, is noted for its manufiictores of doth, 
linen, etc^ and for its trade in flowers, and has a population of 80,000 inhabi- 
tants. Not fieu* from here is the village of .SoMvtnes, or Bcvineg, noted fiir the 
victory Philip IL obtained over the Emperor Otho XV. and the count of 
Flanders, in 1214. Douai, a fortified town on the Scarpe, with one of the 
greatest arsenals in France, numerous manufactures, and 20,000 inhabttanta 
GaAvxLnras (in Flemish, Orav^ingen)^ a fortified town on the North Sea^ with 
4,000 inhabitants. Gomminss, a town on the Lys, by which it is divided into 
two parts, the one belonging to France (and having 6,000 inhabitants), and 
the other to Belgium (see Gommines, under the head of Belgish West 
Flanders). Other towns of this French part of Flanders are : ArmenHifm 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), BerffWM (with 6,000 inhabitants), Mimt-Cduel, or 
(7mm/ (with 4,400 inhabitants), ffatebrouk (with 8,000 inhabitants), BailUid 
(with 10,000 inhabitants), Rat^aix (with 16,000 inhabitants), Toureoing (with 
18,000 inhabitants), 8t, Amand (with 9,600 inhaUUnts), and Mortagne (with 
4,000 inhabitants). In the former so-called country of Cambreau are situated : 
Oambeai (in Flemish, Oameryk), a fortified town on the Scheldt, southward 
and 82 miles distant from LJlle, is noted for its cambric manufactures, and has 
82,000 inhabitants, and a cathedral with the sepuldire of the celebnted arob- 
bishop Fenelon. CHATBAn-GAMBBBSis, formerly the capital of the country (or 
county) of Cambresis, south-eastward and 16 miles distant fivMU Oambrai, ia 
noted for its fine twisted thread for bone-lace, and has 6,000 inhabitantB. 
OreveeoeWy a town on the Scheldt, with 1,800 inhabitants. The FVeoch part 
of HiainauU contains : yALCNOuorirBB, a strongly fortified town on the Scheldt» 
82 miles south-south-east of Lille, and south-westward and 66 miles distant 
from Brussels, with renowned laoe manufactures, and 21,000 inhabitanta The 
neighboring village of Anbin is noted for its ooal-fnts, worked by 16,000 men. 
OoKUE, a fortified town on the Scheldt, with 8,000 inhafaitantSL Ameham 



FRANOEL 191 



Ftanch Flanden and tbe ProTinoe of Champagne. 



(wiOi 2,000 inhabHanteX Le Quemo^ (with 8,000 iiihabHant0),Z4ifulrA?ief (with 
4,000 Jnbahttants), Manbeuge (with 6,000 iohabitanta), and AverniM (with 8,000 
iofaabltaDtaX fortified towiia Tlie Tillage of MaiplaquH is noted for the battle 
in 1709, between the French and the allied anny under the command of 
Marlborough and Ptinoe Eugene ; and the village eiDenain far the capture of 
the important Austrian magannes by Yillars in 1712, in consequence of which. 
Prince Eugene was compelled to retreat Bavay, a town, with Roman onti- 
quitiee, and 2,000 inhabitants. To the former province of French Flanden 
was annexed, since the treaty of Utrecht the little provinoe of Dunkirk, com- 
prising, beside some villages, the fortified maritime and commercial city of 
Dc2nuaK, on the North Sea, and at the northeni extremity of France (north- 
ward and 680 miles distant firom Perpignan, the most southern town of 
France), before tbe first revolution with 54,000, but at present ooly with 26,000 
inhabitants. First in 1646, and then in 1668, Dunkirk was wrested fi'om the 
Spaniards by the French, who then ceded it to the English, in reward for their 
assistance in this war. But four years later, Charles II. sold it to France for 
6,000,000 livres. The French part of the former county of Namwr comprises 
the following towns, which are situated within the limits of French Flanders, 
but belong at present to the Ardmnen Department (see Champagne) : Givxr, 
a fortified town on the Mouse, 40 miles east-south-east of Valenciennes, has 
4,000 inhabitants, and consists of the three united towns of Givet Notre Dame, 
Givet St Hilaire, and ChariemonL Other towns on the Mouse are : Fdmat 
(with 2,000 inhabitantB), and Jievin (with 2,000 inhabitants). 

VIL Chaicpaqns. — ^This province, situated between Isle de France and 
Lorraine, had in the days of the Oarlovingians, their proper dukes, subse- 
quently oounts, who ruled it until the latter part of the 18th century, when 
its only heiress, princess Johanna, brought it in dowry to her consort Philip 
lY., or tiie Fair, in 1284, together with that part of it which was called 
Ban. Champagne comprises at present 4 departments, viz. : the Avbfi De- 
patfmeiU (chief town, Troyes), the Mame Department (chief town, ChUons), 
the Upper Mame Department (chief town, Chaumont), and the Ardennet 
DepartmefU (chief town, M^odres). Beside these, parts of the Seine and 
Mame, Mouse and Aisne departments are within its limits. 14. The Aube 
Department contains : -fTaoTxs, ancient capital of Champagne, on the Seine, 
88 miles east-sooth-east of Paris, with a magnificent Gothic cathedral, numer- 
ous cotton mannfi^tures, and 26,600 inhalntants. AreU tur Attbe and Bar 
mr Ambe, towns on the Aube, with respectively 8,000 and 4,200 mhabitante. 



192 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

■■-—---_ — _ ^ 

The Franoh ProTlooe of Cliaiapagiie. 

Other towns of this department are : Nogent tur Seine (with 8,<KX> inhabitantB)» 
PofU 9wr Seine (with 2,000 inhabitants), Brienne (formerly with a military 
academy where Napoleon was educated, and^with 8,600 inhabitantsX Hicejft 
(with 4,000 inhalntants), and Claievaux (formerly the seat of a renowned 
abbey of the Cistercians, whose abbot the holy Bernard was from 1116 to 1 168). 
16. Hie Mame Department contains : -fOHALONS sua Mabnx, chief town, oo 
the Mame, eastward and 92 miles distant from Parian and northward and 147 
miles distant from duUons sur Saone, with a great cathedral, and 13,600 in- 
habitants. By the Romans Oh&lons was called Gatalaomim, hence the name 
of the neighboring Oatalmmian Fidde^ where Attila, king of the Hans, was 
defeated in 461. Rhsims, a city situated north-eastward and 88 milea 
distant from Paris, is noted for its splendid cathedral (in which the kings of 
France were formerly crowned, for the last time in 1826), and for its consid- 
erable wine-trade, and has 40,000 inhalntants. SiUery^ a village, and ^1, a 
town with 8,000 inhabitants, are noted for their culture of the vine. TIm 
diief seat of the trade in wines of Champagne is Efkenat, a town on the 
Mame, southward and 14 miles distant from Rheims, with 6,800 inhabitants, 
St. Menehauldy a town on the Aisne, with 4,200 inhabitants. Here it was 
where Louis XVL on his flight from Paris was diBOovered by the postmaster 
Drooet, on the 22d of June, 1791, and upon this apprehended on the next 
stage at Varennes (in Lorraine), and reoonveyed to Paiia Other towns of 
this department are : ChatHlon eur Mame (with 1,800 inhabitantsX La F^re 
Champenmee (with 2,000 inhabitants), VUry le FramoaU (with 7,600 inhabi- 
tants), and Vietme le Ohdteau (with 1,800 mhabitants). (About Maotmirail 
in this department, see below under the head of Brie.) 16. Hie Upper 
Mame Department contains : -f-CHAUMOirr, fortified diief town, eastward and 
46 miles distant from Troyes, with iron-works and 6,800 inhabitantsi Noosirr 
La Rot, a town on the Treire, 184 mUes east^outh-east of Nugent le Boy in 
Orleanais, is renowned for its cutleries, and has 2,800 inhabitants. Boob- 
Bomra UDB Baiks, a town renowned for its mineral baths, has 8,700 inhabi- 
tants. Other towns of this department are : Langree (with a magnificent 
cathedral, renowned manufactures of cutleries, considerable trade in mill- 
stones, and 8,000 inhabitants). Vaety (with 2,800 mhabitantB), 8L DtMier 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), and JoinmUe (with 8,200 inhabitants). 17. The 
Ardewnee Department contains: +M&nire$, fortified chief town, on the 
Meuse, westward and 92 miles distant flrom Ttares, and soothwaid and 8S 
miles distant from Bruawls, with 4,400 itA^fSft-^t i^ On the opposifea fc^^ir 



FAAKOE. IM 



The Province of Champagne and Lomlne. 



of the Mense is situated the town of Charleville, with a manufiictoiy of fire- 
anns, and 8,500 iiihabitanta Sedan, a fortified town on the Meuse and near 
the froDtier of Belgium, is renowned for its cloth manufactures, has a popula- 
tion of 14,500 inhabitants, and was formerly the capital of a principality, 
belonging to the dukes of Bouillon, who in 1624 ceded it to France. Other 
towns of this department are : Chens U popideux (with 1,000 inhabitants), 
Eetkel (with 7,000 mhabitants), Rocroy (with 8,700 inhabitants), Orandpre 
(with 1,600 inhabitants), Vouziert (with 2,800 inhabitants), Afauzan (with 2,400 
inkaHtanis^Bnd Chateau Jiegnaud{^i\h 1,800 inhabitants). (About Giret^ 
Fumay, and Be7in, belonging to the Ardennes Department likewise, see 
J^rench Flandera^ towards the end.) Beside the above-stated places, the 
following, which belong to several other departments, are situated also within 
the limits of Champagne: BaAY sua Seink (with 2,800 inhabitants), and 
MoNTEBEAD FAULT YoNNR (with 4,000 inhabitants), towns belonging to the 
Seine atid Mame Departtnetit (see Isle de France) ; DoMaEMT (village and 
birth-place of Joan d*Arc, the >Iaid of Orleans, bom hero in 1411), belonging 
to the Vasffes Departrnefit (see Lorraine); VAUcouLEuas, a town on die 
Meuse, with 5,500 inhabitants, belonging to the Meuse J)epartmeni (see Lor- 
raine) ; Sens (on the Yonne, with a splendid Gothic cathedral and 9,400 in- 
habitants), Joifftiy (with 6,000 inhabitants), Tonnire (with 4,000 inhabitants), 
ChablU (with 2,500 inhabitanU), VilUneuve le Roy (with 5,500 inhabitants), 
ViUeneuve FArchevegue (with 2,000 inhabitants), and SL FhrerUin (with 
8,000 inhabitants), towns belonging to the Yonne Department (see Burgundy). 
That part of Champagne, which is called Brie (about Brie fran^ise, see 
under the head of Isle de France), or rather Brie ehampcnoieey comprises the 
following towns : Mkaux (ancient capital of Brie in general, on the Mame, 
with a beautiful Gothic cathedral, and 9,000 inhabitants), Provins (with 6,600 
inhabitants). La Ferte wub Jouarre (with 4,800 inhabitants), and Coulcmmiers 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), all four belonging to the Seine and Mame Depart' 
went (see Isle de France) ; Chateau TniEaaY (a town on the Mame, 46 miles 
east-north-east of Paris, with 5,000 inhabitants), belonging to the Aimie De- 
partment (see Isle de France) ; MoMnciaAiL (a town on the Moriu, eastward 
and 64 miles distant from Paris, with coosiderable trade in millstones, and 
2,800 inhabitants), and Sezanne (a town on the Auge, with 4,500 inhabitants), 
belonging to the Mame Departtnent (see above). 

YIIL LoaaAiMB. — This province, situated between Champagne and Alsace, 
on the north bordered by Germany, fiNrmed a oonatituent part of that tract 

9 



IM EUROPE, PAST AlTD PRESENT. 

Hie Frendi ProTince of Lorraine. 

of land, which hj the treaty of Verdan in 84S (see History of Europe, § 14) 
fell to the share of Lothar ; but was at that time of fiu: greater extent than 
at present) stretching from the Yosges Mountains in a north- westerly direc- 
tion down to the shores of the North Se& In 954 it was divided into Upper 
and Lower IxHraine, out of which latter, comprising the Netherlands, Belgium, 
and Holland, including Luxemburg, arose in the course of time more or less, 
independent duchies and counties, at last reunited under the sway of the dukes 
of Burgundy. On the other hand Uppar Lorraine continued to be a German 
duchyy whose last duke was Francis Stephen, who married the renowned 
Austrian archi-duchess, Mary Therese (daughter of the Qerman emperor 
Charles VL), and was subsequently elected emperor by the name of Frands L 
The king of France, Louis XV., was married to the daughter of Stanisljuis 
licczinski, who had been king of Poland in the period from 1704 to 1710. 
Thus, when King Augustus IL of Poland died in 1738, France supported the 
claims of Stanislaus Leczinski upon the Polish throne by armed force, while 
Austria oonjomtly with Russia supported the claims of Augustus IIL (son of 
Augustus 11). At last a treaty of peace was concluded on the 8d of October, 
1735, according to which Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, should become 
sovereign of the grand-duchy of Tuscany after the death of John Gasto, the 
last descendant of the Medici (see History of Tuscany), and on the other 
hand Stanislaus Leczinski should then succeed in Lorraine. In 1737 John 
Gasto died and was succeeded by Francis Stephen, while Stanislaus Lecsinski 
became sovereign of Lorraine and Bar (the official name of the duchy )u He 
died in 1766, and his duchy (considered as an inheritance of his daughter, the 
queen of France) was now annexed to France, in conformity to the stipulations 
of the above-mentioned treaty. LcHrraine comprises at present 4 depart- 
ments, viz. : the Meurthe Department (chief town, Nancy), the Voitget JOipart- 
nunt (chief town, Eptnal), the Metue Department (chief town. Bar le Dnc)^ 
and the Mowelle Department (chief town. Mete). 18. The Meurthe Depart- 
mmt contains : 4*^^^<^> ancient capital of Lorraine, near the Meurthe, west- 
ward and 74 mQes distant from Strasburg, and southward and 74 mUee dis- 
tant from Luxemburg, is one of the finest and most reg^ularly built dticss of 
France, was until 1690 the residence of the dukes of Lorraine, and has 82,500 
inhabitants. Nancy is also noted for the battle of 1477, in whidi Charles the 
Temerarious of Burgundy was killed. Lunsville, a town on the Meurthe, 
south-eastward and 16 miles distant from Nancy, with a magnificent palace 
(the rosideoce of the ancient dukes of Lorraine in the period from 1690 to 



7RAKCE. 196 



The ProTino6 of LorraiDO* 



1^66, but at present transformed into a military barrack), and 18,600 inhabi- 
tan!& Loneville is noted for the treaty of peace concluded here on the 9th 
of February, 1801, between France and the German empire. SAABBuao (in 
French, Sarrebcurg)^ a town on the Saar, 87 miles west-north-west of Straa- 
burg, with 2,500 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Pont d 
Mousaon (with 7,000 inhabitants), ChnidremUe (with 6,000 inhabitants), Nico- 
las de Port (with 8,000 inhabitants), St Malzeville (with 4,000 mhabitants), 
Jtarierea aux Salines (with 8,000 inhabitants). Chateau Salins (with 8,000 
inhabitants), Dieuze (with 4,000 inhabitants), Vic (with 8,000 mhabitants), 
Moyenvie (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Baccarat (noted for its crystal-glass 
manufactures, with 8,000 inhabitants). The villages of St QtHrin and drey 
are also noted for their crystal and plate-glass manufactures. (About the towns 
of P/aUhurg and Tauly within this department, see below.) 19. The Voages 
Department contains : -|-Efinal, chief town on the Moselle, 87 miles south-south- 
east of Nancy, with 1 0,000 inhabitants. The neighbormg village of Archettes is 
noted for its paper manufactures. Plombikres, a town in tlie Vosges Mountains, 
is noted for its warm baths and hardware manufactures, and has 1,600 iohab- 
itants. Other towns of this department are : St Die (with 8,200 inhabitants), 
Rambervillera (with 5,000 inhabitants), Retniremont (with 6,200 inhabitants), 
Gerardmer (with 6,000 mhabitants), Mirec&urt (with 6,000 inhabitants), and 
Keufehateau (with 4.000 inhabitants). About the village of Domremy^ bhrth- 
place of Joan d'Arc, see under the head of Champagne. 20. The Mease 
Department contains : -|-Bab lb Duo, ancient capital of the former duchy of 
Bar (see above), which since the middle of the 15th century formed a con- 
stituent part of the duchy of Lorraine, is situated on the Omain, westward 
and 46 miles distant from Nancy, and has 18,000 inhabitants. Yabenites, a 
town on the Aisne, 18 miles north-north-east of St Menehould (in Champagne, 
to which town we refer with regard to the seizure of Louis XVL), with 
2,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : lAgny (with 8,200 
iubabitanU), St, Mtkiel, or St Michel (with 6,000 inhabitants), Commercy 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), DamviUiers (with 1,000 mhabitants), MarviUe (with 
1,200 inhabitants), and Monbnedy (with 2,400 inhabitants). (About Verdvn 
in this department, see below.) 21. The Moselle Department (whose capital, 
Mets, shall be described below) contains : Saakgemund (in French, Sarregue- 
mines), a town on the Saar, at its junction with the Blies, eastward and 42 
miles distant from Metz, with 4,600 inhabitants. The villages of Monther- 
hauten, Maisenihal, Ooetzenbruekf and Munaihal, are noted for their great 



196 EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

t 

The French Provbicte ot Lonralne and AbAoe. 



glasB-warkf}. Bitsoh, a town in the Vo^es Mountains, is noted for its re- 
markable and strong citadel, and has 3,000 inhabitants. Thiontillb (in 
German, IHedenhofen\ a strongly fortified town on the Moselle, Foathward 
and 18 miles distant from Luxemburg, with 6,000 inhabitants. It beloQged 
formerly to the ancient duchy of Luxemburg, and was in 1669 ceded tc 
France. Other towns of this department are : SL Avoid (with 3,000 inhabi- 
tants), Sarraihe or Saaralhe (on the Saar, at its junction with the Albe, has 
4,000 inhabitants), Sierk (in French, 8iergue*y with 2,000 inhabitants), J9rt«y 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), Longwy (a fortified town, with 2,500 inhabitants), 
and FaulguemorU (in German, Falkenherg, with 1,500 inhabitants). Beside 
these is situated within the limits of Lorraine the town of Bourmont (on the 
Meuse, with manu&ctures of cutlery, and 2,000 inhabitants), belonging to the 
Upper Mame Department (see under the head of Champagne). 

The following three cities of AfeiZj Tbu/, and Verdun^ did indeed originally 
belong to Lorraine, but separated from it so early as towards the end of the 
10th century, and became since German free towns. In the days of the 
Emperor Charles Y., the Protestant German princes formed a league against 
him, and induced King Henry IL of France, to make common cause with 
them, upon condition that he was to occupy the three named cities for hb 
security. The German princes had, it is true, no right at all to dispose thus 
of the imperial cities; however, the latter were in 1552 actually occupied by 
the French, and in 1648 by the Westphalian treaty of peace, formally ceded 
to them. To the Moselle Department (see above) belongs at present : 4~ Men, 
strongly fortified chief town of this department, on the Moselle, south-west- 
ward and 50 miles distant frt>m Treves, and southward and 37 miles <UstaDt 
from Luxemburg, with a magnificent cathedral, a remarkable arsenal, several 
military schools, noany literary institutions, and 48,000 inhabitants. To the 
Meurthe Department (see above) belongs: Toul, a fortified town an the 
MoseUe, southward and 80 miles distant from Mets, with a remarkable cathe- 
dral, and 7,700 inhabitants. To the Meuae Department (see above) belongs : 
VxanuN, a fortified town on the Meuse, westward and 84 miles distant firom 
Mete, with a citadel, and 11,000 inhabitants. 

IX. AuiAox. — ^This province, situated along the left bank of the Rhine, bj 
which it is separated from the German grand-duchy of Baden, on the aoutli 
bounded by the Swiss canton of Basle, and on the north by the BaTarian 
Palatinate, belonged since the year 870 to the German empire, and foroMd a 
constituent part of the ancient duchy of Swabia (see introduction to the 



FRANOB. 197 



The ProTliieo of Al; 



Bayarian provmoe, Swabia and Neubur^) in the period from the year 916 
to 126R. Since the solution of this duchy in the bist-named year, Alsace 
became an immediate territory of the empire, although Austria got poesessioD 
of a great part of Upper Alsace. France had long since lusted after this fine 
ooontry, and having been called for assistance by the (German Protestants in 
the war of thirty years, France reserved to herself Alsace, which actually was 
ceded to it in the Westphalian treaty of peace in 1648, with the exception of 
Strasburg and some other imperial cities. However, France took possessioo 
of them too in 1681, and in 1697 they wore formally ceded to her. Alsace 
comprises two departments, viz. : the Lower Rhine Department (or that part 
of Alsaoe which formerly was called Lovier Altaee, or Norihgau\ and the 
Upper Rhine Department (formerly called Upper AUaee, or SundffaUt L e., 
South District). 22. The Loteer Rhine Departtnent (or Lower Alsace) con- 
tains: -|- Stbasbubo, formerly the capital of all Alsace, and until the year 
1681 an imperial dty of the German empire, quite near the Rhine, south- 
westward and 46 miles distant from Garlsruhe, has 'lOySOO inhabitants, numer- 
ous and important manufactures, is one of the strongest fortresses in France, 
and noted for its magnificent cathedral reared in the period from 1015 to 1275, 
and whose steeple is 446 feet high.' Strasburg was founded in the middle oi 
tbe 6th century by the Franks. Since the beginning of the 7th century it was 
the seat of a hukaprie, whose bishop was an immediate member of the 
German empire, and whose territory was situated partly on the right bank 
of the Rhine, partly in Alsace, there comprising : Zabkrn, in French, Saveme 
(a town, with 5,500 inhabitants, and a magnificent palace, where the bishop 
resided since the reformation), and the towns of Molelteim (with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants), Muttig (with 4,000 inhabitants), Dambaeh (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
Sennfeldeny and Markoitiheim. Haoenau, a fortified town on the Moder, 
northward and 18 miles distant from Strasburg, with 10,000 inhabitants 
VfaesKunnnt (in QerroBn^WaMselnheim) and Rosheim, towns, with respectively 
5,0(J0 and 4,000 inhabitants. Ehenhuh (in French, Obemay), a town at the 
foot of Mount St Odilia (2,864 feet high), with calico manufactures, and 5,000 
inhabitants. In a neighboring valley of the Vosges is situated the village of 
JClingenthal, noted for its mannfiictures of sword blades, cutlory, etc Barb, 
a town romantically situated at the foot of the Vosges, south-westward and 
18 miles distant from Strasburg, with numerous cotton and woollen manuBus- 
tnres, and 5,000 inhabitants. Not fiu* fi-om here is the valley called, in French, 
£an d$ la Roeke, and in Gennan, Sieinthal, where tbe celebrated LatberM 

8" 



198 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The Frenefa Province of Atonse. 

minisier J. F.Oberlin, lived in the period (rom 1766 to 1826, ^ho transformed 
this rough and sterile valley into a little paradise, and by this, as yveW as by 
his truly Christian ministry, proved himself the benefactor of his pari^iiioDers. 
He resided in the village of Waldbadi, Lichtrnbbbo, a remarkable ancient 
feudal castle, until the year 1480 of barons of the same name, whose estates 
then were entailed upon the counts of Hanau (see the Bavarian Palatinate 
under the head of Germany). Buohsweilee (a town, with various mano&o- 
tnres, and 4,000 inhabitants) was formerly the capital of the Lordship of 
lichienberg. Lauterbueo, a fortified town near the junction of the Rhine 
with the Lauter, did until the first French revolution belong to the imme- 
diate German bishopric of Spire, and has 8,000 inhabitants. Here tenninata 
the Bo-called Lines of Weistenburg, noted in the military history of the wars 
between France and Germany, and consisting of a rampart and moat runnii^ 
upwards along the Lauter to the town of Wbissbnbubo (with 6,200 inhabi- 
tants), situated on tlus river, westward and 14 miles distant from. lAuterboig. 
Other towns of this department are : Bincktoeiler (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
SchleUttadt (with 10,000 inhabitants), Niederbnmn (with 2,000 inhabitantsX 
and Soar-Union (with 3,600 inhabitants). Fort Louitt formerly also called 
Fort Vauban, at present a village, with 600 inhabitants, but formerly a fortified 
town on an island of the Rhine, founded in 1689 by (xxler of Louis XIV. The 
above-mentioned fortified town of PFALzouao, belonging to Lower Alsace, but 
at present situated within the limits of the Mewrihe DeparttnaU (see under 
the head of Lorraine), has 4,000 inhabitanta (To Lower Alsace beloi^ged also 
the towns of Landan^ Rheinzabem^ Kandel, and Bergzabem, which in 1816 
were ceded from France to Germany, and then annexed to the Bavarian 
Palatinate.) 23. The Upper RJdne Department (or Upper Alsace) oontains: 
4-OoLMAa, diief town of the department, on the Lauch, 41 miles soutl^-eouth- 
west of Strasburg, is famous for its extensive cotton manufiictures, and has 
16,600 InhabitantB. New Breitach, a fortified town on the Rhine, right c^ipo- 
rite and Old Breisach in Baden, founded in 1699 by Louis XIV., has 2,000 
inhabitants. Muntter, surnamed im Oregorienihal (in the valley of Gregoiy ), 
with important cotton and paper manufisctures, and 4,000 inhabitants Other 
towns of this department are : Kedsertberg (with 8,000 inhabitants), Titrkkeim 
(with 2,800 inhabitants), Bappoltmoeiler (in French, RibeawnlUr, with impor> 
tant cotton manufitctures, and 7,000 inhabitants), Rufach, or Hcmfac (with 
4,400 mhabitants), Sgiskeim (with 1,900 inhabitants), HerHtkeim (with 1,200 
inhabitants), Gtbweiier (with 4,000 inhabitants), Wahteiler (with 1,600 iah^tih 



FRANCK 199 



The Pruvinces of Alsace and Borsondy. 



tents), 8L Amarin (with 2,000 inhabitaiits, and an eztensire calico and iodionne 
manufiBrCtory in the neighboring ancient castle of Wesserliiig), JSn*i8Junm (with 
S,000 inhabitants), TTiann (with 7,000 inhabitants), Scnnhcimy or Cernay (with 
S,000 inhabitants), Beaucourt (with extensive manufactures of hardware, etc., 
and 1,100 inhabitants), iSW^ (with 5,800 inhabitants), and ^/<An>cA (with 3,000 
inhabitants). Near Basle (in Switaerlan^l) and on the Rhine, is situated the 
town of HuNiNOKN (with 1,000 inhabitants), whose strong fortifications, erected 
in 1681 by order of Jx>uis XIV^ but demolished in 1816 according to the 
terms of the treaty of peace concluded at Paris, were renowned in the military 
history. Befobt, or Belfort, a town on the Sayoureuse, with 6,000 inhabi- 
tants, was once the capital of the Sondgau (see above). St. Marie aux Mines, 
in German, Markireh, a town, with various manufactures, and 10,500 inhabi- 
tants, is situated within the limits of this department, but is properly belonging 
to Lorraine. The city of Muhlsausen (on the 111, and 14 miles distant from 
Basle, with the most extensive cotton manufactures of the Upper Rhine 
Department, and 25,000 inhabitants), was formerly a German imperial city, 
and at the same time a member of the Helvetic confederation, but in 1798 
ceded to France. 

X. BouaooGNS, or the ancient duchy of BcaooNDT, at the southern frontier 
of Champagne, and separated from Switzarland by the Franche Comt6 (or 
ancient county of Burgundy). This province conserving by its name still the 
memory of ancient Burgundy in general, so often mentioned in the European 
history of the middle ages, it may be here the most convenient place to give 
a historical sketch of ancient Burgundy. The Burgundiara, mentioned in § 3 
of the History of Europe, founded after the beginning of the 5th century in 
the eastern parts of Gaul an extensive empire, which comprised not only the 
present French provinces of Bourgogne, Franche Comt6, Lyonnais, Dauphiny, 
and Provence, but also Savoy and the western part of Switzerland. It was 
of greater extent than the present kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and ruled by 
kingn who resided alternately at Geneva and Lyont, In the year 500 it was 
attacked by Clovis L, king of the Frankn, who vanquished the Burgundians 
in a battle near Dijon, made them tributary, and wrested from them the 
greatest part o{ the subsequent Lyonnais. In 533 the kingdom of Burgundy 
was completely conquered by the sons of Clovis, and formally annexed to 
the Frankiiih empire. By the terms of the treaty of Verdun in 843 (see 
History of Europe, § 14) Lothar, the thu-d son of Louis tlie Pious, became 
among other territories possessed of Burgundy too, and hb claims upon it 



200 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The French ProvlDoe of Burgundy- 



c^ere eubseqaently trani?feiTed, hy way of inheritance, to the German empe* 
-ors and in several periods realized by them. Tet in the years 879 and 887 
his ancient and primitive kingdom of Burgundy was divided into three more 
• ir leas independent parts: the kingdom of Provence, the kingdom of Bur- 
gundy, and the duchy of Burgundy. 1. The kingdom of Provence^ whose 
irst king (since the year 879) was Boso duke of Provence (henoe the name 
)f the kingdom), did not only comprise the subsequent French province of 
liis name, but also Savoy, Dauphiny, Lyonnais, and part of Franche Comtc, 
uid was subsequently often called the Citpiranian kingdotn of Burgundy. 
i. The second division of ancient Burgundy comprised the greatest part of 
Switzerland and parts of Savoy and Franche Comtd ; its first king was Ro- 
iolph, duke of West Franconia ; it was called par excellence the kingdom of 
Surgufidy, or (to distinguish it from the just-mentioned other kingdom) the 
IVanajuranian kingdom of Burgundy, In 988 it was united with the Cisjo- 
•anian kingdom, and this united kingdom was since called the AreUtHan 
'cingdom, or kingdom of Arelate, because its kings resided in the city of Aries 
{in Provence and on the Rhone). In the course of time several of the govern- 
ors of its provinces made themselves independent, at a later period they 
)ecame vassals of the French crown, and thus at last all the western provin- 
ces were incorporated into the kingdom of France, while of the other prov- 
Dces Savoy became an independent duchy, and those situated in Switzerland 
rcre annexed to the Helvetic confederation. 8. What regards the third 
livision of ancient Burgundy, or the duchy of Burgundy {oi which is properly 
he question here), its first duke, since the year 887, was Richard, brother of 
Boso (see above), but since the beginning of the 11th century its rulers were 
/rench princes, or younger brothers of the reigning kings of France and their 
iescendants. In 1869 Philip, duke of Burgundy, married Margaret, heiress 
if Flanders, and since the dukes of Buxgundy became gradually possessed 
>f the Netherlands toa In 1384 Philip's son John inherited likewise the 
Franche Comte (see the next province), which was generally known by the 
Mime of the eottnty of Burgundy ^ or Upper Burgundy, and had for a long period 
been a constituent part of the Transjuranian kingdom. Towards the end of the 
!4th and during the 15th century the dukes of Burgundy resided alternately 
n Dijon, Besan9on, Bruges, and and other cities of the Netherlands. In 1477 
.heir male line became extinct^ and the duchy now as vacant fee fell back to 
tlie French crown. The duchy, or province of Burgundy comprises at pnw- 
ent 4 departments, viz. : the Cdte SOr JDeparttnent (chief town I>ijon), the 



FRAKOE. 801 



The ProTinoe of BoiigoiMljr. 



Sabne and Loite Departmmt (chief town Macon), the Yonne DepartmmU 
(chief town Auxerre), and the Ain Department (Boorgen Bresae). 24. The 
CUe (TOr Department contains : -f^^^'^t SQcient ca|Htal of the duchj of 
Bnrgundj, at the junction of the Ouse and Suaon, Bontfa-eastward and 166 
miles distant from Paris, is noted for its mustard, wax candles and wines, and 
has 27,000 inhabitants. Oitbadz (in Latin OUtercium), formerly a renowned 
abbey and chief oonrent of the Cistercian monks. Pommard and Volenay^ 
great villages, noted for their excellent Burgundy wines. Nvm and Bxaunx, 
towns with respectively 8,000 and 12,000 inhabitants, are likewise noted for 
their Burgundy wines. Other towns of this department are: Fontatne 
Francaiee (with 2,000 inhabitants), IssurtUle (with 2,000 inhabitants), 8t 
Jean de Loene (with 2,000 inhabitants), Avxonne (with 5,800 inhabitants), 
ChatUhn eur Seine (witb 4,600 inhabitants), Simur, sumamed en AwdoU 
(with 4,300 inhabitants), Montbard (with 2,400 inhabitants), Saulien (with 
8.000 inhabitants), and Amay le Due (with 8,200 inhabitants). 26. The 
Sadne and Loire Departmettt contains : -|-Maook, chief town, on the Sadne, 
southward and 72 miles distant from Dijon, and westward and 66 miles dis- 
tant firom G^eva, with important wine trade, and 12,600 inhabitants. Cha- 
LONS 8I7R Saoxb, a towu ou the Sadne, southward and 147 miles distant from 
Chllons sur Mame, and westward and 72 miles distant from Lyons, with 
18,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are: Toumtu (with 
4,000 inhabitants), Cluny or Clugny (with 5,000 inhabitants), CharoUes (with 
8,400 inhabitants), Bourbon Lancy (with 2,700 inhabitants), Louhana (with 
8,000 inhabitants), Autun (with 10,800 inhabitants), Oreuaot (with 1,600 in- 
habitants), and Semur^ sumamed en Brumnaie (with 1,600 inhabitants). 
26. The Yonne Department contains : -f-AuxxRax, chief town, on the Tonne, 
north-westward and 78 miles distant frc»n Dijon, with 14 churches, among 
which is a remarkable cathedral, important wine and timber trade, and 12,600 
inhabitants. Atallon, a town on the Yoisin, with 5,700 inhabitants. Cou- 
LASOKS Lxs ViMKUsxs, a towu on the Yonne, has 2,000 inhabitants, and ia 
noted for its wines. The small town of Vetetay^ with 1,600 inhabitants, is 
remarkable in history for that the holy Bernard preached here the second 
crusade. (Thtt other towns of this department to be noticed, see under the 
head of Champagne) 27. The Ain Department contains : -f-Bouao, sur- 
named en Brettee (haying been the capital of the Burgundian district of 
Brene\ chief town, on the Reyseouse, westward and 46 miles distant from 
CkofiTB, with a magnificent Gothic diurch, and 10,000 inbabitaats. Bxl^b^ 

9* 



fOS EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Hie French Provlaoes of Buiguody and FrandM ComtA. 

a town on the Rhone, with 4,400 inhabitants, was formerly the capital of the 
Burgundian district of Bugey, that was for a long time in the poesesaioQ of 
the dukes of Savoy, but was restored to France in 1601, and to which be* 
longed moreover the towns of Nantua, (with 4,000 inhabitants), Lagnieu 
(with 2,000 inhal»tants), 8t, JUunbert (with 2,000 inhabitants), Oyonnar (with 
2,000 inhabitants), Seysitd (with 2,600 inhabitants), and VUU BoU, suraamed 
9ou$ Beiley (with 2,000 inhabitants). TasYOUZ, a town on the Saone, with 
8,000 inhalntants, is noted for its manu£eu}tures of watch-cases, eta Trevouz 
was formerly the capital of the sovereign principality of JDombea, to which 
moreover belonged the towns of Toiuey (with 1,500 inhabitants), and SL 
THvier en Dcmbet, or tur Mognand (with 1,400 inhabitants). Other towns 
of the Ain department are : Pent de Vaux (with 3,000 inhabitants). Pent 
tTAin (with 1,400 inhalntants), Pont de VeyU (with 1,600 inhabitantsX Mimt- 
luel (with 8,000 inhabitants), and OuUiUtm lea Dombea (with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants). Gbx, a town at the Jura Mountains, is noted for its watch manofius- 
tures, and has 8,000 inhabitants. At about 2 miles distance from Geneva is 
situated the village of Femeyt where Voltaire lived. To the province, or 
duchy of Burgundy did moreover belong the town of Baa sua Skutk, with 
considerable wine trade, and 2,700 inhabitants, at present situated within the 
limits of the Aube Department (see Champagne), and the town of Aac ax 
Bxaaois, with 2,000 inhabitants, at present situated within the limits of tha 
Upper Mame Department (see Champagne). 

XL FaAMOHK CoMTB, or the ancient covnty of Burgundy, situated between 
the duchy of Borigundy and Switzerland, and on the north bordered l^ Lor- 
raine and Alsace. It at first formed a constituent part of the Tran^uranian 
kingdom of Burgundy (see above, under the head of BuT^gundy), became since 
an independent county, and devolved in 1884 by inheritance to the dukes of 
Burgundy. Though the male line of these dukes became extinct in 1477, the 
Franche Comt6 continued to form part of the Netherlandish estates of the 
house of Burgundy, until in 1079 it was ceded to France. Frandie Oooit£ 
comprises at present 8 departments, viz. : the Dovbn Department (chief town 
Besan^on), the Jura Department (chief town Lons le SauInierX and the Upper 
8adne Department (chief town Vescml). 28. The Doube Department ocmtains : 
+ BE8AN90N (in Qerman, BtMnz), fortified former capital of Franche Comt^, 
«n the Doubs, eastward and 46 miles distant fi-om Dijon, with a splendid 
Gothic cathedral, numerous manu&ctures, especially of watches, and 8S,000 
Inhabitants. OOer towns ctf this department are : ^ ^/gso/yte (with 5,000 



FRANCE. 208 



The ProTiooM of Fitmcbe Comt6 and BonrboimaiB. 



inhabitants), Quingey (with 1,200 iDhabitants), Pontarlier (with 5,200 inhabi- 
tants), Omaru (with 8,200 inhabitants), and Bourne les Dames (with 8,000 
inhabitants). In the vicinitj of Pontarlier lies on a steep and high rock the 
little fortress of Jcntz, which formerly served as state-prison. (About the 
town of Montb^liard in this department, see below.) 29. The Jura Depart- 
ment contains: -|-Lons le Saclnier, chief town on the Vaille, 46 miles 
eouth-south-west of Be8an9on, with 8,400 inhabitants. Other towns of this 

m 

department are : St. Claude (with 6,600 inhabitants), St, Amour (with 3,000 
inhabitants), Septtnoneel (with 3,000 inhabitants), Morez (with 2,000 inhabi- 
tants). Dole (with 10,500 inhabitants), Foligny (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
ArboU (with 7,000 inhabitants), and Salint (with 8,500 inhabitants). 80. The 
Upper Mame Department contains : -j-Y isoul, chief town on the Drugeon, 
northward and 28 miles distant from Besan^on, with 6,200 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this department are : Juney (with 8,000 inhabitants), Oray (with 
7.000 inhabitants), Luxeuil (with renowned warm baths, and 4,000 inhabi- 
tants), and Lure (with 3,100 inhabitants). 

Within the limits of the Doubs Department is situated the former county, 
or prindpalityy of Mompelgard (in French, Montboliard), whose first sove- 
reigns became extinct with Count Henry, in 1395. Henry's only daughter 
and heiress, Harriet, being married to Count Everard of Wirtemberg, the 
liouse of Wirtemberg became possessed of the principality of Mompelgard, 
and retained it until the first French revolution, when the French seized it 
without any further ceremony. By the treaty of peace, concluded at Lune- 
ville in 1801, it was formally ceded to France. It contains: MoMrxLOAan, or 
(in French) Montbeliardy the former capital of the principality, in the Doubs 
Department, and on the Alaine, north-eastward and 42 miles distant from 
Bcsan^on, and south-westward and 138 miles distant from Stuttgart, with 
watch and other manufactures, and 5,500 inhabitants. Hontb61iard is the 
birth-place of the celebrated late naturalist Cuvier. JBerieourtf a town, with 
1,000 inhabitants. 

XIL BouBBOXNAia — ^This province, situated at the south-western boundary 
of Burgundy, was for a long time ruled by barons of several families, until 
since the year 1327 the descendants of Robert of Clermont, youngest son of 
King Louis IX. of France, were invested with it by the title of a duchy, 
called eitlier the duchy of Bourbonnais, or Bourbon. Duke Louis of Bourbon 
had two sons, of whom Peter was the ancestor of the houte of Bourbon, 
reigning in France since the aoceision of Henry IV. (see History of France), 



204 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



The French Provliices of Bourbonnois, Nireroala umI Berry. 

.^hile the other, James, propagated the collateral line of the dukes of Bourbon. 
Charles, duke of Bourbon, having revolted against King Francis I^ the duchj 
jf Bourbonnais was reunited with the crown. Bourbonnais comprises at 
present : — 81. The Allier Department^ containing : -f- Moulins, formerlj the 
.'apital of the duchy, on the Allier, south-eastward and 115 miles distant from 
Means, and north-westward and 92 milcA distant from Lyons, with manofao- 
'ures of cutlery, and 16,000 inhabitants. Bourbon i.'Aiichambault (in the 
lays of the first French revolution called Bourge$ Ui Bains), a town, with 
{,800 inhabitants, is noted for its warm baths, much reported ta Other towns 
>f this department are : St Poureain (with 4,000 inhabitants), Gannat (with 
'>,600 inhabitants), Montlucon (with 6,600 inhabitants), and La Pcdwe (with 
J,400 inhabitants), llie town of St. Am and- (or St Atnand MonlTxmd\ 
./ith 7,800 inhabitants, belongs likewise to Bourbonnais, but is situated within 
he limits of the Cher Department (see below, under the bead of Berry). 

XIIL NiVEENAiB. — ^This province, situated to the north of Bourbonnais, 
vas since the end of the 9th century a county, which by King Francis L was 
-aised to a duchy, whose dukes bore the title of dukes of Nevers. It com- 
)rises at present : — 82. The NUvre Department^ containing : +Nevkii8, for- 
;uerly the capital of Nivemais, at the junction of the Nidvre river with tlie 
Loire, south-eastward and 92 miles distant from Orleans, and north-westward 
vind 116 miles distant from Lyons, with an ancient Gothic castle, once the 
-esidence of the dukes of Nevers, a magnificent cathedral, an extensive guu- 
rbundry, and 17,500 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Pouiilg 
with 8,000 inhabitants). La Charite (with 5,600 inhabitants), Clamecy (with 
),000 inhabitants), Chateau-Chinon (with 4,000 inhabitants), and Cosne (with 
},500 inhabitants). 

XIV. Bkret. — This province, situated in the centre of France, and at the 
outhern frontier of Orl6anais, was ruled by counts, subsequently viscounU, 
vho in 1094 sold it to Philip L, and since that time royal princes have frc- 
[uently been invested with it. The last prince, who bore the title of duke of 
^erry, was the youi^est son of Charles X. Berry comprises at present two 
iepartments, viz. : the Cher Department (chief town Bourges), and the Ituire' 
Department (chief town Chlteauroux), 83. The Cher Departjnent oontain*) : 
-|-BoVBOKS, the former capital of Berry, at the junction of the Auron and 
Svre, 64 miles south-south-east of Orleans, with a remarkable ancient ca«*tle. 
x)wn walls built by the ancient Romans, a magnificent catlieJral, and 26,00. » 
inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Saneerre (with 3,700 in- 



FRANCR 206 



Tbe Pruvinoes of Berry and Orleaoaia. 



habitants), Vierzon (with 7,500 inhabitants), ffenrickemont (with 1,600 inhab< 
itants). Gray le Pre (with iron-works), and Baisbelle. (St. Amand in this 
department belongs to Bourbonnais, and has for this reason already been de- 
scribed above.) 84. The Indre DepartinerU contains : -f^^^ATKAuaoux, chief 
town on the Indre, south-westward and 37 miles distant from Boiirges, with 
cloth manufactures and 14,500 inhabitants. Valkn^ai, a town on the Nahon, 
60 miles sonth-south-west of Orleans, with 8,000 inhabitants, and a palace, 
-which belonged to the well-known prince of Talleyrand, and where Ferdinand 
VII. of Spain and his brother, Don Carlos, were retained as pri8<Hier8 in the 
period from 1808 to 1814. Other towns of this de|iartment are: iMoudun 
(with 12,500 inhabitants). La CfuLtre (with 4,800 inhabitants), Le Blanc {with 
6,200 inhabitants), and Levroux (with 8,000 inhabitants). To Berry belongs 
al^so, but is situated within the limits of the Loir and Cher Department (see 
below), the town of St. Aigxan, with cloth manufactures, and 3,000 inhabi- 
tants. 

XV. OaLCANAiB, at the southern frontier of Isle de France, was ever be- 
longing to the crown, that, however, frequently invested royal princes with 
this province. The princes then bore the title of a duke of Orleaas, as it 
was the case with Louis Philip before his accession in 1830. Tlie province of 
Orleanais comprises at present 3 departments, viz. : the Loiret Department 
(chief town Orleans), the Eure and Loir Department (diief town Chartre^), 
and the Loir and Cher Department (chief town Blois). 85. The Loiret De- 
partment contains : -f'^'^LEANS, the fonner capital of Orl6anai8, on tlie Loire, 
southward and 69 miles distant from Paris, with a beautiful Gothic cathedral, 
considerable trade and 42,000 inhabitants. MoNTAacis, a town on the Loing, 
with a mountiun-castle, cotton manufactures, and 8,000 inhabitants. Otlier 
towns of this department are: Beaugency (with 5,000 inhabitants), Clery 
(with a church containing the sepulchre of Louis XL, and 2,000 inhabitants), 
Meung or Mehvn (with 5,000 inhabitants), Gien (with 5,500 inhabitants), 
Fithiviers (with 4,200 inhabitants), and Briare (with 2,000 inhabitants). 
36. The Eure and Loir Department contains : -^CnAaTBES, chief town on the 
Eure, 46 miles north-north-west of Orleans, with one of the finest Gothic 
cathedrals in France (the one steeple of which is 342 and the other 878 feet 
in height), important grain trade, and 15,500 inhabitants. Maintbxox, a 
town on ilie Eure, with 2,000 inhabitants. As is known, the second consort 
of Louis XIV. bore the name after this town. Chateaudun, a town on the 
Loire, with 7,000 inhabitantB. (The town of Dreux in this department h^ 



206 EUROPE^ PAST AND PRESENT. 

The French Provinoes of Orleanais, Touraine and Aiqoa. 



longs to Iftle de France, and has been described under this head ; wh3e about 
Nogent le Rotrou, also in this department, see below under the head of 
Perche.) 37. The Lair and Cher Departtnent contains : -("R^^^ chief town 
on the Loire, south-westward and 37 miles distant from Orleans, has 14«500 
inhabitants, and is noted for its ancient castle, where in 1688 the duke of 
Guise and his brother were murdered bj order of King Henry III. Not 
fur from here is the celebrated Gothic palace of Cuambord, oontaiuing 440 
apartments, and reared in the beginning of the 16Lh ceiitury by Francis L 
The park, belonging to it, is 18 miles in circuits In 1821 it was bought at 
the price of 1,542,000 francs by a society of French, and given to the duke of 
Bordeaux in the name of the French nation. This prince bears at present 
the title of a count of Cliambord. Vendome, a town on the Loire, is noted 
for its glove manufactures, and has 8,500 inhabitants. Other towns of this 
department are: Rotnoraniin (with 7,600 inhabitants), and Savigny sur 
Braye (with 2,000 inhabitants). The town of St Aignan, within the limits 
of the Loir and Cher Department, belongs to Berry, and is described above- 

XVL Tou&AiNE, at the south-western frontier of Orleanais, and on the 
south bordering upon Poitou. Tourainc, on account of its fertility and be&uty 
of sceneries called the "garden of France," was in 1044 annexed to the 
county of Anjou, and in 1202 united with the French crown, and comprises 
at present: — 38. The Indre and Loire Department^ containing: -f-'^^^^^i^ 
ancient capital of Touraine, on the Loire, south-westward and 69 miles distant 
from Orleans, and eastward and 116 miles distant from Nantes, with a re- 
markable Gothic catliedral, various manufactures, and 27,600 iuhalntanta 
Not far from here is situated the ancient, now much decayed, palace oiPU»xu 
IcK TourSy where Louis XL spent the last days of his life, and died in 1483. 
Between Tours and Poitiers (see below) it was, where Charles Martell defeated 
the Moors, in 732. Amboisb, a town on the Loire, with an ancient castle, or 
palace (where Louis XI. instituted the equestrian order of St. Michael, and 
Charles VIIL died in 1498), and 6,600 inhabitants. Other towns of this 
department are : Loches (with 6,000 inhabitants), La Haye (with 2,100 inliab- 
itonts), and CMnon (noted for its mustard, with 7,400 inhabitants). Aboat 
the town of Richelieu within this department^ see below. 

XVIL Anjou, on the west bordering upon Brittany, and on the east upon 
Touraine, was in 1866 raised to a duchy and held in fee by several royal 
princes, among them Henry IIL, before his accession to the throne. Ttio 
province of Anjou comprises at present : — 89. The Maine and Loire Ikpart^ 



FRANOK. 207 



Tbo Provinces of Aojon, Maine and Perche. 



ment, oootaifiing : -|- Amoebs, ancient capital of Anjou, on the Mayenne, 60 
miles east-north-east of Nantes, with a remarkable cathedral, and 87,000 
inbabitantB. In the neighborhood are celebrated slate-quarries. Other towns 
of this department are : Font de Ge (with 4,000 inhabitants), Ghalonne* (with 
6,600 inhabitants), /n^aiMitf (with 1,200 inhabitants), ChdUauneuf (with 1,600 
inhabitants), Ihnte (with 2,000 inhabitants), Chollei (with 9,000 inhabitante), 
Jhtrtal (with 8,000 inhabitants), Sepre (with 2,200 inhabitants), ChemUle (with 
4,000 inhabitants), Beetuge (with 4,000 inhabitants), F&uance (with 1,600 
inbabitantB), Beaufort (with 6,500 inhabitants), and Beaupreau (with 8,200 
inhabitaats). SAUMoa, formerly the chief town of a government of the same 
name, which comprised parts of Anjou and Upper Poitou, is situated on the 
Loire, 8oath«eastward and 28 miles distant from Angers, and has 12,600 inhal> 
itants. To this government belonged also the town of Richelieu (formerly a 
village, but in 1687 raised to a town by the cardinal of Richelieu, luis at 
present 8,200 inliabitants), at present situated within the limits of the Indrt 
and L&ire Departmeni (see above). 

XVIIL Mains and PsacHS, two former counties between Orl6anais and 
Brittany, forming, together with the county of Laval, one government, until 
the first fVench revolution. Maine, definitively united with the crown in 1684. 
and the fonner county of Laval (that belonged to the house of TremouiUe 
mitil the first French revolution) compriso at present 2 departments, viz. : the 
Sarthe J^epartment (chief town Le Mans), and the Mayenne Department 
(diief town Laval). 40. The 8arthe Department contains : -j-Ls Mans, former 
capital of Maine, on the Sarthe, eastward and 83 miles distant from Rennea, 
and south-westward and 116 miles distant from Paris, with a remarkable 
Oothic cathedral, important poultry trade, noted wax- and linen-bleacheries, 
and 24,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Sable (with 
4,000 inhabitants), Mamert (with 6,000 inhabitants), St. Calais (with 4,000 
inhaUtants), La Ferte Bernard (with 8,000 inhabitants), Chdteau du Loir 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), and La Fliche (with 6,800 inhabitants). 41. The 
Mayenne Department contains : -|-L^^^<'> formerly the capital of the county 
of Laval, on the Mayenne, between Le Mans and Rennes, is noted for its linen 
manufactures, and has 18,600 inhabitants. Matenne, a town on the Mayenne 
river, with important linen manufactures, and 10,600 inhabitants. ChBieau- 
Oonthierf a town on the Mayenne river, is noted for its fiax- and hemp-yam, 
and has 6,600 inhabitantsi 

The fiirmer county of Ferehe^ reunited with the French crown in 1226, 



208 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The French ProTineee of Pereb« and BriUaoj. 

comprises at present ports of the Ome Department (see under tlie head of 
NormaDdy), ooDtatniqg : Moktagmb (ancient capital of Percbe, with iDipartaot 
linen trade, and 6,000 inhabitants; in its yidni^ is situated the celebrated 
convent of Cistercians Za Trappe, founded in 1 140) ; and of the Em* amd Loir 
Departmmt (see above, under the head of OrUanais), containing: Nogert lb 
RoTROu, a town on the Huisne, with various manufactures, and 7,000 inhabit 
tanta 

XIX. BaiTTANT, or (in French) La Bretagfu. — ^Thts province, comprising 
the great western peniasula of France, has derived its name from the ancient 
Britons, who in the middle of the 6th century emigrated from their native 
country (see History of Europe, § 4) to this Gaulic peninsula, at that time 
called Amwriea, but which name was since transmuted into that of Brittany, 
or rather lAtUe Brittany, Towards the end of the 6th century the country 
was subdued by King Clovis, but since the death of Charlemagne it was 
ruled by independent dukes. The sole heiress of Brittany, duchess Ann, was 
married first to Charles VIIL and then to Louis XIL, and moreover her 
daughter Claudia was married to King Francis Lof France ; and in this way 
Brittany was annexed to the French crown. It comprises at present 6 de- 
partments, via. : the UU and VUaine Department (chief town Rennes), the 
North Coattn Department (chief town St Brieux), the Ilnitterre Department 
(chief town Quimper), the Morbihan DepartmerU (chief town Vannes), aod 
the Lower Loire Department (chief town Nantes). 42. The IHe and Vilaiim 
Department contains : -[-Renkes, ancient capital of Brittany, at the junction 
of the Ille and Vilaine, 202 miles west-south-west of Paris, with importont 
butter trade, and 36,600 inhabitantsi In a neighboring ancient feudal castl# 
the celebrated Bertrand du Guesdin (-f- in 1380) was bom in 1813. Sr 
Malo, a fortified maritime town on the English Channel, with numeroua 
docks where merchant vessels are built, and 10,600 inhabitants. Not fiur 
from here is situated the maritime town of St. Sxrvan, with 10,000 inbabi* 
tants. Between this town and the coast of Normandy is the Bay of CantoaU^ 
noted for its oysters. The town of Cancale has 6,000 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this department are : Fougiren (with 10,000 inhabitants), La Overeke 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), Vitre (with 9,600 inhabitants), Bedon (with 6.000 
inhabitants), Mont/ort (with 2,000 inhabitants), and Paimpont (with 4,000 io> 
habitants). 43. The North Coattt Department contains : -f'^''* Baxxcro, or SL 
BrieuXj chief town near the coast, north-westward and 60 miles distant from 
Rennes, with 11,800 inhabitanU, and a seaport at the village of Legui 8L 



FRAirCE. 209 



The Province of Brittany. 



Brieue. The town of Lamballe, noted for its parchment, and contxiining 
4,000 inhabitants, was until the first French revolution the capital of tlie 
duchy of Penthievre. Other towns of this department are : B%ni4i (with 
2,000 inhabitants), Quintin (with 4,000 inhabitants), Ouingamp (with 6,200 
inhabitants), Zoiideae (with 7,000 inhabitants), Lannion (with 5,700 inhabi- 
tants), TVeguier (with 3,000 inhabitants), and Dinan (with 8,200 inhabitants). 
44. The Fininlerre Department contains: -[-QuiM?Ea, or Quimper Corentin^ 
chief town near the south coast of Brittany, westward and 116 miles distant 
fn)m Rennes, with a fine cathedral and 10,600 inhabitants. Brest, a fortified 
msiritirae town and chief naval station of France, on the Atlantic, 822 miles 
west-south-west of Paris, with a very fine harbor, a magnificent arsenal, and 
81,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are: Quimprrle (witli 
6,400 inhabitants), Carhaix^ or Keraea (with 2,000 inhabitants), Morlaix 
(with 10,000 inhabitants), St. Pol de Leon (with 6,300 inhabitant^), Concar- 
fieau (with 2,000 inliabitants), C/idteauiin (with 3,000 uihabitants), and Lan- 
demau (with 6,000 inhabitants). The islands of Ouessant (with 2,000 inhabi- 
tants), and of Setn (with 500 inhabitants), are also belonging to this depart- 
ment. 46. The Morbihan Department contains : +Vannb8, chief town on the 
southern coast of Bretagne, south-eastward and 92 miles distant from Brest, 
with 12,000 inhabitanta Lorirnt, a fortified maritime town and great naval 
station, westward and 23 miles distant from Vannes, with 20,000 inhabitants. 
The former French East Indian Company had its seat in Lorient Other 
towns of this department are : Port Louis (with 2,000 inhabitants), Sarzeau 
(with 6,400 inhabitants), Auray (with 4,000 inhabitants), Quiberon (with 
3,000 inhabitants), ffennebon (with 4,900 inliabitants), Ploermel (with 5,600 
inhabitants), and Poniivy (with important luien trade and 6,000 inhabitants). 
Pontivy was before the first French revolution the chief town of the princi- 
])ality of Rohan. The islands of Belle Isle (with 7,000 inhabitants, and the 
chief town Palais), of Oi'oix, or Orouaix (with 2,500 inhabitants), of HotuU 
and Hordie, are belonging to this department 46. The Lower Loire Depart- 
ment contains: -f-NANTES, chief town on the Loire, south-eastward and 165 
miles distant from Brest, and southeastward and 230 miles distant from 
Paris, carries on a very important commerce to all parts of the world, and 
lias 90,000 inhabitants. Nantes is moreover noted for an edict of Henry IV. 
(issued in 1598), respecting tlie Protestants, which was revoked in 1685. 
The seaport of Nantes is at Paimboeuf, a town near the mouth of the Ijoire, 
and at 25 miles distance from Nantes, with 4,000 inhabitants. Other towns 



210 EUROPE, PAST AlTD PRESENT. 



The French ProvlDoet of Brittany and Poitoo. 



of this department are : Bourgneuf (with 3,000 inhabitants), Querande, or 
Ouerande (with 8,000 inhabitants), Le Crotie (with 2,000 inhabitants), St, 
Nctzaire (with 4.000 inhabitants), Saioenay (with 2,000 inhabitants), Chdteatt- 
hriand (with 4,000 inhabitants), Nozay (with 3,000 inhabitants), AhcchU 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), and St. Philibert (with 3,000 inhabitants). 

XX. Porrou, between Bordeaux and Nantes, along the coast of the Atlantic. 
Poitou was by Charlemagne raised to an earldom, whose heiress, Eleanor, was 
married to King Henry II. of England (reigning from the year 1154 to 1189), 
who thus became possessed of it Not before the year 1371 was Poitou 
definitively reunited with the French crown. It comprises at present 3 
departments, yiz.: the Vienne DeparttnerU (chief town Poitiers), the Tioo 
Sivres Department (chief town Niort), and the Vetidee Department (chief town 
Bourbon- Vendue). 47. The Ftenntfi^gtMr^menf contains :-|-Poic7nERS, ancient 
capital of Poitou, south-eastward and 92 miles distant from Nantes, with a 
beautiful cathedral, and 24,000 inhabitants. Not far from here is the battle- 
field of MaupertuUf where in 1356 King John of France was defeated by the 
prince of Wales (the so-called Black Prince) and taken prisoner. The town 
of Lusignan was the ancestral seat of the hist king of Jerusalem, subsequently 
king of Cyprus, Guido of Lusignan (towards the end of the 12th century). 
Chatelleraut, a town on the Vienne, is noted for its manufactures of cutlery, 
and has 10,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are: Civray 
(with 2,300 inliabitants), Loudun (with 5,300 inhabitants), Monimorillon (with 
4,200 mhabitants), St. Savin (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Tremouille (with 
1,200 inhabitants). 48. The Tbo Sivres Department contains : -|-NioaT, chief 
town, on the Shvre Niortaise,42 miles west-south-west of Poitiers, with 18,500 
inhabitants. Other towns of this department are: Parthenay (with 4,500 
inhabitants), Breiwuire (with 2,000 inhabitants), Melle (with 3,000 inhabitaut<4), 
Thouars (with 2,400 inhabitants), St Maixent (with 4,500 inhabitants), and 
MaKze (with 2,000 inliabitants). 49. The Vendee Department contains: 
-j-BouRDON- Vendee (before the first French revolution called Roche war Y<m\ 
chief town on the Yon, southward and 37 miles distant from Nantes, witli 
5,400 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Fontenay le Comte 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), Lu^on (with 4,000 inhabitants), Beauvair sur Mer 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), and Sables d'Olonne^ or Lea Sables d'Olonne (with 
6,200 inhabitants). To Poitou and the Vendoe Department are also belonging 
the islands of Noirhoutirb (with 6,000 inhabitants), of Dusu, or (f rb^ (with 
2,000 inhabitants), of Pilier^ and Bomn, To Poiton belongs, moreover, the 



FRANOB. 211 



Tlie ProTliMses of Amili, Saintooge and AogoaoMls. 



town of RooHBOHOOART, vith 4,400 inhabitants, sitaated vithin the limits of 
the Upper Vxenns Department (see under the head of Limousin). 

XXI. AuNis and Saintonob. — ^These two prorinoee, situated between Poitou 
and Guyenne, and separated from each other by the Oharente river, were, 
together with Poitou, reunited with the French crown by King Charles V. 
(see History of France). Belbre the first French revolution, Aunis formed a 
government by itself while Saintonge was conjointly with Angoumais (see 
below) under the administration of another governor. At present, Aunis and 
Saintonge comprise in substance: — 50. The Lower CharenJte JDepartment, 
containing : H~La Rochellx, ancient capital of Aunis, on the Atlantic, between 
Bordeaux and Nantes, is strongly fortified, and has 16,000 inhabitants. La 
Rocfaelle is noted in history for its siege of thirteen months, sustained in 1627 
and 1628. At the outside of the harbor of La RocheUe lies the i$land of Ra 
(area : 64 square miles ; population : 18,000 inhabitants). RocHaroaT, a for- 
tified town on the Gharente, 14 miles south-south-east of La Roehelle, was 
founded in 1664 by Louis JSiY^ is noted for its naval depdt, and has 16,600 
inhabitants. In Rochefort it was where Napoleon in 1816, after the battle of 
Waterloo, embarked, and then fell into the power of the Knglish. Before the 
month of the Gharente, lies the island of Oleron^ with 16,000 inhabitants, and 
the town of Chateau du Bourg. On tho Sivre Kiortaise is situated the town 
of Marane, with 4,600 inhabitants. Saimtes, formerly the capital of Saintonge^ 
on the Gharente, south-eastward and 28 miles distant from Rochefort, with 
10,800 inhabitants. Other towns of Saintonge and the Lower Gharente 
Department are: Marennee (with 6,000 inhabitants), Brouage (with 1,000 
inhabitants), lonme (with 8,000 inhabitants), Rayan (with 3,000 inhabitantsX 
Tonnay-Charenie (with 8,000 inhabitants), and 8t. Jean cTAngely (with 6,200 
inhabitants). To Saintonge belongs also the town of Bakbczikux, noted for 
its linen cloth, capons, and truffles, has 8,000 inhabitants, and is situated within 
the limits of the Chartnte Department (see below). 

XXIL Anoouuais, along the eastern frontier of the two lastpoamcd prov- 
inces, and at the northern fitmtier of Quyenne, was united with the French 
crown by King Gharles V., and comprises at present : — 51. The Oharente 
Department, containing : -|-AifaouiJciB, former capital of Angoumais, on the 
Gharente, 72 miles north-north-east of Bordeaux, with a remarkable cathedral, 
important wine and brandy trade, and 18,000 inhabitants. Cognac, a town 
on the Gharente, is noted for its brandy, and has 4,000 inhabitanta Jamae, 
k village in the vicinity of Cognac, is noted in history for the battle of the 



•U EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The FraDCh Provlnoee of La lfareh«» LhnooaiB and AHTei^gne. 

year 1669, in which the prince of Oond6 was killed. Ri^ee (with S,000 
inhabitants), Confolfns (with 8,000 inhabitants), Anbeterre (with 1,000 inhabi- 
tants), and La Roehefaucauld (with 2,700 inhabitants), towns*in this depart- 
ment, within whose limits lies, moreover, Barbezienx, belonging to Saintaoge 
(see above). 

XXIIL La MABfiOTL — This provioi^e, sitoated near the centre of Frmce 
and the southern frontier of Berry, has since the year 1581 been united with 
the French crown, and comprises at present :*4S2. The Creuat DepartmetU^ 
containing : >f-GvERcr, formerly the capital of La Mardie, near the head of 
the Oartempe river, southward and 115 miles distant from Orleans, with 
5,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Ahun (with 2,000 
inhabitants), fovr^antftt^ (with 8,200 inhabitants), ultt6tMSon (with 6,000 inhab- 
itants), J^^tffm (with 8,000 inhabitants), and^oiMsoe (with 1,000 inhabitants). 
The towns of Bbllao (with 8,000 inhabitants) and Dokat (with 2,000 inhabi- 
tante), situated within the limits of the Upper Vienne Dtpartment, do likewise 
belong to La March& • 

XXIV. Ldcousin, situated at the north-eastern frontier of Guyenne, and 
once an earldom, was by King Henry IV. united with the Frendi crown, and 
comprises at present 2 departments, viz. : the Upper Vtenne Departmeui (chief 
town Limoges), and the Correge Department (chief town Tulle). 63. Hie 
Upper Vienne Department contains : -f-^iioQ^s, formerly the capital of the 
Limousin, on the Vienne river, north-eastward and 115 miles distant from 
Bordeaux, is noted for its horse-marts, and has 80,500 inhabitants. Near the 
town of Chaltu (with 1,500 inhabitants) was in the middle ages a castle, in 
the siege of which King Richard of the Lion Heart was killed by an arrow 
in 1199. Other towns of this department are: St Leonard (with 6,000 
inhabitante), 8t Junien (with 6,400 Inhabitants), 8L Yrieix (with 7,500 inhabi- 
tants), Eymautiere (with 8,000 inhabitants), and MarfnaeLaieal (with 3,000 
inhabitants). 54. llie Corrize Department contains : -|- Tuixk, chief town on 
the Gorrdze, south-eastward and 46 miles distant from Limoges, is noted for 
its manufiftctures of point net, and has 10,000 inhabitants. Brive la Qaillarde, 
a town on the Corrize, with important truffle trade, and 9,500 inhabitantsL 
llie little town of Turenne is noted for its ancient castle, one of the oldest and 
most important fortresses in France. The fine palace in the village of P<>m- 
padour was the property of the well-known marchioness of Pompadour. The 
town of Uttel is situated on the Sarsonne, and has 4,800 inhabitants. 

XXV. AuvKEONSi — ^This province, once an earldom, which was in 1860 



FRANCE. Sie 



Tbe ProTlnoeB of Aurtrgoe and Lyonnsis. 



raised to the rank of a docfay, and in 1681 united with the crown, oompriaes 
at present 2 departments, vis. : the Pinf de Ddme Department (chief town 
Clermont), and the Cantal Deparitnent (chief town Aurillac), both named 
alter the highest peaks of the mountains of Auvergne (see Introduction, or 
General View of Europe, § 7, h), 56. The Puy de Dome Department con- 
tains : -{-Cleemont, sumamed en Auvergne, ancient capital of Auveigue, at 
the foot of Mount Puy de D6me, westward and 88 miles distant from Lyons, 
consists properly of two towns, lying near each other, vix. : Clermont and 
Jfontferrand, which since the first French revolution are united by the oommoQ 
name of Glbbmont-Fkrhand. This united dty has 84,000 inhabitants, and is 
noted for the council, or synod, held here in 1096, which gave the principal 
cause to the crusades. Rioic, a town with 18,000 inhabitants, is situated 
northward and 9 miles distant from Clermont^ in the - beautiful and fertile 
plain known by the name of Limagne. The town of Aiguxpbrsi, with 8,200 
inhabitants, was formerly the capital of the duchy of Mantpeneier. Other 
towns of this department are: Vdvie (with 8,000 inhabitants), Pont du 
Chateau (with 3,000 inhabitants), FbdoM? (with 900 inhabitants), /Motre (with 
6,200 inhabitants), Sauxillangee (with 2,000 inhabitants), Beaee (with 2,000 
inhabitants), BUhm (with 6,800 inhabitants), Ambert (with 8,500 inhabitants), 
Arlant (with 4,000 inhabitants), Mareae (with 8,000 inhabitants), Ihiere (with 
1 1,000 inhabitants, and important manu&ctures of paper and cutlery), St, Remy 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), and Maringuee (with 4,000 inhabitants). 56. The 
Cantal Department contains : -f-AvaiLLAO, chief town, on the Jourdane, sooth- 
westward and 46 miles distant from Clermont, with various manufiu^ures, trade 
with mules, and 11,600 inhabitants. The town of Chaude^-Aiffuee, with 2,800 
inhabitants, is noted for its warm mineral baths. Other towns of this depart- 
ment are: 8t. Flour (with 6,500 inhabitants), Murat (with 8,000 inhabitanu), 
Vfc tur Cire (with 2,000 inhabitants), Maura (with 8,000 inhabitants), Mauriae 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), and Solera (with 1,800 inhabitants). The towns of 
Bbiovdx (with 6,500 inhabitants) and Lanoeao (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
situated within the limits of the l/pper Loire Department (see under the 
Bead of Languedoc), do likewise belong to Auvergne. 

XXVI. LToirNAis.^This province is situated between Auvergne and Dau- 
phiny. It did at first form part of the primary kingdom of Burgundy (see 
above, under the head of Bourgogne), and was since under the Prankish sway 
ruled by governors who, in the course of time, made themselves independent, 
ifwnming the title of earla. Since the year 1178 they poooeoood only the 



%U EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The French ProTinoes of Lyonnale and Gujenne. 

tricts of Foret and Beaujolai$, while the archbishop of Lyons exercised Hw 
Bway over Lyoonais proper. These three districts were united with the 
French crown respectively by King Philip IV., and in the years 1869 and 
1581. Hie . province of Lyonnais comprises at present 2 departments^ viz. : 
the Rhone Deparhnent (chief town Lyons), and the Loire Department (chief 
town Montbrison). 57. The Rhone DepartmerU contains : -{-Lyons, once the 
capital of Lyonnais, at the confluence of the Saone and Rhone, south-eastward 
and 270 miles distant from Paris, and northward and 166 miles distant 
from Marseilles, is the second French dty in population and manu&ctores, 
and has (including the suburbs of la OuilloHire and la Ortnx Routue) 210,000 
inhabitants. Its 40,000 silk-looms employ 80,000 men, and are annually pro- 
ducing silks at the value of 100 million francs. Tlie town of Villktrakcbx 
(noted for its cattle-fairs, and having 8,000 inhabitants) was formerly the cap- 
ital of Beaujolais (see above). Other towns of this department are : jS^ OenU- 
Zaeal (with 2,000 inhabitants), Oivore (with 5,000 inhabitants), Tarare (with 
7,000 inhabitants), Ctmdrieu (with 5,000 inhabitants), BeUeoUle (with 2,800 
inhabitants), and Beaujeu (with 1,800 inhabitants). 58. The Loire Depart- 
fMni contains : -h^oiTBEisoN, formerly the capital of the province of Fores 
(see above), oii the Vizezy, westward and 87 miles distant from Lyons, wiUi 
6,500 inhabitants. The city of St. Etiennb is noted for its extensive mann- 
jkctures of fire-arms, hardware, and silk riband, and has 54,000 inhabitants. 
RoANHB, a town on the Lcnre, with 10,500 inhabitants, is the centre of the 
inknd trade between Marseilles, Lyons, and Parisi Other towns of this 
(Apartment are : St. Oalmier (with 2,500 inhabitants), 8L Symphorien de Lecg 
trith 8,000 inhabitants), St. Ckamond (with 7,000 inhabitants), and Rite de 
in i.(with 10,500 inhabitants). 

iuhabiVII. Gutxnne. — ^This province, on the north side of the Garonne, 
tants), ^before the first F^rench revolution one government together with 
inhabitadying on the south side of this river, and was by the Romans called 
the CkMT^k on account of its mineral waters (aquae). In the 5th century the 
its manufiMittled here and founded an empire, whose capital was Tonlouse. 
a town on ttt period in the 8th century the name of SfpOmania was used 
llie little towntania. In 778 Charlemagne appointed his son Louis king of 
most importanteh however subsequently was divided into the duchies of 
padottr was the pia) and Oaeeogne, and in 1155, by way of marriage, came 
town of Ueeel is a the English kings, who remained in possession for almost 
XXV. AuvaaoHii both duchies were united with the F^nch crown. It 



FRAKOB. 216 



The ProTlnce of Ouyenne. 



most be still observed that Quyenue was divided into six districts, vis. : Bowr- 
deloU (capital Bordeaux), Perifford (chief town P6rigueuz), ApenoU (chief 
town Agen), Quercy (chief town Cahors), Ronergue (chief to%vn Rhodes), and 
BaxadoM (chief town Bazas). At present Guyenne is divided into 6 depart- 
ments, which in substance correspond to those districts. 69. The Gironde 
Departmeni contains: -["Bordbauz, formerly the capital of Guyenne, on the 
left bank of the Garonne, is the emporium of the south-west provinces and 
chief seat of the French wine trade, is handsomely built^ and has 1 20,000 
inhabitants. Previous to the first French revolution, the annual export of 
wines from Bordeaux was 100,000 tons, while in 1881 only 24,000 tons of 
this staple were exported. Tlie district of Medoo is noted for its wines, and 
contains the towns of Leaparre (with 1.000 inhabitants), Medoc or St. Laurewt 
de Medoc (with 3,000 inhabitants), and PauUiae (with 8,000 inhabitants), llie 
towns of Bartae (with 2,700 inhabitants), Langcn (with 8,500 inhabitants), 
and Podemac (with 1,600 inhabitants), are lilcewise noted for their wines. 
Blatx, a fortified town on the Gironde, with 4,000 inhabitants, and a citadel 
where the duchess of Berry was kept prisoner from 1832 to 1833. Other 
towns of this department are : Buck or La Teste de Buck (with 3,000 inhabi- 
tants), Castre* (with 1,000 inhabitants), Bourg (with 2,000 inhabitants), Ccu- 
tran (with 8,200 inhabitants), Liboume (with 10,500 inhabitants), CaetiUon 
(with 8,000 inhabitants). La Reole (with 4,000 inhabitants), and Basas 
(formerly the chief town of the district of Bazadois, with 4,600 inhabitants). 
60. The Dordogne Department contuns: -|-PxEiauEUX, formerly chief town 
of Porigord, on the Isle, north-eastward and 69 miles distant from Bordeaux, is 
noted for its truffles, and has 12,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this depart- 
ment are: Riherae(vnih 4,000 inhabitants), l/tM?t(iian(with 1,600 inhabitants), 
Bergerae (with 9,500 inhabitants), FxideuU (with 1,000 inhabitante). Sarlai 
(with 6,200 inhabitants), and N(mtron (with 3,700 inhabitants). 61. The Lot 
and Oaronne Department contains: -f'-^O!'* chief town on the Garonne, 
south-eastward and 74 miles distant from Bordeaux, is noted for its prunes, 
and has 14,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Tonneins 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), Aiguillon (with 8,700 inhabitants), Marmande (with 
7,000 mhabitants), and VUlentuve d'Agen (with 11,500 inhabitants). 62. The 
Lot Department contains : -f^J^^oas, formerly the capital of Quercy (see 
above), on the Lot, 115 miles east-south-east of Bordeaux, is noted for its 
wineSk and has a remarkable ancient cathedral, and 13,500 inhabitants. 
The vfllage of LanuftkeFenelon is the birthplace of the renowned archbishop 



216 EUROPE, PAST AJ!fD PRESENT. 

Tbe French Provlncee of Guyanne aod Gascony. 



Feneloa (bora in 1651), and lies near Socillac, a town on the Dordogne, with 
8,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : Oourdon (with 5,000 
inhabitants), Roeamadour (with 1,500 inhabitants), and Figeac (with 6,800 in- 
habitants). 68. The Tarn and Garonne Department contains : 4'Moktauban, 
chief town, on the Tarn, northward and 82 miles distant from Touloa^e, with 
a cathedral founded in 789, considerable inland trade, and 25,000 inhabitant& 
MoissAO, a town on the Tarn, with important inhmd trade, and 1 1,000 inhabi- 
tants. (Oastel 8anrazin, within the limits of this department, belongs to 
Languedoc.) 64. The Aveyran Department contains: -|-Rodb3s, formerly the 
capital of Rouergue (see above), on the Aveyron, 166 miles east-south-east 
of Bordeaux, is noted for its beautiful cathedral with a steeple 290 feet high, 
and has 10,000 inhabitants. St. Gbniez, or St. GenUt de RivedoU, a town 
on tlie Lot, with numerous manufactures of doth, etc, and 4,000 inhabitants. 
Other towns of this department are : Guiole (with 2,000 inhabitants), MUhaud 
(with 11,000 inhabitants), AtUfin (with 3,100 inhabitants), JS^TMi/ion (with 
4,000 inhabitants), St Affrique (with 6,400 inhabitants), and ViUe/ranehe 
(with 10,000 inhabitants). 

XXVIII. Gascony. — ^The name of this province, situated between the 
Garonne and the Pyrenees, is derived from the ancient Gasconiana, or V as- 
conians, whose descendants are the Basques (see Introduction, § 12), and who 
from their primitive seat on the south side of the Pyrenees, partly emigrated 
to tlie present province of Gascony at the end of the 6th century. Since the 
11th century Gascony shared the fate of Guyenne (see above). Previous to 
the first French revolution Gascony was divided into the districts of Amia^ 
HOC (chief town Auch), Labour, or the Country of the Bangue* (chief town 
Bayonne), Lander (comprising the duchy of Albret), Condomoi* (chief town 
Condom) and Martan (chief town Mont de Marsan). At present Gascittiy 
comprises 3 departments, viz. : the Gers Department (chief town Auch), the 
Upper Pyrenees Department (chief town Tarbes), and the Heath* Department 
(chief town Mont de Marsan). 65. The G^t Department contains : -f'AucH, 
ancient capital of Gascony, south-eastward and 106 miles distant from Bor- 
deaux, with a splendid cathedral, and 11,000 inhabitants. Condom, formerly 
chief town of Condomois (see above), with 7,000 inhabitants. Other towns 
of tlus department are : Lectoure (with 6,700 inhabitants), Mirande (with 
2,700 inhabitants), Loml>ez (with 2,000 inhabitants), and Ea^uxe (with 3,5<>0 
inhabitants). 66. The Upper Pyretieea Department contains: 4-TAaBEa. 
chief town, on the Adour, 115 miles south-south-east of Bordeaux, with a 



FRANCK 2X7 



The Prorluoo of Gaacony. 



valuable stud, and 18,000 inhabitants. The towns of Lourde* (with 4,000 in- 
babitanU), Argeles (with 1,200 inhabitants), and Lut (with 2,200 inhabitants), 
are situated in the romantic valley of Lavedan. llie not lew romantic wdley 
of Ccanpan contains the towns of Cwnpan (with 4,500 inhabitants), luid Bag- 
nerety sumamed de Bigorre (with 8,500 inhabitants). The Tillage of BaHget,' 
in the valley of the same name, is noted for its mineral baths and its webs 
of silk and wool, known by the name of Bardgea. The village of CattUret$, 
in the Pyrenees, is noted for its warm mineral baths. 67. The Heath* Be- 
partfnetU contains : -f-^oNT db MAasAN, chief town, on the Douse, north-east- 
ward and 60 mih^ distant from B:iyonne, with 4,200 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this department are : Roquefort de Marsan (with 2.000 inhabitants), 
Aire (with 4,000 inhabitants), St. Sever (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Box 
(with 6,000 inhabitants). To Gascony belong moreover several towns lying 
within the limits of other departments. First, from the Lower Pyrenees Be- 
partment (see below) : Bayon4NB, a fortified maritime and conunerdal town, 
near the mouth of the Adour, 115 miles south-south-west of Bordeaux, is 
noted for its smoked hams, carries on an important trade, especially with 
Spain, and has 16,000 inhabitants. In 1679 the bayonets were invented here, 
llie palace of Marrac, where in 1808 the royal family of Spain resigned in 
{iivor of Napoleon, has been destroyed by fire. St. Jean di Luz, a maritime 
town near the Spanish frontier, with 8,800 inhabitants. Not far from here is 
in the Bidassoa river the little Pheasant, or Co9*ference Island, where the 
treaty of peace of the year 1659 was concluded between France and Spain. 
lL\i>FAaoN, or Hasparrent an industrious town with 5,000 inhabitants. Mau- 
jLtoN, a town on the Gave, with 1,400 inhabitants. Secondly, from the Lot 
and Garonne Bepartment (see above, under the the head of Guyenne): 
Nekac, formerly the capital of the ancient duchg of Albret, on the Baise, 
18 miles west-south-west of Agen, is noted for its truffle-pies, and has 7,000 
inhabitants, and an old palace, once the residence of the kings of Navarre 
and the dukes of Albret, and where also King Henry IV. resided for a time 
with his consort Maigaret of Valois. From the town of AuiasT the duchy 
bad derived its name. Thirdly, from the l/pper Garonne Bepartment (see 
below, under the head of Languedoc) : Moasi, a town on the Garonne, south- 
westward and 18 miles distant from Toulouse, with 4,000 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this same department are : 8L Gaudens (with 6,500 inhabitants), 
;S^. Mariory (with 1,600 inhabitants), St. Beat (with 1,500 inhabitants), and 
Bt, Bertrand de Cotnminges (with 1,200 inhabitants). Finally, beloQgs to 

10 



218 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The Frendi Provfnoes of Navarre, Beam and Folx. 



Gasoony the town of St. Gmoxs, with 4,600 inhabitants, situated within the 
limits of the Ariege DepartunefU (see below under the head of Foix). 

XXIX. Navarbb and Bbarn, along the Pyrenees, and surrounded by 
Gasoony. In the description of Spain, it has already been related (page 197) 
that the ancient kingdom of Navarre was since 12S4 in the possessiini of the 
French descendants of Count Theobald of Champagne, and that in 1512 King 
Ferdinand of Aragon wrested from them the southern part of it Hie heiress 
of the northern part was in 1648 married to the Duke Anton of Bmtrhon (see 
Bourbonnais), and from this matrimony sprung King Henry IV., who inherited 
at the same time the principality of Beam, connected with the duchy of 
Albret From Navarre and B^am has been formed : — 68. The Lovoer Pyrt- 
neea Departmenty containing : -f~^^u» formerly the capital of the principality 
of Beartty on the Gave, 66 miles east-south-east of Bayonne, with an andeot 
palace, where Henry IV. was bom in 1663, and 18,000 inhabitants. The 
town of PoNTAO is noted for its wines, and has 2,000 inhabitants. Oloron, or 
Oleron^ a town with 7,000 inhabitants, carries on an important trade with 
timber and lumber. The towns of Orthat (with 8,000 inhabitants) and Sali» 
(with 6,800 inhabitants) are noted for their hams, LaruM for its sulphur 
baths, and Moneiiu (with 6,600 inhabitants) for its wines. St. Jeak PiKn nx 
Port, formerly the capital of the (French) kingdom of Naoarrt^ on the high 
road from France to Spain, south-eastward and 28 miles distant from Bajooob 
-with a strong citadel, and 4,000 inhabitants. St. Palais, a town on the 
Bidouse, with 1,200 inhabitants. La Bcutide de Clarence, a town with 2,000 
inhabitants. (The other towns within the limits of this department, tic: 
Bayonne, St. Jean de Luz, Biarita, Hasparreo, and Maul6on, are Already 
described under the head of Gktscony, to which they belong.) 

XXX. The earldom of Fode, at the foot of the Pyrenees, was sinoe tiie 
11th century ruled by counts or earls, and in 1689 united with the Frendi 
crown by Henry IV., whose ancestors had inherited it At present it forms : — 
69. The Ariige Department, containing: -|~Foiz, the ancient capital of the 
earldom, on the Aridge, southward and 46 miles distant from Toulouse, with 
6,000 inhabitants. The town of Ax, situated in a romantic valley of the 
Pyrenees, is noted for its mineral waters^ and has 2,000 inhabitants. JPamiirM 
and Taratean, towns, with respectively 7,400 and 2,000 inhabitants 

Between the Frendi province of Foix and the Spanisli province of Catalonia 
lies, in the Pyroiees, the neutral country of ANOoaaA, or Aftdorre, ooeapying a 
tract of €ely^l9S square mihM|,with 16,00a inhabitants, and formii^ tnxa oAd a 



FRANCS. S19 



The ProTlneM of RooaUloa and Laognedoe. 



lEind of rq>ab1ic, whose independenoe has ever been respected by France and 
Spain. On the 7th of November, 1846, a new code of law was solemnly 
promulgated. It comprises 54 villages, among which the capital, bearing the 
name of Andorre la vielle. 

XXXL RoussiLLON, the most southern province of France, between Foix 
and the Mediterranean. Tlie Prankish governors, appointed here since 790, 
made themselves independent in the coarse of time, and assumed the title of 
earls. The last of them bequeathed the earldom to Eling Aljdionso of Aragon, 
in 1178. King John II. of Aragon mortgaged RouasiUon, in 1468, to King 
Louis XI. of France, for the sum of 860,000 gold dollars, wludi sum was not 
repaid, so that in the treaty of 1059, Roussillon was finmally ceded to Fhmce. 
It Ibrms at present: — ^70. The Easi Pyrenees Departmmt, containing: -{-PRa- 
pfQNAN, the ancient capital of Roussillon, near the Mediterranean, south-west- 
ward and 188 nules distant from Marseilles, is the most southerly town of 
Fnuxse, and has 20,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this department arc : 
P&rt Vendre (with 2,800 inhabitants), RivesaUee (with 8,200 inhabitants), 
Collioure (with 8,000 inhabitants), 8i. Laurent de Cerdant (with 2,000 inhabt- 
iaots), Pradee (with 8,000 inhabitants), and Ceret (with 8,000 inhabitants). 
The little town of Momt-Lodis, founded in 1681, has only 400 inhabitants, but 
is strongly fortified, and was formerly the capital of the French Oerdoffne, 
which in 1660 was ceded to France by the Spanish crown. 

XXXII. Lanouedoo, between Guyenne and Provence, on the south bounded 
by the Mediterranean, has an area of 17,679 square miles, and derived its 
name from a French idiom, in the middle ages. Languedoc, since the 5th 
century possessed by the VisigothS) and in the 8th by the Moors, was by 
Pepin the Little brought under the sway of the Franks. In the 9th century, 
the gOTemora of Languedoc assumed their independenoe and the title of earls 
of IhuloHsej and ruled for a long while over a great part of Provence likewise. 
In 1861, Languedoc was united with the Frencli crown. It comprises at 
present 8 departments, whose preliminary enumeration would take up too 
much room here. 71. The Upper Garonne Department contains : ^'Toitloiibi, 
ancient capital of Languedoc, on the Garonne, south-eastward and 188 miles 
distant from Bordeaux, with many remarkable ancient buildingB (among them, 
especially, the city hall and the cathedral), numerous manufrotures, and 80,000 
inhabitants. Ilie town of Bagnires de Lnehan, with 2,000 inhabitants, is noted 
for its warm mineral batlis. VUiefranehe, a town, with 8,000 inhabitants. 
{Other towns within the limits of this departmeBt, as SU Gaudens, Muret, etc., 



S20 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Tbe French ProTtnoe of Laagnedoe. 



to QuBOoaj, are already described there.) 72. The Tarn Deport- 
metU cootains : + Albt, chief town, on the Tarn, north-eaatward and 42 miles 
distant from Touknue, with a beautiful cathedral, and 12,600 inhabitants. 
Here, and in the surrounding country, called AUngeoUy the Albigenaes (who 
in some points had the same religious creed as the Waldenses mentioned under 
the head of Italy) had their chief seat Castbu, a town on the Agout, is 
noted for its doth manwfiictures, and has 18,500 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this department are: QiiilUui (with 9,000 inhabitants), SoriM (with 2,900 
inhabitants), Laoaw (with 7,700 inhabitants), Mazamet (with 7,000 inhabi- 
tants), Ormdket (with 6,000 inhabitants), J2a6a«feiu (with 7,000 inhabitants), 
ffautpoul (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Lautrec (with 8,600 inhabitants). 
78. The Avde DepartmefU oontains: -fOABCASsoNNa, chief town on the Aude, 
south-eastward and 64 miles distant from Toulouse, is renowned for its doth 
manufiustures, and has a remarkable cathedral, and 19,600 inhabitants Tbe 
dtyof Nakbonnk (with various remarkable ancient buildings, and 11,600 
inhabitants) was in the middle ages the emporium of Languedoc, and in the 
8th century the seat of a Moorish goTemor. QuUlnaydary, a town on the 
South canal, with doth manufactures, and 11,000 inhabitants Other towns 
of this department are : La Ora*ae (with 2,000 inhabitants), S^eam (with 
8,000 inhabitants), Zeueaie (with 1,500 inhabitants), AlH (with 1,200 inhabi- 
tants), Linwux (with 7,500 inhabitants). 74. The Hermdt Dtpartmemi con- 
tains : -l-MoMTPBLUKB, chief town, near the Mediterranean, eastward and 124 
miles distant frtmi Toulouae, was in the middle ages the seat of a renowned 
medical school, is at present the resort of invalids for its salubrious air, and 
has 87,000 inhabitants. As the seaport of Montpellier is to be considered 
Oxm, a maritime town on the Mediterranean, is noted for its wines and salt- 
works, and has 11,000 inhabitants. The towns of J^Vwi<^nuM (with 2,000 
iohabitante) and Ltrnd (with 6,000 inhabitants), are noted for their esculent 
wines. Lodbve, a town at the foot of the Sevennes, is from old renowned far 
its doth manufoctores, and has 11,500 inhabitants. Other towns of thi:s 
department are : Owtigt9 (with 4^500 inhabitants), CUrmmU-Lodiv^ or CUr- 
m&nt-tmrauH (with 6,000 inhabitants), Agde (with 8,500 inhabitanU), PUen» 
(with 9,000 inhabitants), Biner9 (with 17,600 inhabitants), BSdarieux (with 
6,000 inhabitanto), and St. Pma, snmamed de Tomiert (with 7,500 inhnbitanieV 
76. The Oard J)qmrtmmt eoutuns: +NDaB, chief town, pleasantly sitoated 
north-eastward and 28 nuks distant from Montpdlier, has numerous ouuiu^ 
futures of sUks, wodlen, etc., and 46,000 uihabitants, and is noted Sv a 



FRANOK. 8S1 



The ProTlnee of LugiMdoc. 



higfalj remarkable aqueduct, called Pont du Gard, and reared by the ancient 
Komana. Beaucai&b, a town on the Rhone, north-westward and 64 miles 
distant from Marseilles, is noted for its important annual fur, and has 10,000 
inhabitants. Aiouxs Mortis, a town near the Mediterranean, with 8,000 in- 
halMtants, salt-works, and a seaport, where Louis IX. embarked for the 6th 
and 7th crusade, in 1248 and 1269. Other towns of this department are : 
Uxis (with 7,000 inhabitants), St Oittet (with 6,000 inhabitants), Sommiirf 
(with 4,000 inhabitants), Ft/^0ntftMw<f^9t^Ron (with 8,600 inhabitants), JSo^iie- 
maure (with 4,000 inhalHtants), AlaU (with 14,600 inhabitants), BagnoU, or 
JBaiffnoh (with 6,200 inhabitants), Pont 8i. EtprU (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
Remmdint (with 1,000 inhabitants), Andwte (with 6,000 inhabitantsX 8L 
HippolfU (with 6,800 inhabitants), and Le Viffon (with 6,000 inhabitants). 
76. The Lozire Department contains : -^Mkrdb, chief town, on the Lot^ north- 
eastward and 188 miles distant from Toulouse, with manufactures of seige, 
and 6,200 inhabitants. Other towns of this department are : MarviJoU (with 
4,200 inhabitants). Florae (with 2,400 inhabitants), Langogne (with 8,000 inhab- 
itants), and Chdteauneuf de Random (with 2,600 inhabitants). The towns of 
Villefort and ViaUut are noted for their lead mines. 77. The Ardieke J>epari' 
tmnU contains: -f-P^^^f ^^^^ 'town, on the Ouvdze, southward and 69 miles 
distant from Lyons, with 4,600 inhabitants. Other towns of this department 
are : Tmmwn (with 4,800 inhabitants), 8t. Peray (with 2,000 inhabitants)^ 
Vem<mx (with 1,600 inhabitanU), La VouUe (with 1,600 inhabitants), Ann<h 
nay (with 9,600 inhabitants), Largeniiiru (with 8,100 inhabitants), AttbenM 
(with 6,600 inhabitants), VaU (with 2,000 inhabitants), VtUenewe dt Berg 
(with 2,400 inhabitants), Bowrg 8t Andeol (with 4,000 inhabitants), and 
Jioehemaure (with 1,600 inhaUtanta). Yiyxkbs (on the Rhone, with 2,000 
inhabitants) was fiirmerly chief town of the district of VivaraiM, 78. The 
Ufper Zoir^ department contains : -f-Ls Pdt, sumamed enVHay, chief town, 
near the Loire, north-eastward and 164 miles distant from Toulouse, and 
south-westward and 66 miles distant from Lyons, with a beautiful cathedral, 
rarious manufactures, and 16,600 inhabitants. Other towns of this depart- 
ment are: Tenee (with 6,000 inhabitants), MonUirol (with 4,000 inhabitants^ 
Ttmngeaux, or IstengeoMX (with 8,000 inhabitants), and Polignae (with the 
ruins of the ancestral seat of the princes of Polignac). To Langnedoo belongs 
likewise the town of Gastkl Saebaxin, on the Garonne, 86 mOes north-north- 
-west of Toulouse, with 7,700 hihabitants, situated within the limits of the 
TtfTH and Garonne DepartvMnU (see ahore, under the head of Guyenne). 



SM EUROPE, PA£rr AND PRESENT. 

The French ProrliieeB of Laagnedoc and DauphlDy. 

The towns of Brioude and Laageac, withiD the limits of the Upper Luire 
Department, belonging to Auvergne, ore already described there. 

XXXni. DAJDrHiNT, between the Rhone and Italy, on the south bordering 
upon Provenca At first forming part of the Burgimdian khigdom, Dauphiny 
was subsequently ruled by earls, who since the beginning of the 11th century 
bore the title of J)auphm8 of Vietuuna, The last of them, Humbert IL, be- 
queathed in 184S the country to King Philip VL of fVance, upon the condi- 
tioo that every French crown-prince should bear the title of Dauphin. This 
custom has been observed until 1880. Dauphiny comprises at present 8 de- 
partments, yis. : the ItSre D^^rtneiU (chief town Grenoble), the Upper Alp$ 
Jhpatimewt (chief town Gap) and the Dr&me DepartmmU (diief town Va- 
lence). 'IS. The JUre Department contains: -f-G&ENOBLK, ancient capital of 
Dauphiny, on the Isdre, south-eastward and 54 mQes distant from Lyons, is 
noted for its manu&ctures of gloves, and has 80,000 inhabitants. About 13 
miles north of Grenoble is situated in a dreary mountainous tract tiie princi- 
pal monastery of the Carthusians, called Orande Ohartretiee, and Sounded in 
1064 by the holy Bruno. ViENrrB, a town on the Rhone, southward and 18 
miles distant from Lyons, is noted for its high antiquity and for its many ran- 
nants of Roman architecture, and has 17,000 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this department are: Saaeenage (with 1,500 inhabitants), F(^(with 4,000 m- 
habitants), ViMtlU (with 8,000 inhabitants). Rivet (with 2,000 inhabitants), 
Vcir<m (with 8,500 inhabitants), Allemoni (with 3,000 inhabitants), SL Mar- 
eellin (with 8,100 inhabitants). La Tour du Pin (with 2,600 inhabitants^ 
Bcnvrgain (with 4,000 inhabitants), Pont Beauvoiete (with 2,000 inhabitants^ 
and La Balme (with 1,200 inhabitants). 80. The Upper Alps Department 
contains : -H^^i ^^'^ town, at the confluence of the Bonne and Luie, 50 
miles south-south-east of Grenoble, with a remarkable cathedral, and 8,000 
inhabitants. BaiAN^ON, a town near the head of the Durance and in a tract 
of the Alps, which is elevated '7,8'74 feet above the sea, is noted for its strong 
fortificataons, and has 8,600 inhabitants. Mont Dauphin, a town and fortress, 
with 500 inhabitanta Smbrun, a town on the Durance, with a remarkable 
ancient cathedral, and 8,400 inhalntants. 81. The Dr^me Department oon- 
tains : -|-yAL«HOK, chief town, on the Rhone, southward and 54 miles distant 
from Lyons, with a remarkable cathedral, and 11,500 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this department are: Die (with 4,000 inhabitants). Thin (with 
2,000 inhabitants), Bomana (with 7,800 inhabitants), ZHeu le m (with 4^000 
inhahitants), MontUimart (with 8,400 inhabitants), Chabemi (with 4,000 



FRANCE. 2as 



The Provinces uf Dttuphiny and ProTenoa. 



inhftbitantB), Crest (with 6,000 inhabitaats), and N^fOfu (with 8,500 inhabh 
tante). 

To the goverament of Dauphioy did ako beloQg the prindpalUy of Okanob, 
which lies between Daaphiny and Proveooe along the Rhone. Since the 11th 
oentmry it was under the sway of earls, who assumed the princely title, and 
became extinct in 1681 with Prince Philibert, who bequeathed the country 
to his nephew, Reuatus of Na99au. Since that time the at present^ in Hol- 
land, reigning line of the house of Nassau has been called Nassau-Orange, or 
the house of Qrangei In the treaty of peace concluded at Utrecht in 1718, 
the principality was ceded to France by the king of Prussia, who had inher- 
ited it from the prince, William III., of Orange (and king of England). At 
present the principality of Orange forms part of the Vaudtite DepaiimetU 
(see below), and contains the towns of OaANos (formerly its capital, near the 
Rhone, northward and 16 miles distant from Ayignon, with 9,600 inhabitants), 
and OourteMon (with 2,500 inhabitants). 

XXXIV. PaovxNGS, along the Mediterranean, between the Rhone and 
the Sardinian continent About its history, see under the head of Bourgogne, 
or Burgundy ; and it needs only to be remarked that in 1481 Provence was 
definitively united to the French crown. At present it comprises 8 depart- 
ments, via. : the RhonMnouUu Department (chief town Marseilles), the Var 
Department (diief town Draguignan) and the Lower Alps Department (chief 
town Digne). 82. The Rhone-mouihe Department contains : Aix, the ancient 
capital of Provence, on the Arc, northward and 18 miles distant from Mar- 
seilles, with a remarkable cathedral, and 26,000 inhabitants. -|~^^^i^8>Q3^'I'B, 
the capital of the department and, in some respect, the first commercial city 
of France, on the Mediterranean, between the mouths of the Rhone and 
Toulon, has 160,000 inhabitants, a great many fine houses and public build- 
ings, is the seat both of literary institutions and manufactures, and its com- 
merce with the Levant is very extensive. Marseilles was founded 600 years 
before the Christian era by Qreek colonists. Arlxs, a town on the Rhone, 
north-westward and 46 miles distant from Marseilles, has 22,000 inhabitants, 
and many remarkable ancient buildings, and was since 938 the capital of the 
kingdom of Arelat (see History of Burgundy above). Other towns of this 
department are : Martiguee (with 7,800 inhabitants), Berre (with 2,000 inhab- 
itants), iS/. Chama9(vf\ih 8,000 inhabitants), 8a/oi» (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
LambeMc (with 4,400 inhabitants), Ifitres (with 8,000 inhabitants), Tarascon 
(with 12,000 inhabitouts), 8t. Remy (wiUi 6,000 inhabitants), La C'wtat (with 



294 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Hie French ProTlnoee of Provence and Avignon. 



5,000 inhabitants), Casns (with 2,000 inliabitants), A'ubarfne (with 6,000 in- 
labitants), Auriol (with 5,000 inhabitants), Oardanne (with 3,000 inliabitants) 
Orffon (with 8,000 inhabitants), and Chdteau'Renard (ynih 8,600 inhabitants), 
id. The Var Department contains : 4~I^i^aguiqnan, chief town, at the foot of 
he Alps, 60 miles northniorth-east of Marseilles, with 10,500 inhabitant& 
Toulon, a strongly- fortified town and chief naval station, on the Meditenra- 
lean, with one of the finest harbors in Europe, great naval stores, etc., and 
]7,000 inhabitants. On the 16th of August^ 1798, an EngUah fleet under ad- 
niral Hood took possession of Toulon, which however wa^ reconquered on 
he 18th of December, of the same year. Other towns of this department 
ire : Seyne^ or La Seyne (with 7,000 inhabitants), BrignotleB (with 6,500 in- 
labitants), Bt. Baiyol» (with 4,000 inhabitants), St. Maximin (with 4,000 in- 
labitants), (7ra«w, or La Oras9e (with 13,500 inhabitants), Ollionies (xr'iih 
^000 inhabitante), J^jm (with 8,300 inhabitants), St Tropez (with 4,000 in- 
lubitants), Antihea (with 6,000 inhabitants), Canne» (with 4,500 inhabitants), 
^t Laurent Us Var (with 1,600 inhabitants), and ffyiret (with 8,000 inhabi- 
ants). Near the coast lie the Hyerian and Lerinian IslawU. On the i<«le 
pf Sainte Marguerite (belonging to the latter) it was, where the mysterious 
nan with the iron mask was kept prisoner from the year 1661 to 1691. He 
lied in 1704 in the Bastile of Paris, and it is presumed that he was a twin 
)rother of Louis XIV. 84. The Lower Alps Department contains : ~|~Dions, 
hief town, on the B16one, and at the foot of the Alps, north-eastward and 
2 miles distant from Marseilles, with 6,600 inhabitants. Other towns of this 
Icpartment are : Colmars (with 1,800 inhabitants), Sisteron (with 4,000 in- 
habitants), Forealguier (with 8,800 inhabitants), Hiex (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
Manosqtte (with 6,000 inhabitants), Barcelonette (with 2,400 inhabitants), 
llntrevauz (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Castellane (with 2,200 inhabitants), 
fhe town of Aft, with 6,400 inhabitants, situated within the limits of the 
Vaueluse Department^ belongs likewise to Provence. 

XXXV. Avignon and Vknaissin, along the Rhone, and surrounded by 
Provence. In the history of the States of the Church (page 194) it has 
.Iready been related, in which way the Apostolic See became possessed of 
he citj of Avignon and the county of Venaissia The popes resided in 
kvignon during the period fi-om 1805 to 1377. Since the year 1791 Avignon 
uid Venaissin have continued to form a constituent part of France, and are 
comprised by : — 85. The Vaueluse Department, containing : -[-Avionon, diief 
lown, on the left bank of the Rhone, north-weitward and 54 miles distant 



FRAK016. n$ 



The ProTineet of AvIgBOD and Conloa. 



from lianeiDess with nnmenras remarkable aodent bufldingSi important mad- 
der trade, and 82,600 inhabitants. In the 14th century, when the pope re- 
nded here, the population amounted to 100,000 inhabitants. CjJLPSNTaAS, 
formerly the capital of the county of Yenaiaain, north-eastward and 18 miles 
distant from Avignon, with 10,600 inhabitants. Other towns of this depart- 
ment are : Venoique (with 1,800 inhabitants), Vaimm (with 2,900 inhabitantsX 
CcnaUUm (with ^7,000 inhabitants), and LIbU (with 6,000 inhabitantsX 

XXXVL CoaaiOA. — This isUnd (area: 8,791 square miles; popnlatioa: 
221,800 inhabitants^ in the Mediterranean Sea, at about 90 miles distance 
from the coast of Provence, was since the year 237 R G. under the sway of 
the Romans, and subsequently changed hands until first in 806, and then in 
1284 the (Tmtiess took possession of it and kept it for nearly 600 years. The 
Oenuese treated in a yeiy despotic manner the Gorsicans^ who since 1729 re- 
Tolted at several times, and in 1785, declaring their independence, elected a 
German baron, Theodor of Neuhol^ their king. But he was not able to main- 
tain himself and died in England in 1756. The Ckwsicans meanwhile con- 
tinued to revolt, so that at last the Oenuese repuUic thought it best to cede 
the island to France, which occurred in 1768. In 1790 the government of 
the island was transformed into: — 86. The Department Corsica, containing: 
-f- AiAOCio, chief town, on the western coast, is remarkable as the birth-place 
of Napoleon, and has 10,000 inhabitants Basha was formerly the capital 
of Corsica, and has 18,600 inhabitants. Other towns on the island are: 
Corte (with 4,000 inhabitants), Calvi (with 2,200 inhabitantsX San Fiaretuo, or 
St Floreni (with 600 inhabitantsX AUria (with 800 inhabitantsX Sariene (with 
8,000 inhabitantsX Porto Veehio (with 2,000 inhabitantsX and Bonifaew (with 
8,800 inhabitantsX 

The Frmch Colonies are the followingr : — 

1. In Africa: Algeria (area estimated at 191,700 aqnaro 
miles, and population at 3,500,000 inhabitants), the island of 
Bourbon (area : 2,386 square miles ; population : 1 10,000 inhabit 
tants), settlements on the Senegal^ ete. 

2. In Asia : The oities and towns of Pondichery^ Kamkal^ 
Mah^, and Chandenagor^ oooupying together 532 square miles, 
with 1 80,000 inhabitants. 

3. In America: Frenoh Oayana, or Cajetvne (with 30,000 

10* 



286 BITROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The French Ooioaifls. 

inhabitants), the West Indian islands of Chioddotift (682 square 
miles, and 120,000 inhabitants), Martinique (362 square miles^ 
and 1 1 6,000 inhabitants), etc., and the isles of St, Pierre^ Miqudon^ 
and Langley, near Newfoundland. 

4. In Polynesia, the French government has assumed a mock 
protectorate over Otaheiie and other islands, but nowhere estab- 
lished a regular colony. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

Area: 117,921 square miles. 
Population: 28,600,000 inbabitants. 

.. * 

Thi united kingdom' of Great Britain and Ireland (as it is 
officially >8tTled) (vonj^rises two large islands (with seyeral groups 
of smalleK^d), lying right opposite to the middle part of con- 
tinental Europe, and separated from it by the Strait of Dover. 

The largest of the two islands, embn/Giug England (with Wales) 
and ScoiUmd^ is called Great Britain since the year 1603, when, 
by the accession of Bang James YI. of Scotland to the English 
throne, both kingdoms were united. 

The other and smaller of the two islands is Ireland, which in 
1 172 was conquered by the English, and ever since has formed a 
constituent part, first of the kingdom of England, and since 1603 
of the united kingdom. 

About the seas, bays, etc., washing the shores of the British 
islands, see Introduction, ^ 8, pages 19 and 20. 

According to the census of 1841, the total population was 
26,861,464 inhabitants ; and according to that of 1845, the popu- 
lation of Great Britain (exclusive Ireland) amounted to 19,572,574 
inhabitants. The nation is divided into three classes: the 
nobility, gentry, and commonalty. The first comprises dukes, 
marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons ; the second, all who are 
distinguished for wealth, education, talents, or office; and the 
third,, tradesmen, artificers, and laborers. With regard to reli- 
Ttous concerns, the Church of England is established by law ; its 



228 • EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



England, Scotland) Ireland, and Walea. 



supreme head is the sovereign, and under him are 2 archbishops, 
J5 bishops, 60 archdeacons, and more than 10,000 deans, vicars, 
rectors, etc. The members of other churches are called dis- 
senters, and they comprise Methodists, Baptists, Independents, 
jto. This has, however, regard only to England (and Wales). 
In Ireland, there are four fifths of the people Roman Catholics, 
and nearly one half of the other fifth Presbyterians. On the 
jther hand, in Scotland the established religion is Presbyterian- 
ism, the fundamental principle of which is the equality of the 
clergy, in opposition to Episcopacy and Prelacy. Lately a divi- 
3 ton has taken place, one half of the preache^^ h&ving secededi 
md formed the ^ Free Church of Scotland," in wniui the min- 
isters are elected by their hearers. 

About the principal mountain ranges in Great Britain, see 
Introduction, ^ 7, k. While thus Wales and most of the western 
counties of England are mountainous, the rest of England is 
iiversified with beautiful hills, vales, and plains ; as it is for the 
most part also the case with Ireland, where, however, about an 
jighth part of the surface is covered with bogs, while in the south- 
west are mountains of about 3,000 feet high. Scotland is divided 
Into the Highlands and Lowlands, which latter embrace the 
counties south of the rivers Forth and Clyde, and some tracts 
uorth of them. 

About the principal rivers, see Introduction, ^10. England is 
intersected by numerous canals, which extend about 2,800 miles 
in length. Most of them are of the most costly and perfect 
construction. In Scotland and Ireland are likewise excellent 
mnals. At present England is, as it were, covered with a net of 
*ail-roads, many of which have also been constructed in Ireland 
jind Scotland. 

The climate is generally healthful, though moist in England 
and Ireland, and cold in the Highlands of SootUnd. In Irekiud 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. SS9 

The Products of Englsiid md Booiluid. 

it is more miid than in England, and produces there a beautiful 
and continued verdure. The soil U, upon the whole, fertile, 
though, especially in the Scotch Highlands^ generally poor. 

With the exception of timber and wine, the British islands are supplied 
with natural products in such quantities that, in case of necessity (as wati Uie 
case in the period of the continental system from 1806 to 1818), they can dis- 
peii}>e with any importation from the European ctmtinent But, on the other 
hand, there are but few articles of this kind, which can be exported without 
prejudice to the home consumption. Until the last quarter of the last century, 
England, indeed, was enabled to ex|iort, upon an average, about two million 
bushels of grain annually ; but since the year 1793 it could never afford that^ 
although agriculture is conducted here with a skill almost unrivalled, and most 
of the grain is raised here, llie chief products of England, in this and similar 
other respects, are, wheatj barley^ oats, hops, etc In Scotland, oats are tlie 
staple agricultural production. In Ireland, agriculture is in a less improved 
state than in England or Scotland ; barley, oats, wheat, and flax, are exten- 
sively cultivated ; but potatoes are the chief product, and form the principal 
food of the poor. The rearing of cattle is in a high state of perfection 
throughout most parts of the islands. Iliere are about 11,500,000 head of 
catiU, more than 60,000,000 sheep of more or less improved breed, about 
2,250,000 harseSf etc. In Ireland, grazing and the dairy are the best managetl 
parts of husbandry. The British eoal mines may be considered as inexhausti- 
ble The tin mines of Cornwall have been renowned ever since the days of 
the Phoenicians. The lead mines of Cornwall yield, beside the lead, from 
1 2,000 to 20,000 marks of silver annually. Other productions from the mineral 
kingdom are, copper (Cornwall, Wales, and Anglesea idaod), iron (of which 
in 1842 about 1,600,000 tons were produced in Enghmd and Scotland), and 
U<ick lead. 

England (and in some respects, Scotland too) is the first man- 
ufacturing country in the world. The chief articles are coiian 
and woollen goods, hardware, ea/rlhen ware, silks, and leather. 
These six articles give employment to about 2,000,000 persons, 
who manufacture them to the value of about $500,000,000 an- 
nually. In Scotland, the principal manufactures are fine cotton 



MO EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Commoroe— Edacatton, «to. 

goods, and coarse linens ; and in Ireland, it is linen, whiofa, for 
instance, in Ulster is made in almost every village and family. 
In 1844, the aggregate value of the exported Englbh cotton goods 
was estimated at £18,823,402. In the years 1840 and 184 1 there 
were imported respectively 50,002,979 and 53,130,446 pounds of 
wool, and exported woollen goods at the value of respectively 
£5,780,810 and £6,276,888 ; and in 1844 this value had increased 
to more than £9,300,000. The value of other articles exported 
in the years 1840 and 1841, was more than £3,300,000 for linen, 
respectively £1,349,137 and £1,625,191 for hardware, respectively 
Jt/tr^,6iR and £786,066 for silks, respectively £573,184 and 
£590,772 for porcelain and earthen ware, respectively £417.178 
and £421,271 fur glass wares, etc. 

The commerce is superior to that of any other nation, and 
extends to all quarters of the world. The capital vested in it is 
estimated at £1,500,000,000, or at more than $6,000,000,000. In 
1844, the exports were in value of £50,615,265. The commerce 
with the colonies was, in 1840, in value of £17,852,600. The 
British merchant vessels (exclusive those of the colonies) were 
on the 1st of January, 1845, 23,253 in number (among them, 897 
steam vessels), of the burthen of 2,995,196 tons. In the colonies, 
were 3,579 merchant vessels, of the burthen of 214,878 tons, in 
1837. 

With regard to the mums of education, there are, upon the whole, 
8 universities, viz. : 3 in England, 1 in Ireland, and 4 in Scotland. 
About the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, it has 
already been observed in the History of Europe (^ 17, /), that 
they were founded in a very early period of the middle ages ; yet, 
commonly, the years 1249 (for Oxford) and 1279 (for Cambridge) 
are considered as those when they were first formally and per- 
manently organized. In 1841, Oxford numbered 5,204, and 
Cambridge 5.530 students. In 1828, a third English university 



QREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 281 

GoverDineDC and FliiuioQa of Graak Britain. 

was founded in LondoT^ but on a different system than the other 
two; in 1842, it was frequented by 886 students. The Irish 
unirersity, founded in 1591, is in Dublin^ and numbered 1,350 
students in 1841. The annual revenues of the universities of 
Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, amount to £834,038. The 
Scotch universities are. Si, Andrews (founded in 1411, and in 
1841 with 200 students), Glasgow (founded in 1454, and in 1841 
with 1,570 students), ^^cfe«n (founded in 1471, and in 1841 with 
510 students), and Edinburgh (founded in 1581, and in 1841 
with 2,140 students). The higher seminaries of learning are 
numerous ; but the common schools are by far not in so high a 
state of improvement as, for instance, in Germany. Those of 
Scotland are in general better arranged and managed, than those 
of Ireland, and even England. 

The government is a limited hereditary monarchy, the supreme 
power being vested in a King (at present, a Queen), and Parlia- 
ment The Parliament consists of two houses, viz. : a House <f 
Lords^ composed of bishops (i. e., of the established church), and 
hereditary peers of the above-stated five different ranks, and a 
House of Commons, composed of more than 600 representatives 
elected by the people. 

In the financial year, from the 5th July, 1845, to the 5th 
July, 1846, the public expenditure amounted to 49,895,800 pounds 
sterling, and the revenue to £52,715,871, which yielded a surplus 
of nearly £3,000,000. But since, in consequence of political 
eyents and other circumstances, the revenue has in the same 
degree decreased, as the expenditure has increased ; so that, upon 
the whole, the ratio of the public charges is thus, that every 
inhabitant of the united kingdoms has to contribute to them about 
$9 00 annually. The public debt had, on the 5th of January, 1844, 
attained the enormous height of 790,576,393 pounds sterling, the 
interest of which amounted to £28,161,959. 



88S EirBOP£» PAST AND PRESENT. 

The Early Uialory of Eogluid. 

Tho army oomprifles about 122,000 men, inolosiye more than 
30,000 which the government keep in India, besides the troops 
of the East Indian Company. The navy numbered in 1845, upon 
the whole, 680 vessels, 125 of which were steamers, 99 were ships 
of the line, 80 frigates, etc. 

The British orders ofhoncr^ are the following: — L The gartefy 
instituted in 1349 by Edward III. \ it is the highest order of 
English knighthood. 2. The order of Baihy instituted in 1399 by 
Bichard II., and renewed in 1725 by George I., in 3 classes since 
1815. 3. The Scotch ihislle order ^ or order of St, AndreWj from 
the year 787, but renewed in 1540 by James V. of Scotland, and 
in 1703 by Queen Anne. 4. The Irish order of St, Fatrickj insti- 
tuted in 1783. 5. The order of St, Michael and George, instituted 
in 1818, only for Malta. 6. The order of British Indta, insti- 
tuted in 1837, only for officers in India. 

Sutory. — About the early part of British hbtory, see HiBtory of Europe^ 
§§ 4 and 16. William the Conqaeror reigned from 1066 to 1087, and waa 
succeeded by two of his sons, first by WiUiam II. (1087-1 100), then by Henry L 
(1 100-1185). After the death of Henry L — ^who left an only daughter mar- 
ried to GkKlfrey Plantagenet» earl of Anjou — s dvil war broke out on acooont 
of Henry's nephew, Stephen of Bl&u, haying mounted the Ri^ish throne, in- 
stead of Henry's grandson (son of his daughter), Henry Plantagenet At 
last a conciliation was brought about, and in 1 154 Heory PlantagenH mounted 
the throne by the name of Henry II, He in 1172 conquered Ireland, died 
in 1189, and was succeeded by his son Richard I, sumamed of the lAtm, 
Heart, who died in 1199, and was succeeded by his brother John (suraamed 
without land), John was as weak and feeble as cruel, and was in 1215 com- 
pelled by the English barons to sign the Magna Gharta, the foundatioii of 
the British constitution. He died in 1216, and his suooessora of the principal 
line of the house of Plantagenet were the following kings: Henry IIL {12l(^ 
1272X JEdufard I (1272-1807X Sdward II (1807-1327). £Aoard III (1827- 
1877), and Bichard II (1877-1899). The lastrnamed long, son of the BLuOc 
Prince and grandson of Edward IIL, was by his cousin, Henry of Laneatter 
(likewise a grandson of Edwiu*d IIL), taken prisoner and compelled to rettga. 



OBSAT BRITAIir AND IRSLAin). 



Historical Sketch of Eugtami. 



after which his cousin mounted the throne by the name of Henry IV. (1899- 
1413). He was succeeded by his eon, Henry V. (1418-1422). Against liis 
son Henry K/. (1422-1461), rose his cousin, the duke Richard of York (great- 
grandson of Edward IIL), pretending that he had nearer claims upon the 
throne than Henry. Thus began (in 1465) the war of the Roeea, or between 
the Yorkists (wearing white roses as emblems) and the Lancastrians (wearing 
red roseff) Richard of York was killed in a battle, but his son mounted the 
throne by the name of Edward IV, (1461-1488). The whole house of Lan- 
caster was exterminated, with the exception of Henry Tudor, earl of Rich- 
mond, who made his escape to France. Edward IV. died in 1488, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Edward F., who however, together with his 
younger brother, was murdered by his uncle, the duke Richard of Gloucester, 
who mounted the throne by the name of Richard Ilh but only reigned until 
1485, when he was subdued and killed in the batUe of Bosworth by Henry 
T^tdor, the last descendant of the house of Lancaster. Henry, ascended the 
throne by the name of Henry VIL He died in 1609, and has the following 
Buooessors from the house of Tudor (Lancaster) : Henry VUI. (1609-1547), 
Edntard VL (1547-1668), Mary (1568-1658), and Elizabeth (1558-1608). 
With Elizabeth the house of Tudor became extinct, and as her father's 
(Henry VlIL's) sister Margaret had been married to James IV. of Scotland, 
the great-grandson of the latter, James VL of Scotland (son of Mary Stuart), 
aaoended the English throne by the name of James I. (1603-1625), and thus 
united both kingdoms. He died in 1626, and was succeeded by his son, 
C/tarle* /, who alter a very troublesome reign leading to a civil war, was be- 
headed on the 80th of January, 1649. The government was now called a 
republic, although Oliver Cromwell exercised an almost absolute power until 
his death, which occurred in 1668. His son Richard succeeded him in the 
di^ty of a Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, but resigned 
spontaneously, upon which the eldest son of Charles I. ascended the throne 
b^' tlie name of Charles II. (1660-1686). He died in 1686, and was succ 
ceeded by his brother Jamee II., who only reigned until 1638, when he was 
dethroned, and his sbter Mary, or rather her consort William of Orange, in- 
vested with the royal power. After William's death (in 1702) hb sister-in- 
law, Anne, ascended the throne, and when she died (in 1714), she was suc- 
ceeded by Oe&rge /, elector of Hanover and great-grandson of James L 
(whose daughter Elizabeth, married to the elector of the Palatinate, had a 
daughter who was the mother of Qeorge I.). George L died in 1787, and 



SM EHBOPB, PAST AlTD PRESEHT. 

Engluul: its Geognphieal Diyistoas 



has had untQ now the following saocesson: (horge 11. (1727-1760), Gecrge 
III (1760-1820), George IV. (1820-1830), WiUiean IV. (1880-1837), and 
Vidcria, who is still reigniiig. 

The British empire proper embraces the three united king- 
doms of England (inclusive Wales), Scdland, and Ireland^ which 
are divided into cowUies, or shires (as they in England and Soot- 
land are called by preference). The capitals of the counties will 
bo found marked with a cross (+)• 



il.— THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND. 

It comprises the southern half of the great eastern island, and 
consists of two unequal parts, the greater of which being England 
proper, and the by far smaller part constituting what is called 
Wales. The total area amounts to 58,468 square miles — England 
having an extent of 51,205 square miles, and Wales of 7.263 
square miles. The total population is about 17,000,000 inhabi- 
tants— 1 5,975,000 in England, and 1 ,000,000 in Wales. England 
proper contains 40 counties or shires. 

1. Middletex, on the northern bank of the Thames, containing : -{'l^i'i'ON, 
the metropolis of the British empire, and greatest city in Europe, on the 
Thames, 40 miles from its mouth, had in 1844 a population of 2,007,650, sod 
at present more than 2,260,000 of inhabitants. The number of the houses is 
estimated at more than 800,000 ; that of the streets, lanes, etc, at 14,000. 
London embraces, besides the city proper, where the chief shops and ware- 
houses are, We$tmin»ier (containing the royal palaces, houses of Parliament^ 
the grand Gothic edifice known by the name of Westminster Abbey, etc), 
and Southwark (on the south side of the Thames, and oontainii^g the usaul 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRBLAKD. 8S8 

Engtaad : its Oeosntphleal DIvf lioas. 

reddence of the arcfabiahop of Canterbury, called Lambeth palace, King's Bendi, 
etc.), and numerous other districts with distinct names, oorering a space of 
nearly 60 square mile& llie most rentarkable puUic buildings are, besides 
Westminster Abbey, especially, St Paul's cathedral (next to St Peter's at 
Rome, the greatest structure in Christendom), the Tower, the Bank of England, 
St James* palace (royal residence in the period from 1696 to the beginning 
of the present century), Mansion house, Guildhall, etc. The bridges of London 
are seren in number, all built of stone, except one, which is constructed of 
iron ; one of these is a suspension bridge. The Tunnel under the ThameSi is 
one of the most remarkable works of the age. London, which was already 
in the days of the Roman emperor Nero^ a considerable trading town, became 
the capital of England during the reign of King Alfred. The ancient royal 
palace of Hatnpton Courts in the vicinity of London, was reared by the cardinal 
Wolscy, and in 1616 ceded by him to King Henry YIII. Another royal 
palace is at Kefmngton^ a town, with 24,000 inhabitants. Above London, on 
the Thames, is Chelsea, a town, with 86,000 inhabitants, and containing the 
great national asylum for invalid soldiers. 

2. BerJuhirey at the western frontier of Middlesex, and on the south side of 
the Thames, containing : -{-Reading, a town, with 20,000 inhaUtants. Windsor, 
a town 22 miles from London, has 8,000 inhabitants, and is celebrated for its 
castle, which was originally erected nearly 8 centuries ago, and has been 
the chief and favorite residence of most of the sovereigns of England. Newbwry 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), and Mey (noted for its sheep fiiirs), towns. 

3. Bucks, or Buekingkanuhire, separated from the former shire by the 
Tliames, containing : 4~Bu<^KiNaHAM, a town on the Ouse, with 4,000 inhabi- 
tant& Eton, a town on the Hiames, right against Windsor, is noted for its 
college, and has 4,000 inhabitants. In its vicinity is situated the village of 
8l&uffh, where the renowned astronomer Herschel had his observatory, and 
died in 1822. Aylesbury, a town, with 6,000 inhabitants. 

4. Surrey, between Berkshire and Greenwich, containing: +GuiLDFoaD, a 
town on the Wye, with 6,000 mhabitants. The village of ^i>i(>m (with 4,000 
inhabitants) is noted for its culture of hops, and that of Addiscambe for its 
military school of the British East Indian Company. At Kingston (a town 
with 6,000 inhabitants), the Saxon kings used to be crowned. The town of 
Oroydon has 1 8,000 inhabitants. That above-mentioned part of London, called 
Bauihwarky containing 150,000 inhabitants, is situated within the limits of jhia 
shire. 



SM EUROPE PAST AND PBESEKT. 

Boglaad : Ici G«Q|mphical IXvWooi. 

6. Kent, the moftt extensive and finest of the soathern oountiea, cont&ins : 
-^ANTKBBUBT, the ecclesiastical metropolis of England, on the Stour, north- 
westward and 14 miles distant from Dover, and 92 miles eastrsoath-east of 
London* with a highly remarkable cathedral, and 16,000 inhabitants. Qkkbn- 
wicH, a town on the Thames, is fiunous for its naval hospital for infirm seamoi, 
and its observatory, firom whidi longitude is reckoned, and has 76,000 inhabi- 
tants. DovKB, a town on the Straits of Dover (here 21 miles wide), has 
25,000 inhaUtants, is the station of packets for France, and one of the so-called 
Cinque PorU^ to which, moreover, belong the towns and seaports of jSoiMbpirA 
(with 9,000 inhabitants), Romney, and Hyihe (the four others : Winchelsea, 
Rye, Hastings, and Seaford, are situated within the limits of SussezBhire). 
Other remarkable towns of this county are : Maidttone (with 38,000 inhabi- 
tants), Tunbridge (with 8,000 mhabitants, and the watering-place, Thmbridffe 
WelU), Deptfard (with 26,000 inhabitants, noted for its naval depot), Woolwiek 
(noted for its immense train of artillery, has 18,000 inhaUtants), Chatham 
(noted for its great arsenal of the navy, has 18,000 inhabitants), Orauemmd 
(with 6.000 inhabitants), Roehetter (with 10,000 inhabitants), RamMgate (with 
9,000 inhabitants), and Margate (with 11,000 inhabitants). 

6. Sussex, on the English Cliannel, ocmtaining: 4~^Hi<?HE8TBa, a town on the 
Levant, eastward and 18 miles distant from Portsmouth, with 9,000 inhabi- 
tants. The towns and seaports of Hastings (with 11,000 inhabitants, and 
noted for the battle in 1066), Winchelsea (with 8,000 inhabitants). Rye (with 
6,000 inhabitants), and Seaford (which, however, is to be considered as a part 
of Hastings), belong to the above-mentioned Cinque Ports. BaiOBioN, a 
splendid city since the days of George IV., whose favorite residence it was, 
has 60,000 inhabitants, and is much resorted to for sea-bathing. 

7. Ussex, along the northern bank of the Thames, containing : -f-CHSUiB- 
roan, a town 32 miles east-north-east of London, with 6,000 inhabitants. 
Harwich, a maritime town on the North Sea, formerly the station of packets 
for Sweden, Hamburg, and Holland, has 18,000 inhabitants. Cotchetter, a 
maritime town, noted for its oysters, has 20,000 inhabitanta 

8. Suffblky on the north side of Essexshire, containing : 4-I^^^<^ ^ town 
near the mouth of the Orwell, with 22,000 inhabitantsw Other towns of this 
county are: Bury St. Edmunds (with 15,000 inhabitants), Lowesieff (with 
12,000 inhabitants), Sudbury (with 5,000 inhabitants), and Wwtdbridge (with 
4/)00 inhabitants). 

9. Norfolk^ on the north side of Suflblkshire, containing : -|~^o>^^'^ ^^ 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 2S7 



Eogluid: iu Geographical Divisloas. 



finest city in the east of England, on the Winsder and Tare, north-eastward 
and 129 miles distant from London, is noted for its ancient and beautiful ca- 
thedral, and its woollen goods^ and has 62,000 inhabitants. Tabhouth, a 
maritime town, is noted for its herring fishery, and has 24,000 inhabitants. 
Other towns of this county are : Lynn RegU (with 17,000 inhabitants), Swaff- 
ham (with 3,000 inhabitants), and Downham (with 2,000 inliabitants). 

10. Cambridffenhire, bordering upon the two former counties, and contain- 
ing : -f-CAMBRiDOB, a town on the Cam, northward and 50 miles distant from 
London, is celebrated for its university, and has 25,000 inhabitants. Nkw- 
HABKET, a town with 3,000 inhabitants, is noted for horse-races, and Elt, a 
town with 6,000 inhabitants, for its splendid cathedral, whose steeple is 400 
feet in height Wuheach, a town with 7,000 inhabitants. 

11. Huntingdonshire^ partly surrounded by Cambridgeshire, contains: 
-f-HuNTiNGDON, a towu on the Ouse, northward and 40 miles distant from 
London, with 4,000 inhabitants. Cromwell was bom here in 1599. Si. Ives 
is a fine village, or town, on the Ouse, with 8,000 inhabitants. 

12. lAnaUnehire, between Cambridg^hire and the Humber, oontainiQg : 
-f-LiNOOLN, a city on the Witham, mu'thward and 119 miles distant from 
London^ is celebrated for its venerable cathedral with 8 high steeples, and 
has 86,500 inhabitanta Another beautiful Oothic church is in the town of 
BoeroN, at the mouth of the Witham into the Wash, with 85,000 inhabitants. 
In the neighboring village of WoaUthorpe the celebrated Sir Isaac Newton 
(4-1727) was bom in 1642. Gbimsby, a maritime town at the mouth of the 
Humber, with 6,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this county are : Spalding 
(with 7,000 inhabitants), Oainalwrough (with 7,000 inhabitants), and SUun- 

ford (with 6,000 inhabitants). 

18. HertfordsfUre^ between Cambridge and London, containing : -f-Hiav- 
POBD, a town northward and 23 miles distant from London, with 6,000 in- 
habitants, and an institution where civil oflScers of the East Indian Company 
are instructed and prepared for their future destination in India. St, AlbeuUf 
a town with a remarkable Gothic church and 6,000 inhabitants. 

14. OxfanMiire, bordering upon Middlesex, and containing : -(-OxFoaD, a 
town on the Thames, is celelx'ated for its university, and has 22,000 inhabi- 
tants. Other towns of this county are : Woodstock (with 2,000 inhabitant), 
and Banbury (with 6,000 inhabitants). 

16. Bedfordshire, between Oxford and Cambridgeshire, containing : -f-BxD- 
vo&D, a town on the Ouse, 28 miles westrsouth-west of Cambridge, with 8,0(r 



288 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



England : Its Geographical DIviidoaa. 



inhabitants. Wobu&n, a borough with 8,000 inhabitants, and the splendid 
mansion of the family of Russell, called Wohum Ahhey, 

16. HawU or Hampihire^ between Berkshire and the English Channel, con- 
taining: -|-WiNCH£8TBB, a cltj on the Itching, south-westward and 65 miles 
distant from London, with a cathedral reared by the Sazon kings, and 10,00C 
inhabitants. During part of the middle ages Winchester was the capital of 
Eo^and, and is at present noted for its college. Portsmoutb, a strongly 
fortified city on the southern coast, has 64,000 inhabitants, and the best har- 
bor in Great Britain, is the great arsenal and rendezvous of the navy, and 
situated near the fiunous roadstead of SpUftead. The maritime town of 
Southampton, with 27,600 inhabitants, carries on a considerable trade with 
the Norman isbinds and the south of France, and is much resorted to for sea 
bathing. Gosport (with 14,000 inhabitants), and Chriaiehureh (with 5,000 in 
habitants), boroughs. The fertile Isle of Wiobt (192 square miles, and 
86,000 inhabitants) is noted for it beautiful and romantic ecenerie& 

17. DorteUhire, on the southern coast, contains : -f-DoaoHESTKE, a town on 
the Frome, westward and 65 miles distant from Portsmouth, with 5,000 in- 
habitants. Other towns of this county are : Weymouth (with 4,000 inhabi- 
tants), Bridport (with 5,000 inhabitants), Poole (with 7,000 inhabitants), and 
ShafUhury (with 4,000 inhabitants). The fertile BUI of Porftoiu^ is noted 
for its quarries. 

18. Dewmshire^ between Dorsetshire and Cornwall, contains : -f-EzKna, a 
city on the mouth of the Exe, westward and 116 miles distant from Portsmoutli, 
and north-eastward and 42 miles distant from Plymouth, with a magnificent 
cathedral, and 82,000 inhabitants. Plthouth, a fortified city on the Ignglwli 
Channel, with 76,000 inhabitants, is one of the great naval stations, and noted 
for its breakwater, which cost more tlian $5,000,000. The dty embraces at 
present Plymouth proper, Devonport (formerly called Plymouth Dock), and 
Btonekouse. At about 14 miles distance from the roadstead of Plymouth 
on a solitary cliff, stands the weU-known lighthouse of Sddytione. lliere are 
many beautiful and splendid country-seats in Devonshire, among them Mmmt 
JSdgeeombe and Ughrooh. Remarkable towns are, among others : SToviitodk 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), DartmmUh (with 5,000 inhabitants), Teignmouth (with 
6^000 inhabitants), BcanuUMe (with 8,000 inhabitants), Tivertmt (with 10,500 
inhabitanto), Bidde/ord (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Sidmauth (with 8,000 
inhabitants). 

19. ComwaU, forming a peninsula at the aonth-westem extremity of 



GREAT BRITAIN AND ntELAlO). 289 

Eaglaad : its Oeofnpblcal DIvisloiis. 

land, is celebrated, even since the time of the Phcenidans, for its tin, and 
ODoe the middle ages, for its copper also. At an early period it was ruled 
by earU, but at the beginning of the 9th century subdued by King Egbert 
Edward III. promoted the county of Cornwall to the rank of a dvehy, in 
fiivor of his son, the renowned Black Prince ; and since that time the first- 
bom royal prince assumes the title of a duke of Cornwall, after which he is 
created prince of Wales. It contains : -|~Launox8ton, a town on the Tamar, 
with 6,000 inhabitants. Falmouth, a maritime town at the mouth of the 
Fal, 46 miles west-south-west of Plymouth, is a stopping-place of steamers 
for Spain and the West Indies, and has 8,000 inhabitants. Other towns of 
Cornwall are : Thtro (with 8,000 inhabitants), FenMonee (with 7,000 inhabi- 
tants), and Penryn (with 5,000 inhabitants). The south-western extremity 
of Cornwall is known by the name of LanSt End^ and its southern extremity 
by that of Cape Lizard^ or lisird Point. Not fiur firom Land'.s End are lying 
in the Atlantic Ocean the SaLLT TtUt^ six of which are inhabite<l, having a 
total population of 8,000 inhabitants. To the Phoenicians and other people of 
antiquity they were known by the name of CattiUrideg, or T^n-Iitlands. 

20. WUUf or WUUhire^ towards the interior, containing: -|^ali8bcjkt, a dty 
OD the Avon, 70 miles west<south-west of London, is celebrated for its elegant 
Gothic cathedral, the spire of which is 410 feet high, and has 10,000 inhabi- 
tants. BBADFoaD, a town on the Avon, with 12,000 inhabitants, is noted for 
its manufactures of fine doth. Other towns are : Wilton (with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants) and Chippenham (with 6,000 inhabitants). Near Wilton is the splendid 
country seat of Lord PembrdEe, called Wilionhouie, Another one, belonging 
to the family of Radnor, and called Longford, is noted for its fine collection 
of pictures. 

21. SomenetsfUre, between Wilts and the Ifoistol Channel, oontaining: 
-j-BaistoL, a dty on a branch of the Severn, westward and 116 miles distant 
from London, has 120,000 inhabitants, and is the third commercial town in 
Ei^land. About 9 miles from here is Batb, a dty, with 70,000 inhabitants, 
is noted for its hot mineral waters, and visited by persons (sometimes to the 
number of 8,000 in the season) in quest of health and pleasure. The Gothic 
cathedral of Bath is very remarkable, as b also that of TFsUs, a town, with 
7,000 inhabitants. Other towns of Somerset^ for the most part noted for their 
woollen manufiictures, are: CcUne (with 6,000 inhabitants), Froome (with 
26,000 inhabitants), Taunion (with 88,600 inhabitants), and BridgewaUr (will. 
10,000 inhabitants). The town of Olastonbwry is noted for the ruins of r 



240 EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESSNT. 

England : its Gecigmphieal Olvisloaa. 



iDOiastery which covered sixty acres, and whose foundatimi was laid in a Tery 
early period of the Christian era; at least, King Arthur, son of Uther Pea- 
dragon, who reigned from 516 to 542, was buried here. 

22. Glaueetterahiret bordering upon Oxfordshire, contains: 4'OLOUCESTEa, a 
city on the Severn, north-eastward and 87 miles distant from Bri:»tol, with a 
remarkable ancient cathedral (where William the ConquercNr and Edward IL 
are buried), manufactures of pins, and 27,000 inhabitants. CheUenkam, noted 
Ux its muieral waters, and Stroudt fur its cloth manufactures, are towns, with 
respectively 40,500 and 10,000 inhabitants. Tewkeahury, a town, with 8,000 
inhabitants, lias a Gothic church with the sepulchres of the English kiqg of 
the house of Plantagenet Berkeley, a town, with 5,000 inhabitants, is remark- 
able as the birth-place of the renowned Dr. Jenner. 

23. Monmouthshire, between Wales and Glouoestenshire, contains: -f-M(Ki- 
HouTH, a town in a romantic situation, northward and 28 miles distant from 
Bristol, with 6,000 inhabitants. In its vicinity are the highly interesting 
ruins of Tintem Abbey, and of Ragland CattU, which latter was once the 
residence of the dukes of Beaufort Chepstow (with 6,000 inhalntants), Newport 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), and Abergomenny (with 5,000 inhabitants). 

24. Herefordshire, at the northern frontiers of Gloucestershire, containing: 
-|-HKBKroBD, a city on the Wye, northward and 42 miles distant from BristoL 
with a remarkable cathedral, and 2^4,500 inliabitants. Leominater, or Lemptier, 
a tovm on the Lugg, with 6,000 inhabitant& Ron, a borough on the Wye, 
with 4,000 inhabitants. Here lived Pope's **man of Roes." 

25. Woreeatertthire, towards the interior, containing : -f- Woroester, a city oo 
the Severn, north-westward and 105 miles distant from London, is noted fer 
its porcelain, and has a highly remarkable cathedral, and 27,500 inhabitantis. 
Kiddermiiuter, a manufacturing town on the Stour, with 80,000 inhabitants. 
Other towns of this county are : Stourbridge (with 7,000 inhabitants), Dudley 
(with 24,000 inhabitants), and DroitwUh (with 8,000 inhabitants). 

26. Warwiekahire, at the northern frontier of Oxfordshire, oontaionig: 
-f-WAEWicK, a town on the Avon, north-westward and 82 miles distant from 
London, with 9,500 inhabitants. Near it lies on a rock Warwick Ceatie, 
belonging to the earl of Warwick, and reared in the middle ages. Oovmrsr, 
a manu&otoring town, noted for its watches and ribbons, has 81,500 inhabi- 
tants. KenUworth, a borough, with 3,000 inhabitants, and the ruins of the 
once so renowned castle of the same name, reared in the 1 2th century by Kin^ 
Hflury L Stratford, a town on the Avon, with 6,000 inhabitants, is remark- 



OREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 241 

Bnglaud : ils Geiigrephical DivUlooa. 

able 88 tlie birtli-plaGe of Shakspeara The borough of Leamington, with 
6,000 inhabitants, is muck resorted to on account of its mineral baths. Rugbtft 
a town, with 2,000 inliabitants, is noted for its college. Birmikoham, a city, 
with 188,000 inhabitants, about half way between liverpoo) and London, is 
the great centre of the manufacture of hardware, including fire-arms, steam 
engines, locks, screws, buttons, and such a variety of small articles that it has 
been styled the " toy-shop of Europe." Similar manufactures are at Soho, 
which is considered as a suburb of Birmingham, though it is situated within 
the limits of Staffordshire. 

27. Stc^ordxhire, at the northern frontier of tlie former, contains : -|-Staf- 
FORD, a town, north-westward and 23 miles distant from Birmingham, with 
8,000 inhabitants. Burdem, a town on the Great Trunk Canal, with 14,000 
inhabitants, is noted for its manu&ctures of earthen ware, and is at the same 
time the centre of the so-called PotterieSy a district comprising numerous 
Tillages (among them, that of EiruHa), where the Wedgewood ware is fabri- 
cated. Bu&TON, surnamed up<m Trent, a town on the Trent, is noted for its 
excellent ale, and has 10,000 inhabitants. Liehjieldy a town, with 8,000 inhab- 
itants, and a renowned college, instituted by Edward VL WoLvsaHAMPTOir, 
a city, with a remarkable Gothic church, and 60,000 inhabitants, is noted for 
its hardware, and BaAoucY for its iron works. Other towns of this county 
are : WoImU (with 16,000 inhabitants), Wednetibury (with 9,000 inhabitants), 
JieuxoMtle under Lyne (with 9,000 inhalHtants), Biltton (with 16,000 inhabi- 
tants), and Tatnworth (with 8,000 inhabitants). 

28. ITorthcunptonahire, on the northern side of Oxfordshire, containing: 
-f-NoaTHAMFTON, a town on the Nen, 64 miles north-north-west of London, 
with 28,500 inhaUtants. In its neighborhood is Althorp, the ancestral seat 
of the earl of Spencer. PETxajK>BOV6H, a town with 7,000 inhabitants, and a 
remarkable cathedral, where the unfortunate Scottish queen, Mary Stuart, 
lies buried. She was beheaded on the 8th of February, 1687, in the neigh- 
boring castle of Fotheringay, which, by order of her son, James L, was 
entirely demolished. Stamford, a town, with 6,000 inhabitants. 

29. Rutland, northward from Northamptonshire, containing: -j-Oakham, a 
town in the fertile yalley of Oathross, 92 miles north-north-west of London, 
with 4,000 inhabitants. Uppingham, a town with 2,600 inhabitants. 

30. Leieegterthire, on the western side of Rutland, containing : -f-XiUannK, 
a city on the Sour, 37 miles east-north- east of Birmingham, with manu&o- 
igrw of stockii^^s, and 51,000 inhabitants. The borough of lAgUmoortk ia 

11 



MS EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT 

England: its Geographiciil Divtsions. 

remarkable as the birth-place of WicUiffe ; and Bdvoit is the splendid ooan- 
trj-seat of the duke of Ratland. Loughborough (with 26,000 inhabitants]^ 
and Melton Mowbray (with 8,000 inhalHtants), towns. 

81. BkropthirCt or Salop, at the frontier of Wales, containing : 4~SHaEws- 
BUBT, a town on the Severn, southward and 66 mUes distant from liverpool, 
with the beautiful remains of an ancient castle, and 22,000 inhabitants. 
Other towns of this county are : Litdlow (with 8,000 inhabitants), BroseUy 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), Bridgenorth (with 6,000 inhalutants), and Owwestry 
(with 10,000 inhabitants). The borough of Shiffnail (with 4,000 inhabitants), 
and the eztensiye village of ColebrookdaU are noted for their iron- works. 

32. CTiethire, or the Palatinate of Chester, at the frontier of Wales, ftnd 
northward from Shropshire, oontainixig: -f<7^3iiBi^i^ '^ cify <*> ^ I>ee, 
southward and 14 miles distant from Liverpool, is noted for its cheese, and 
has a remarkable cathedral, and 28,000 inhabitants. The town of Jfac- 
clerfield (with 26,000 inhabitants), is noted for its silks. Other towns of 
this county are : Northunch (with 8,000 inhabitants), NanUwich (with ^000 
inhabitants), and Stockport (with numerous manufiictures, and 86,000 inhabi- 
tants). 

83. NoUinghamuhire, between Cheshire and Leicester, containing : -f~^<yr- 
TiNOHAM, a city on the Trent, south-eastward and 70 miles distant from Liver- 
pool, is noted for its stockings and ale, and has 64,000 inhabitants. Another 
manufiicturing town is Newark, with 10,000 inhabitants. The town of 
Work9op (with 6,000 inhabitants) may be considered as the chief place of 
the so-called Dttkerie», comprising many country-seats, among others, Work- 
sop Manor (the property of the duke of Norfolk), Clumber Park (of the 
duke of Newcastle), Welbeek Abbey (of the duke of Portland), and Newatead 
Abbey (formerly belonging to Lord Byron). Mansfield, a borough with 1 1,000 
inhabitants. 

84. Derbyshire, at the northern frontier of Nottinghamshire, coDtainin^: 
4-Debbt, a town on the Derwent and Trent^ westward and 14 miles diataat 
from Nottingham, with various munuficustures and 86,600 inhabitants. Other 
towns of this county are : Chesterfield (with 6,000 inhabitants), Castieiowt 
(with 1,600 mhabitants), Bvxton (with 2,000 inhabitants), and Matlok (wiHi 
4,000 inhabitants). Chatsworth is the splendid country-seat of the duke o^" 
Devonsfair& 

86. Lancashire, or the Palatinate of Lancaster, at the norAem frontier of 
Wales, and comprising part of the English west coast, contains: +LAiKusna^ 



GKEJlT BRTTAIK AND IRELAND. 24S 

EoglaDd: iu Oeogiapblcal Divisions. 

a town on the Laacaater Bay, nortliward and 46 miles distant from Liverpool, 
with 86,000 inhabitant& Liykbpool, a city with 295,000 inhabitants, and 
nearly 25,000 houses, on the river Mer^y, near its mouth, is next to London 
in commerce, the great depot of the trade with America and Ireland, and 
noted for the most costly docks in the world. In 1888 the custom-house of 
liverpool had a revenue of not less than 8,555,955 pounds sterling. There 
are many splendid public edifices in this city, which in the Idth century was 
yet an insignificant place. Manchsstbb, a city on the Irrwell, eastward and 
80 miles distant from Liverpool, is the great centre of the cotton manufacture, 
and has 810,000 inhabitants. The following cities and towns are also more 
or less noted for their cotton manufactures : Blackburn (with 75,000 inhabi- 
tants), Bolion (with 98,000 inhabitants), Oldham (with 68,000 inhabitants), 
JlochdaU (with 60,000 inhabitants), Wigan (with 66,500 inhabitants). Bury 
(with 78,000 inhabitants^ Preston (with 77,500 inhabitants), Warrifigton 
(with 82,000 inhabitants), and A^hUm under Idne (with 180,500 inhabitants, 
induaive the parish). The town of Preeeot (with 8,000 inhabitants) is noted 
lor its manufactures of watch-wheels, clock-works, etc., and the borough of 
. Bt' HeUrie for its manufactures of looking-glassea 

86. Yorkehire, along the eastern coast, is the most extensive county of 
Kngland (5,985 square miles, and 1,600,000 inhabitants), and subdivided into 
three districts, or Ridings, vizL : North Riding, East Biding, and West Riding, 
containing : -|-^o]^k> ^^ second dty of the kingdom in rank, being the resi- 
dence of the archbishop of York, is situated in an extensive plain on the 
Ouee, northward and 184 miles distant from London, is noted for its splendid 
cathedral (reared in the 12 th, but not completed before the 14th century), and 
has 86,000 inhabitants. To East Riding belong the following cities and 
towns : Hull (noted for its trade to the Baltic, and the whale fishery, has 
60,000 inhabitants), Qoole (with 12,000 inhabitants), Beverley (with 10,000 
iBfaabitattts), Bridlington (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Houdett, (with 2,000 
inhabitants). North Riding comprises: ScAaaoaouGH, a maritime and com- 
mercial town on the North Sea, with 10,000 inhabitants ; WnrrBT, another 
commercial town, with 12,000 inhabitants, much engaged in the coal trado. 
Hie town of Richmond (with 6,000 inhabitants) is noted for its lead mines, 
and the borough of Oisborough (with 2,500 iohabitants) for its canvass manu- 
fectures, and alum worka West Riding comprises the following manuiao- 
luring cities and towns : Lekds (famous for its manufactures of cloth and other 
wodlen goods, with 170,000 inhabitants, Huddersfield and Halifax (each with 



244 EUROPE, PAST AVD PRBSXST. 

EBgland: Ui Geogmpliieal DlTlsions. 

110,000 inhalHtaiits, and both noted for their doth mami&ctiires), WahefiM 
(alflo with important doth mannfiicturea, com and cattle furs, and 46,000 
inhabitants); Sheffield (noted for 'cutlery and phited goods^ with 86,000 
inhabitants), Bradf<yrd (with 14,000 inhabitants), and KeighUy (with 68,000 in- 
habitants, both noted for their manufactores of woollen goods), and finally 
Knaretborough (noted for its linen, and mineral waters, with 8,000 inhabitaDts)^ 
The Tillage of HarrcwgaU is likewise resorted to for its mineral waters. 

87. Durhamshire, at the northern frontier of Yorkshire, containing: -f-Dus- 
BAX, a dty on the Wear, 54 miles north-north-west of York, with a remark- 
able cathedral (reared in the 11th century), manufiicturefl of carpets, etCL, and 
39,000 inhabitants. The towns of Sunderland and Weannouthf situated on 
opposite sides of the Wear at its mouth, are joined together by a very 
remarkable iron bridge, are largely engaged in the coal trade, and have a total 
population of 67,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this county are : Sioekion 
(with 10,000 inhabitants), and Darlington (with 9,000 inhabitants). 

S8. Northumberland^ the most northerly county, containing: -f-KswoAaru:, 
Bumamed upon 7)fney a dty on the Tyne, south-eastward and 92 miles distant 
from Edinburgh, is famous for its coal-pits, rarious manufactures, and tike 
whald fishery, and has 72,000 inhabitants. The town of SmsLDe (with im- 
portant coal trade, and 80,000 inhabitants) consists properly of two parts, vis. : 
Korth Shields in Northumberland, and South Shields in Durham. BsawicsK, 
a town on the Tweed, and at the frontier of Scotland, with 16,000 inhabi- 
tants, was by James VL (of Scotland) declared neutral territory, thoi^h a 
Scotch county bears its name. Other towns of Northumberland are : l}^ne- 
mouth (with 26,000 inhabitants), Hexham (with 6,000 inhabitants), Morpeth 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), and Alnwiek (with 6,000 inhabitants, and a splendid 
Gk>thic castle of the duke of Ncnrthumberland). 

89. Cumberland^ on the west coast, and bordering upon Scotland, contains: 
-I-Oabuble, a dty on the Eden, westward and 54 miles distant from Newcastle^ 
with a remarkable cathedral, yarious manufactures, and 86,600 inhafaitanta 
WHrrEBATBK, a maritime town, largely engaged in the coal trade, has 80,000 
inhabitants. Other towns of this county are : TToriEriis^ton (with 7,000 mhabi- 
tants), Maryport (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Penrith (with 6,000 inhabi- 
tants). The borough oflTesvnck (with 8,000 mhal»tants) is noted ibr its lead 
pendlB. 

40. Westmoreland, between Cumberland and Lancashire, containing: -f-Ar- 
njEBT, a borough on the Eden, northward and 80 miles distant from liTvrpooi, 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 9tf 

Wales : Its Geographical Divisions. 

with 8,000 inhabitants. Kendal^ a town, with numeroua mannfiictareB of 
woollen and other goods, and 36,000 inhabitants. 

The principality of Wales (area : 7,263 sqnare miles ; popula- 
tion : 1,000,000 inhabitants) forms indeed a constituent part of 
the kingdom of England, but is in all public acts denominated 
discriminatelj. It comprises that part of the English west coast 
situated between Bristol and Liverpool, ib inhabited by descend- 
ants of the ancient Britons, and continued to be an independent 
kingdom for seyerai centuries, until in 1282 it was subdued hj 
the English king Edward I., though first since the year 1536 it 
has permanently been united with England. The eldest son of 
the BOYcreign of England, is styled Prince of Wales. Most of 
the people talk the Welsh language, and excel chiefly in the 
manufacturiug of flannel. Iron, lead, copper, and coal, abound. 
Wales is divided into 12 counties, 6 of which are in South Wales, 
and 6 in North Wales. 

South Wales comprises the following six counties : — 

41. Pembrokeshire, containing : -4~I*EMBaoKE, a town on the Milford Haven, 
with 8,000 inhabitants, and the rains of a remarkable ancient castle, reared 
in the beginning of the 11th century. St. David's, the ecclesiastical capital 
of South Wales, with 4,000 inhabitants. Haverfordwesty a town, with 6,000 
inhabitants. Milford, a borough noted for its fine harbor, with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants. 

42. Ccurmarthenshiref containing : -|-Oaermabthen, an important commer- 
cial town on ^e Tawey, with 10,000 inhabitants. Uanelly and Kidwelly, 
towns on the Bristol Channel, with respectively 4,000 and 2,000 inhabitants. 

48. Glamorganshire, containing : -{-CAKDm, a town at the mouth of the 
Severn, with 7,000 inhabitants. Swamiwa, an important commercial town at 
the mouth of the Tawey, is at the same time a noted resort for sea-bathing, 
and has 40,000 inhabitants. Mebthyh Ttdvil, a town, with 30,000 inhabi- 
tants, is noted for its iron works and mines, and coal-pits. JJandaff, the resi- 
dence of a bishop, with 2,000 inhabitants. Neath, a to^vn on the river of the 
Mune name, with coal-pits, iron and copper mines, and 8,000 inhabitants. 



S46 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Wales: iU 6e<«rapliical OlvlBioiia. 



44. Brecon, or BreekfUKkthire, containmg: +BEECDrooK, a town on the 
Uake, with munu&ctures of cloth and stockings, and 8,000 inbabitiinta. 
Orickhawd, a borough, with flannel mauufiictures, and 1,500 inhabitants. 

46. Badnorahirs, containing : +PaE8TEiON, a town with 8,000 inhaWtanta 
RADNoa, or properly -^«o Badnor, a town with 2,600 inhabitants. 

46. Cardiffanshire, containining : +Caediqah (with coasting trade and 
8,000 inhabitants), and AberythoUh (with sea-bathing, and 6,000 inhabitants), 
towns on the Cardigan Bay. 

^orth Wales comprises the following six counties : 

47. MorUgomeryehire, containing : +MoNTQOiiKaT, a town at the frontier 
of Shropshire, with the ruins of an ancient castle, and 2,000 inhabitants. 
WeUhpool, a town with 6,000 inhabitants, is noted for its manufBCtorea of 
flannel Llanydloet, a town with 8,000 inhabitants. 

48. Merianelshire, containing : +Bala, a town on the Pimple lake, or Bala 
pool, with fishery, manu&ctures of flannel, and 2,500 inhabitants. IMgeUy 
(with 8,000 inhabitants), and HarUigh, or Harlech (with 2,600 inhabitants). 

49. Fliniahire, containing : +Fldit, a town on the Dee, with 4,000 inhabi* 
tante, and the ruins of a castle, where Richard IL was in 1899 kept prisoner 
and killed. Flint is much resorted to for sea-bathing. The neighboring town 
of Holyufell (with 10,000 inhabitants) is noted for its lead mines, brass- and 
copper-works. 8L Aeaph is the residence of a bishop, and has 4,000 inhabi- 
tants. Near the town of Mold (with 8,000 inhabitants) are lead mmes and 

ooal-pita. 

60. Denbighshire, containing : -|-Denbiob, a town near the Clnyd, and in a 
highly fertile valley, with a remarkable castle and 6,000 inhabitants. WaKX- 
yiAif^ a town with 7,000 inhabitants, is noted for its flannel and iron- and brass- 
works. BtUhin, a town with 4,000 inhabitants. 

61. Caernarvonshire, containing: -f-OAXaNAavoif, a town on the Menai 
Strait, has 9,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its stately castle, reared in the 
1 8th century by Edward L Bangor and Aberconiway, towns with respectively 
6,000 and 2,000 inhabitants. 

62. Anglesea, a county comprising the island of this name, which has 
186 square miles in extent, and a population of 60,000 inhabitants, and is 
separated from Wales by the Menai StraiL This strait is croeaed by the 
Menai bridge, one of the most remarkable of the kind in the world ; it ooo- 
sists of strong iron chains, which connect arches of masonry, 660 feet apart ; 
thus forming a safe and useful structure. The island of Anglesea, noted for 



GAEAT BRITAIN AND JBELASDm U1 

The Isle of Man, the Norman Islands, and the Iile of Hellgnland. 

its copper mines, contains : -)-Bi^auma&is, a town with 8,000 inhabitants. In 
its vicinity is the romantically situated mansion of Baron Hill, llie 
borough of Holyhead (with 6,500 inhabitants) is a chief station of packets 
for Ireland 

To England, bat to none of its oonnties, belong the following 
islands: 

(a.) The isle of Mah (224 square miles, and 45,000 inhabitants), lying m the 
Irish Sea, at about equal distance from each of the three united kingdoms. 
Its natives are called Manxmen, and their language is very similar to that of 
the native Irish. Their ancestore were subdued in the 10th century by the 
Danes, and in the 11th by the Normans (from Nonnandy). In the 13th cen- 
tury the Scotch, and in the 14th the English conquered the island, with which 
in the 16th century the earls of Derby were invested, and since styled kings. 
In the 16th century, however, the duke of Athol became possessed of the 
island, which in 1766 was purchased by the British government, in order to 
put an end to the smuggling which was carried on here upon the largest 
scale. The capital of the island is Castleton, on the southern coast, with 
8,000 inhabitants. It was formerly called Sodor. The residence of the 
ancient kings of Man was in C€uUe Rushen. The most important town of 
the isle is Douglas^ residence of a bishop, with 7,000 inhabitants^ Another 
town is Banuay, with 2,000 inhabitanta 

(6.) The Nobman lUands (total area : 266 square miles ; total population : 
80,000 inhabitants), situated in the English Channel, near the French coast 
of Normandy. They are the only possession left to the English of what 
they formerly had wrested from France. They have a mild climate and a 
fertile soil, and are the following: — 1. Jersey (149 square miles, and 41,000 
inhabitants), containing, among others, the towns of 8t. Belter (with 22,000 
inhabitants), and St. Aubin (with 2,000 inhabitants). 2. Guernsey (96 square 
miles, and 84,000 inhabitants), containing, among others, SL Pierre^ or 8t. Feter^s 
Fort (with 20,000 inhabitants). 8. Aldebney, or Aurigny (16 square miles, 
and 4,000 inhabitants), containing the borough of the same name, with 1,000 
inhabitants. 4. Sabk (5 s ^uare miles, and 1,000 inhabitants), is in French 
ealled Cer%^ or Sereg, and contains the fortified seaport of Longy. 

(e,) The SciUy Ide* (see above, under the head of Ck>mwall). 

The hU of Heligoland (5 square miles, and 3,500 inhabi- 



S48 EUBOFB, PAfiT AND PRBSBNT. 



Seodaad: its BIstaiy. 



tants), lying in the North Sea, hefore the months of the Weser, 
Elbe, and Eider, ia inhabited by descendant of the ancient 
Friselanders, was in 1714 subdued by the Danes and annexed 
to the duchy of Sleswick, and in 1814 ceded by Denmark to 
the British crown. Heligoland is much resorted to for sea- 
bathing. 



-B^THE KINGDOM OF SOOTLAKD. 

It comprises the northern smaller half of the great eastern 
island, has 31,268 square miles in extent, and a population of 
2,840,000 inhabitants. Little is known about the aborigines of 
Scotland ; they were called Caledonians by the Romans, who 
conquered a part of the country. The Picts^ mentioned at a later 
period, seem to have been identical with the Caledonians ; while 
the Scots had their primitive home in Ireland, from whence they 
emigrated at an early period of the Christian era. They sub- 
dued, in 836, the Picts, and became since the ruling people, 
though since the 8th century intermingled with the Angles and 
Saxons. From the 9th to the 13th century, they were ruled by 
kings of the house of Kenneth, which became extinct in 1289. 
Now a long struggle arose for the crown between the two mighty 
families of Baliol and Bruce, when finally the latter became 
possessed of it. In 1371, it was transferred to Robert Siuart^ a 
nephew of King David of the house of Bruce. That James Y I., 
son of Mary Stuart, ascended the English throne in 1603, thus 
uniting both kingdoms, is already related in the British history. 

Scotland is, by the Grampian hills, divided into the Highlands 
and Lowlandsj and politically into 32 shires, or counties, inclusive 



OREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. U9 



Scotiand: ita OeoKrapbleal DivisioBJi. 



nnmeroas islands. The latter, however, we shall "describe sepa- 
rately, in order to get a clearer view of them. 
The Lowland counties are the following : — 

1. Mid'Lothiant or .Edinburghshire, containiiig : -|-Ei»nnH7ROH, the metrc^ 
oils of Scotland, qiiite near the Frith of Forth, 896 miles north by west of 
London, with aboat 18,000 housed, and 190,000 inhahitants (indoding LeithX 
The new town, on the north, regularly laid oat and built of freestone, is one 
of the most beautiful towns of Europe. The most remarkable public edifices 
of the dty are, Holyrood, once the residence of the Scottish kings (the rooms 
inhabited by Mary Stuart are left in their former condition and arrangement)^ 
and Edinburgh Cattle, likewise conspicuous in Scottish history. Edinburgh 
has but few manufactures, yet it has long been noted for its science and learik- 
ing, and especially its uniyersity is distinguished. Leith, its seaport, was 
formerly 2 miles distant, but is now joined to Edinburgh by continuous ranges 
of buildings. Museellmrgh (with 10,000 inhabitants) and Dalkeith (with 7,000 
mhabitants), towns. 

2. Weet Lothian, or Linlithgowshire, containing: -{-Linlithgow, a town 
about 5 miles distant from the Frith of Forth, with 6,000 inhabitants, and an 
ancient royal palace, where Mary Stuart was born in 1642. Sorrowstownness 
(in common life, £o*ness) and Bathgate, towns, with respectively 8,000 and 
4,000 mhabitanta 

8. East Lothian, or Haddingtonshire, containing: -|-HADDXNOTOir, a town 
on the Tyne, with 6,000 inhabitants. Dunbar, a maritime town, 82 miles 
east-north-east of Edinburgh, is noted for the battle on the 8d of September, 
1660, and has 5,600 inhabitants. Prestonpans, a town noted for a battle in 
1746, has 3,000 inhabitants. 

4. Berwickshire, or Mersc, containing : -|-Gbbenlaw, a borough on the Black 
Adder, with 2,000 inhabitants. The town of Dunse, with 4,000 inhabitants^ 
is noted for its cattle fiiirs. The renowned scholar of the middle ages, 
Dons Scotus (-f- 1808), was bom here in 1274. Coldstream, a borough on the 
Tweed, with 3,000 inhabitants. The British Coldstream Regiment bears its 
name from this place. 

6. Roxburghshire, or Teviotdale, containing : *f-HAWioK, a town on the Teviot, 
with 6,000 inhabitants. Tlie Tillage of Melrose is noted for an ancient Qothic 
monastery, founded in the 12th century by David L Kelso, a borough, will» 
5,000 inhabitants. Jedburgh, a town, with 7,000 inhabitants. 

IM 



260 EUROPE, PAST AlO) PRESENT. 

Scotlaad: its Geogmpbleal DtviaioBS. 

6. Sdhirkthire, oontainiog : -j-Seleiek, a borough od the Etirick, with 4,000 
inhabitanta GcUoshieldSy a village on the Gkdowater, with 1,600 inhabitanta 

7. Feebleuhire, or TkoeeddaUj containing: -j'^^i^'Bi'^ ^ borough on the 
Tweed, with 8,000 inhabitants. The Tillages of Innerleithen and NeuHandt, 
are noted for their mineral watera 

8. Dtanfriesehire^ containing : -f-DuMFaiES, a town on the Nith, southward 
and 64 miles distant from Edinburgh, is noted for its cattle fiura, and has 
16,000 inhabitants. The borough of Moffai^ on the Eran, with mineral waters, 
and 8,000 inhalntantB, is much resorted to as a bathing-place. Other boroughs 
of this county are : Langholm (with 8,000 inhabitants), Sanquhar (with 8,600 
inhabitants), and Wanloekhead (with lead mines). The Tillage of Oreina 
Green, id^vtiie extreme south, on the English border, is famous for marriages 
of runaway loTers from England. Annan, a town on the Solway frith, with 
6,000 inhabitants. 

9. Kirkeudbrightthire, or Eaat Oalltnoay, cxKitaining: -^-Eibkoudbeiobt, a 
town at the mouth of the Dee, and on the Solway frith, with 6,000 inhabi- 
tants. New/jfaUoway (with 1,600 inhabitants) and Creetcwn (with 8,000 
inhabitants), boroughs. 

10. Wifftonshire, or West Galloway, oontainixig : -f-^i<>i^i^> <^ town on the 
Wigton Bay, with 8,600 inhabitants. Poax Pateick, a borough on the 
North Channel, is a station of packets for Ireland, and has 4,000 inhabitant& 
Stranrawer, or Stranraer (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Newton Stuart (with 
4,000 inhabitants), towns. 

11. Ayrshire, containing: -{~-^^^ <^ to^>> <^ ^^ Frith of Clyde, with oon- 
siderable leather manufactories, and 9,000 inhabitants. In the time of 
Wallace and Bruce, vvl: at the end of the 18th, and in the beginning of the 
14th century, Ayr was the scene of great events. Newton upon Ayr, a 
borough, with 4,000 inhabitants. EiucAaNocE, a town on the Irwin, is noted 
fior its carpets, and has 18,000 inhabitants. Irwin (with 7,000 inhabitants), 
Androesan (with 4,000 inhabitants), and Salteoais (with 4,000 inhabitants), 
boroughs. 

12. Lanark9hire,ar CZyc2eMia^, containing: -f-I^ANAax, a town on the Upper 
Clyde, with 9,000 inhabitants, and an important wool-spinning factory at iVew 
Isanark Glasgow, a dty on the Clyde, westward and 46 miles distant frtxn 
Edinburgh, has 280,000 inhabitants, and is thus the krgest city in Scotland, 
and at the same time the first in commerce and manu&ctures, and especiallj- 
noted for fine cotton goods. Its uniTcrsity is celebrated, and its cathedral is 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 261 

I 

Scotland : Ita Geogmfihieftl Divisiont. 

the best preserved specimen of Gothic architecture in Scotland. In the 
neighborhood are the celebrated Clyde Iron Workt, and the lead mines 
known by the name of LeadhUUy which belong to the earl of Hopetoun. 
Cantbuaneaih^ a borough with 4,000 inhabitants. Hamilton^ a town on the 
Clyde, with 10,000 inhabitants, and a splendid palace of the duke of Hamilton. 

18. i2m/reiMAtr0, containing: -|-Ri^'i^^> ^ l><)o^ugh on the Clyde, with 
8,600 mhabitants. Paislkt, a manufacturing town, on the Cart, with 60,000 
inhabitantB, is especially noted for the mannfafture of the finest cotton goods, 
and for the intelligence of her operative weavers. Once there was a celebra- 
tod abbey here. G&senook, a maritime town, near the mouth of the Clyde, 
is the principal seaport of the Scotch west coast, and has 36,000 inhabitants. 
Port Glasgow is the seaport of Glasgow. The villages of Kilbarchan (with 
4,600 inhabitants), Johnstown (with 4,000 inhabitants), and JEaglesham (with 
2,600 inhabitants), are noted for their cotton manufactures. 

14. Stirlingahire^ containing : -|-Stiblimo, a town, on the Forth, 82 miles 
west-north-west of Edinburgh, is noted for its castle, anciently one of the 
bulwarks of the kingdom, and has 9,000 inhabitants. Not £ur from here is 
2?aniu)cA;6«m, where on the 14th of June, 1814, King Edward XL of England 
was totally defeated by the Scotch under Robert Bruce. Falkirk, a town, 
on the Carron, is noted for its cattle fairs, and has 16,000 inhabitanta Near 
Falkirk are the considerable iron-works in the village of Carron The 
borough of Grangenwuth, at the mouth of the Carron, has 4,000 inhabitants, 
Buehanan^ a beautiful country-seat of the duke of Montrose. 

16. Dumbartonshire^ containing: -j-DuMBAaTON, a town, on the Clyde, 14 
miles west-north-west of Glasgow, has 6,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its 
castle, the ancient stronghold of the Scots, towering on the summit of a per- 
pendicular rock 600 feet in height The village of Helensburgh (with 1,200 
inhabitants), is noted for sea-bathing. 

16. ClaekmannanshirSf containing: -H^laokmannak, a town, on the Forth, 
with 6,000 mhabitants. Alloa, or Alloway, a town, on the Forth, with 7,000 
inhabitants. TUlieouUry, a romantically situated village, on the Devon, with 
1,600 inhabitanta 

17. Fife, or Fifeskirt, containing : -fCuPAR, a town, on the Eden, with linen 
manu&ctures, and 7,000 inhabitants. St. Andbkws, a city on the coast, be- 
tween the firiths of Forth and Tay, with a remarkable cathedral, a university, 
canvass and linen manu&ctures, and 8,000 inhabitants Before the reforma- 
tion St Andrews was the ecclesiastical metropolis of Scotland. The 



262 EUROPE, PAST AlTD PRESENT. 



Seotland: Its Gcograpbteal DivtdoDi. 



boring town of DcKFEBMLnnc (with 20,000 inhabitants), is noted for its cotton 
und linen manufactures, and was anciently very often the residence of the 
Scottish kings. Ktrhaldy^ a town, on the Frith of Forth, with linen manu&o- 
tures, sea-bathing, and 6,000 inhabitants. BwnUidand, a borough, on the 
Frith of Forth, with 8,500 inhabitants. 

18. Kinro8i-8hire, containing: -|-^^ii'i^o<S8i ^ town, with linen and cottoa 
manufactures, and 4,000 inhabitants, is romantically situated on the Locfalereni 
a lake with an isle, on which are the ruins of a castle where liary Stuart 
was in 1567 kept prisoner for a while. 

19. Buteshire^ comprising the following islands in the frith of Clyde, haT- 
ing a total area of 218 square miles, and a population of 18,000 inhabitants : 
the small but fertile isle of Butk, containing Rothtay^ with 5,000 inhabitants^ 
much resorted to for sea-bathing ; the larger isle of Ajiran, where Ossiaa 
shall have lived, containing Zamlashy a borou^ with a fine harbor, and 
6,000 inhabitants ; — AUm and the Cwnbrays, very small isles. 

20. Farfaxthiref or Angw, containing : -[-Fokfaz, a town on a lake of the 
same name, northward and 28 miles distant from Dundee, with 9,000 inhabi- 
tants. Dundee, a city on the frith of Tay, northward and 46 mOes distant 
from Edinburgh, has 64,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its sail-doth and 
other manufactures of hemp and coarse linen. Dundee is at the same time 
one of the principal seaports of Scotland, as is also Montrose, a town at the 
mouth of the Esk, with yarious mannfiictures, and 14,000 inhabitants. Bre- 
ehifif a town on the Esk, with 7,000 inhabitants. AaaaoATH, or Aberbrothik, 
a maritime town, with 8,000 inhabitants, and the ruins of a once stately 
abbey. In the ridnity is a celebrated light-house, on the solitary rook 
called Bellrock, 

21. Kinhardine, or Meams, containing : -J^Stomxratsn, a maritime town, 
between Aberdeen and Montrose, with 5,000 inhabitants. BervU, or Inwer- 
bervie, a borough, with 1,500 inhabitants. Laurencekirk (with 1,000 inhabi- 
tants), and Finnan, yiUagea 

22. Aherdeenshiret containing : + ABSRDEEir, the largest city on the north 
side of the Forth, at the mouth of the Dee, 100 miles north-north-east of 
Edinburgh, has 70,000 inhalntants, is noted for its university, and as the chief 
ship-building port in Scotland. Peterhead, a maritime town, wit h 8,000 infaabi> 
tants, mineral-waters, sea-bathing, and herring fi.Hhery. Fraaernbttr^h, h 
borough, with 8.000 inhabitants, is situated near Kinnairde Head, where the 
Scettish coast takes a westerly directioa 



GRBAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 268 

Scotland: iU Geognphicai Divisions. 

23. Banffthire^ oontaining : -^Banff, a town on the North Sea, 42 miles 
north-north-west of Aberdeen, is noted for its linens, and herring fishery, and 
has 8,000 inhabitants. 8t Fergus (with 2,000 inhabitants), and GarmmUh 
(with 2,600 inhabitants), boroughs on the North Sea. Other boroughs are 
FwUoy^ CulUn, FochaberSy and Findh^m, 

24. Slgituhire, w Moray, containing : -|-£LeiN, a town on the Lossie, with 
an ancient, yet very remarkable Qothic cathedral, and 8,000 inhabitants. 
ForreSt a borough, with 4,000 inhabitants. 

25. NairnBhire, containing : -|-Naibm, a town on the Munray frith, with 
4^000 inhabitants, and searbathing. 

The IRghldTid conntiea are the following : — 

26. Ferththire, containing : -{-PxaTH, a town on the Tay, westward and 28 
miles distant from Dundee, is noted for its schools, and for its cotton and linen 
manufiictures, and has 22,000 inhabitanta In the ancient castle of 8eone, 
about 5 miles distant from Perth, the Scottish kings used to be crowned. The 
ancient castle of OlammU is supposed to be that where King Duncan was 
murdered by Macbeth, while the latter shall have resided in the castle of 
JDunsinafi. The lake known by the name of Lock Kaierine^ has become 
celebrated by Walter Scott's Lady of the Lake. Dunxxld, a borough on the 
Tay, with 1,500 inhabitants, was anciently the capital of the Caledonian king^ 
dom, and is the pride of Scotland lor grand and picturesque scenery. The 
borough of AacaNBTHY, on the Tay, was once the capital of the Picts. 

27. IfwemetthBhire, containing : -|-lNrsaNXB8, considered as the capital of the 
Highlands, is situated at the head of Murray frith, and noted for its schools, 
and mannfiictures of tartans, linen, and cotton goods; its population is 18,000 
inhabitants. Inverloeky CattU shall once have been the residence of the 
Caledonian kings. About the EtMda$, the middlemost isles of which belong 
to this county, see below. 

28. Argylethire, or the WeaUm Btghlamky containing : -t'^E>'^»^AaT, a town 
on the Loch Fyne, north-westward and 46 miles distant from Glasgow, with 
8,000 inhabitants, herring fishery, and the splendid palace of the duke of 
Argyle. Appin, a borough on the Loch Linnhe, with 2,500 inhabitantsi 
GAJfpasLLTOWv, a oonmiercial town, with 10,000 inhabitants, is noted for its 
herring fishery, and situated on the long and narrow peninsala of Cantyre. 
The beautifrd valley of Coe, or Olen-Coe, was, according to a tale of ancieat 



tU EITBOPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

SGOtland : Its GeographiCAl INvliiou and lis bUndt. 



timea, the birth-place of Oflsian. About the Hebridet, whose aouthenimost islf* 
belong to this county, see below. 

29. Cromarty^ containing : -^Oroicartt, a town on the Murray frith, north- 
ward and 28 miles distant from Inyemess, is noted for its fishery, and has 
6,000 inhabitants. 

80. RoUf containing: -^-Dinowall, a town on the Cromarty frith, with 
4,000 inhabitants. Tain, a town on the Domodi frith, with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants. About the SeMdeM, whose northernmost isles belong to this county, 
see below. 

81. BtUherland, containing: -j-^^i^i'oc^t ^ town on the frith of the same 
name, with 8,000 inhalHtants. JSdderachyUiM, a borou^ with 1,800 inhabi- 
tants. 

82. Caithne9i, the northernmost county of Scotland, containing: -f-TmiBao, 
a maritime and the northernmost town of the British main land, with 6,000 
inhabitants. John o'Oroafs haute is the most northern residence on this main 
land. The maritime town of Wick (with 10,000 inhabitants), is noted for tlia 
herring fishery. 

The chief groups of the Scottish islands^ are the following : — 

(a.) TTie Hxbridbs, or Wettem Jdands, between 200 and 800 in number, with 
a total population of 90,000 inhabitants, who, for the most part, are Roman 
Gatholics. In the 9th century, the Hebrides were conquered by the Norwe- 
gians, but subsequently sutgected to the sway of the Scottish kinga Hie 
most remarkable of the islands are : Islat, or /«/a (the southernmost, 84 square 
miles in extent, and with 10,000 inhabitants, is noted for its black-odonsd 
cattle, and linen manu&ctures) ; Jc&a (only with 1,200 inhabitants); Mull 
(841 square miles, and 10,000 inhabitants, who are chiefly en^faged in hus* 
bandry) ; Stapta (only half a mile in diameter, but remarkaUe for one of the 
greatest curiosities in nature, called FtngoTt. Cave^ which is more than 200 
foet long, and, at its opening, 42 feet wide : on each side it is bounded by 
splendid basaltic columns in perpendicular ranges, supporting at the top a 
roof, 66 feet above the water, and formed by the broken ends of other basaltie 
columns ; the cave was accidentally diBCoyered in 1772, by an Irishman) ; Iova, 
or IcolmkiU (near Staffs, is noted in history as the residence of monks» who 
lived in a monastery founded by St. Columban about the middle of the 6th 
oentury, and diflased the light of learning and Ohristiimify through ni«ay 



aREAT BRITAIN AITD IRELAND. 256 

— f— 

Scotttoh Islands. 

parts of Dortheni Europe) ; Ooll (with 1,800 inhabitants) ; Ttekb (with 8,200 
inhabitants) ; Sets (788 square miles, but only with 20,000 inhabitants, and 
the neighboring litUe isles of Rmn and Canna) ; Lewis (894 squao'e miles, yet 
with not more than 16,000 inhabitants, and the borough of Stcmoway) ; North 
UisT, and South Um (with re8])ectively 4,000 and 6,000 inhabitants) ; St. 
KiLDA (a soHtary isle, 21 square miles in extent, and inhabited by about 160 
industrious islanders, who are much engaged in catching sea-fowl). 

(6.) The Orxnbt Itlanda, separated from the northern extremity of Scottish 
main knd by the PewUand Frith. They are 67 m number, 29 of which are 
inhabited, with a total population of 40,000 inhabitant& These islands are 
the resort of vast numbers of sea-fowl, which the islanders catch by descend- 
ing with ropes, from the high difib to which the birds resort The Orkneys 
were in/the 9th century conquered by the Norwegians, and subsequ^itly ruled 
by native earls, until they became subjected to the crown of Scotland. The 
principal island is Pokona (218 square miles, and 16,000 inhabitants), whoso 
capital, Eirkwall ("wiitk 2,600 inhabitants), was ancienUy the residence of the 
■overeign earls of the Orkneys. Stromnew is the chief seaport of the island. 

(c) The Shetland Itilands, north-eastward from the former, 86 in number 
(yet only 40 are inhabited), with a total area of 980 square miles, and a 
total population of 80,000 inhabitants. The little horses of Shetland, known 
by the name of ponies^ are of great use in mountainous districts. The wool- 
len stockings knitted by the islanders, are an article much in demand Ihe 
Shetland Tslandw, conquered by the Norwegians in the 9th century, were 
given in dowry to a Norwegian princess, who towards the end of the 16th 
eentury was married to King James IIL of Scotland The principal island 
is Shetland, or Mainland^ with 16,000 inhabitants, and the borough and sea- 
port of Lermok (with 1,200 inhabitants). The most fertile and beautiful 
island is Yell (149 square miles, and 2,000 inhabitants). The northemmoet 
ii Umbt (48 square miles, and 2,400 inhabitants). 



266 EUROPE PAST AITD PRESEETT. 

— - — ~- — 

Ireland : Uislorical Blwteli aad Gaogmphlcal DtTlatons. 



a— THE KINGDOM OF IRELAND. 

It compriBes the great island of the same name, lying west of 
Great Britain, has an area of 28,095 square miles, and a popu- 
lation of 8,600,000 inhabitants. The Romans did never set a 
foot on the Irish shore, and for this reason the early history of 
-^irk country Ir but little known until the 4th century, when the 
Irish, in that period called Scots, began to make their inroads 
into Scotland. So early as in the beginning of the 5th century 
Christianity was introduced in Ireland, especially by Patricius, 
or St. Patrick. The country was then ruled by many chiefe; 
subsequently the four present provinces were independent king- 
doms. That Ireland in 1172 was conquered by the English, has 
already been related above. 

Ireland is divided into the 4 provinces of LdnsUr^ Ulster, (Jon- 
naughty and MunsteTy which are subdivided into 32 counties. 

I. The provinoe of Lbinstxb, comprising the south-eastern part of Irdand, 
is divided into 12 counties, viz.: — 1. The eoumty of DMin, ixmtaining: 
-|-Dt7BLnr, the capital of Ireland, on both sides and at the month of the river 
liflfey, with 810,000 inhabitants, numerons and beautiful public edifices (among 
which St Patrick's Cathedral, the Bank of Ireland, the Exchange, and the 
Four Courts, are conspicuous), a university, 6 monasteries, 7 nunneries, many 
manufactures of linen, silks, cotton goods, etc, and an extenaive oommerMi 
With its seaport, Kingston, Dublin is connected by an atmospheric railway. 
2. Hie county of WiekloWt containing : -f-WioKLow, a maritime town, on the 
Irish Sea, with 8,500 inhabitanta Arldow, a town, with 2,000 inhabttanta 
Jfray^ and J2<UA<frt<m, boroughs with respectively 2,000 and 1,800 inhabitants. 
8. The county of Wexford^ containing : 4'^k3^oi'l>>i ^ town on St Geoige*8 
Channel, with mineral waters, and 12,000 inhabitanta JSn$U9eortky, and 
I/ew Row, towns with respectivelj 7,000 and 9,000 inhabitants. 4. Hie 
eomUtf of KUkmny^ containing : -f-KnjEsmrr, a town on the Norr, with 



GBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAHI). on 



Irolmud : its Oeogiaphlcal DliiitoM. 



80,000 inhabitaiite, a stately castle of the earl of Ormond, and one of the 
finest cathedrals in Ireland. Moreover, Eilkennj is noted for its beautiful 
white and black marble. The borough of Cattle Comer is noted for its eoal. 
6. The county of CarUnWt or Caiherlagh, containing: -fOiouow, a town on 
the Barrow, with a remarkable ancient abbey, and 10,000 inhabitants. Tul- 
lowy a town on the Slaney, with 8,000 inhabitants. 6. The county of Kildare^ 
containing: -{-^I'Daee, a town on the so-called Gurragfa of Kildare, is noted 
for horee-races, and has 6,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this county are : 
Aihy (with 4,000 inhabitants), Naa» (with an ancient castle, once the resi- 
dence of the kings of Leinster, and 8,500 inhabitants), and Maynootk (with 
a noted Catholic college, and 2,000 inhabitanta 7. Queen's County, contain- 
ing : +MAaTBOBOijaH, or Queenetovm, a town south-westward and 60 miles 
distant from Dublin, with 4,000 inhabitants. This town bears its name in 
honor of Queen Mary, who reigned from 1658 to 1558. Other towns of this 
county are: Mount Mellick (with 4,000 inhabitants), and Mountraih (with 
6,000 inhabitants). 8. King's County, containing : -f-PmuFsrowN, a town on 
the Grand Canal, bears its name in honor of King Philip of Spain, consort of 
the above-named Queen Mary, and has 2,000 inhabitants. Other towns of 
this county are : TuUamore (with 8,000 mhabitants), Banagher (with 8,000 
inhabitants), and Birry or Parsonstown (with 6,000 inhabitants). 9. TTie 
county of West Meath, containing : -{-^i^lunoab, a town on the Royal Canal, 
with 6,000 inhabitants. Athlone, a town, with 12,000 inhalntants. 10. The 
county of East Meath, or Meath, containing: -f-Tanr, a town on a branch of 
the Boyne, with 1,500 mhabitants. Other towns of this county are : KelU 
(with 6,000 inhabitants), and Ifavan (with 7,000 inhabitants). 11. The 
county of Longford, containing : -|-Lon6POBd, a town on the Camlin, with 
6,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this county are : Oranard (with 4,000 in- 
habitants), and Lanesborough {-mth 5,000 inhabitants). 12. The county of 
Louth, containing : ~|-Dundalk, a town on the bay of the same name, carries 
on a considerable commerce, and has 16,000 inhabitantsL Deooheba, a town 
at the mouth of the Boyne, with considerable commerce, and 22,000 inhabi- 
tants. Other towns of this county are : Carlingford (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
and Ardee (with 4,000 inhabitants). 

II. The province of Ulstkr, comprising the northern part of Ireland, is 
divided into 9 counties, viz.: — 18. Tlie county of Antrim, containing: -f-CAR- 
ucRKFxaous, a town on the Belfast Lough, with 4,000 inhabitants. Bslfast, 
the emporium of the north of Ireland, and centre of the linen trade, at the 



268 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Iroland: iu Gaognphical DiviskHui 



head of the Belfast Lough, northward and 92 miles distant from Dublin, has 
56,000 inhabitants. Antrim (with 3,000 inhabitants), ZUlmm (with 7,000 
inhabitants), BaUeyma (with 4,000 inhabitants), Lamu (with 5,000 inhabi- 
tants), and BaUyeasUe (with 2,500 inhabitants), towns. Within the limits uf 
this county is the Oianf$ ctsMetoay, an astonishing work of nature, consisting 
of vast numbers of perpendicular columns of basaltic rock, from 200 to 40a 
feet high, compacted together oyer a space 600 feet long by about 180 broad, 
and projecting into the sea an unknown distance. 14. The eounfy of Londomr 
derry^ or Derry^ containing : -j-Londondkrey, a considerable seaport town, at 
the mouth of the Foyle river, 115 miles north-north-west of Dublin, is stroiiglj 
fortified (in 1690-1 it sustained a siege by the forces of James XL), carries oh 
an important trade with America and the West Indies, and has 18,000 inhabit- 
ants. Co^otiM, a town with 7,000 inhabitantsL 15. Th& ecuniy of Donegal^or 
Tyreond^ containing : -|-Liffobd, a town on the Foyle, with 2,500 inhabitantsL 
DoraoAL, a town at the mouth of the Bask, with 4,500 inhabitantai The 
town of BaUyMhannon (with 9,000 inhabitants) ia noted for its linen manii- 
fiactures. 16. The county of Fertrutnagh, containing: -|-£nni8K1llkn, a 
romantically situated town, near the Lough Erne, with linen manufiicturea, 
and 8,000 inhabitants. 17. The county of Tyrone, containing: -{'Omagh, a 
town on the Roe, with 4,000 inhabitants. Dungannon, a town on the Lough 
Ncagh, has 7,000 inhabitants, and is the chief seat of the 0*Neala, known by 
their animosity against the English. Strabane, a town on the Foyle, with 
8,000 inhabitants. 18. The county of Cavan, containing: 4~^a^an (with 
4,000 inhabitants), and Belturbet (with 4,000 inhabitants), towns. 19. The 
county of Monaghany containing : -f-^ONAOHAN, a town with linen manufac- 
tures, and 5,000 inhabitants. Carriekmacro9S^ a town, with 8,500 inhabitants. 
20. The county of Armaghy containing : -|- Armagh, a town on the Callen, ia 
the eoclesiastical metropolis of Ireland, and has 10,000 inhabitants, who are 
much engaged in the linen trade, llie town of Luboan (with linen trade, 
and 5,000 inhabitants), is sometimes called lAttle England. 21. The county 
^i>oio?i, containing: -fDowNPAxaioK, a town, with 5,000 inhabitants, is noted 
as the burial-place of St Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. Newrt, a 
considerable seaport town, with 16,000 inhabitants. Donaohadee, a maritime 
town, with 5,000 inhabitants, and a ferry between it and Port Patrick in 
Scotland, the shortest route by sea to Great Britain. Bangor (with 4,000 
inhabitants), and Strangford (with 1,800 inhabitants), towua. 
HI. The province of Oovnauoht, comprising the middlemost part of western 



GBEAT BBTTAIN AND IRELAND. 86» 

Iroland: ita Geographical IXvMobi. 

Ireland, is dirided mto 5 counties, viz. : — 22. The county of QalvKtyy contain- 
ing : -f-GALWAT, a town on the Oalwaj Bay, has 86,000 inhabitants, carries 
on a considerable trade, and is noted as a resort of the gentry for sea-bathing. 
TuAM, a town on the Glare, is the seat of an Anglican archbishop, and has 
6,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this county are : Loughrea (with linen 
trade, and 7,000 inhabitants), and Ballinatioe (noted for the greatest cattle 
fidrs in Ireland, with 8,000 inhabitants). 23. The county of Mayo, containing : 
-|-Oastlxbaa, a town near Lough Itanach, with linen manufactures, and 6,000 
inhabitants. Other towns of this county are : KiUala (with 3,000 inhaUtants), 
BaUinrobe (with 8,000 inhabitants), and BaUina (with 7,000 inhabitants). 
24. The eoufUy of Sliffo, containing : -|-Suao, a considerable seaport town, on 
the bay of the same name, with 16,000 inhabitants. 25. The county of Leiirim^ 
containing : -|-^AaaicK on Shannon, a town on the Shannon, with 2,500 inhab- 
itants. The town of Lutrim (with 8,000 inhabitants) is also situated on the 
Shannon. 26. Hie county of Roscommon, containing : -f'^os^^^i'^ON, a town, 
with 4,000 inhabitanta Other towns of this county are : Boyle (with 6,000 
inhabitants), Athlone, or Etholone (with 10,000 inhabitants), and CoMtUreagh 
(with 2,500 inhabitants). 

IV . The province of Munster, comprising the south-western part of Ireland, 
is divided into 6 counties, viz. : — 27. The county of Corky containing: -j-OoaK, 
the second Irish city in population, having 130,000 inhabitants, is the emporium 
of the soutb of Ireland, and chief mart of the provision trade ; and its harbor, 
called the Gove, is strongly fortified and one of the best in the world. On 
the isle Great-Island, within the harbor, is the town of Cove, with 7,000 inhab- 
itants. Bandon, a town on the river of the same name, with linen and cotton 
manufactures, and 14,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this county are: 
KtMole (with 8,000 inliabitanta), Mxeheltown (with 4,000 inhabitants), Youghxdl 
(with 10,000 inhabitants). Mallow (with 6,000 inhabitants), and Fermoy (with 
6,000 inhabitants). 28. The county of Waterfordy containing : + Vaterford, 
an import seaport town, 70 miles east-north-east of Cork, and 92 miles south- 
south-west of Dublin, has 60,000 inhabitants, and an extensive intercourse 
with England and Wales, and is noted for its trade in provisions, and New- 
foundland fishery. Dunoarvan, the largest fishing town in Ireland, westward 
and 30 miles distant from Waterford, with 6.000 inhabitants. Lismork, a town 
on the Blackwater, has 4,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its cathedral, and a 
castle, reared in 1185 by King Henry IL, and at present belonging to the 
duke of Devonshire. 29. The county of Tipperaryy containing: -f-GLONXBi. 



teo EUROPB. PAST AND PBESSNT. 

Ireland : its GeographtaU Diviiioii*— The Bridth Oolonlea. 

a town on the Suire, is tlie centre for the Irish batter trade, and has 18,000 
inhabitants. Tippkrabt, a town near the Suire, south-westward and 100 
miles distant from Dublin, with 8,000 inhabitants. Cashel^ a town, with 9,000 
inhabitants, and the ruins of an ancient cathedral, where the kings of Munster 
were crowned. Other towns of this county are : Carrick on Suire (with 8,000 
inhabitants), and Tkurlet (with 6,000 inhabitants). 80. Hie county of CUare, 
containing: -|-Emna, a town on the Fergus, is noted for its stateljr Gothic 
abbey, and has 12,000 inhabitantsi KUlaloe, a town on the Shannon, with 
2,600 inhabitants. 81. The county of lAnnericky containing : -f~I'D<»^CK, an 
important commercial town, on the Shannon, north-westward and 70 miles 
distant from Waterford, has 70,000 inhabitants, is largely engaged in the 
provisiob trade, and was formerly noted for the strongest fortress in Ireland, 
and for its firm stand in the cause of the Catholics. 82. The county of Kerry, 
containing : -f-TaALSE, a town on the Atlantic Ocean, with considerable fishery, 
and 10,000 inhabitants. Killarmxy, a town, with 8,000 inhabitants, is situated 
on the lake of Killamey, which is celebrated for the beauty and grandeur of 
its scenery. JHngle, a town, with 6,000 inhabitants. 

Tbe British possessions and colonies are the following : — 

(a.) In Europe : 1. Tbe iale of Heligoland (see above). 2. Gib- 
raltar (see under the head of Spain). 3. Malta (see under the 
head of Italy). 4. Tbe Jbnian Lies, which will be found deeoribed 
elsewhere in this work. 

(6.) In Africa : Settlements in Senegamlna and Upper Ouinea ; 
moreover, Cape Colony, St. Helena, Mauritius, etc. 

(c.) In Asia : Hindoostan, provinces in Farther India, Ceylon 
(belonging to the crown), Singapore^ Hongkong, etc., etc. 

{d,) In Australia : The continent of Australia, Van Diemen's 
Land, New Zealand, and Norfolk Island. 

(e.) In America : British North America, Guiana, and many 
islands of the West Indies, Bahamas, etc. 

The total area of all these possessions and colonies is estimated 
at 4,686,000 square miles, and the total popuktion at 131,000,000 
inhabitants. 



THE NETHERLANDS. 

Total asxa : 24,644 square mflee. 
Total fopulation: 7,658,000 inhabitants. 

Holland and Belgium, together, were from old styled the 
Netherlands, or Lowlands, on account of their level physical 
character, so that parts of their surface are even lower than the 
sea, which is prevented from oyerflowing the land by vast dikes, 
or embankments. Thus, while Holland and Belgium are political 
names, tie NelherUmds are a geographical name, like that of Italy, 
for instance. 

By first giving a general view of all Netherlands, in their 
common physical and natural character, we avoid, at the same 
time, the inconvenience of numerous repeatings. 

The Netherlands are a maritime country, at the north-western 
frontier of Germany, and ou the north bounded by the North 
Sea. 

Since the revolution of 1830, they are divided into two kingdoms^ 
the northernmost of which is styled the Kingdom cf the Nether- 
lands^ (until the year 1795, it was a republic known by the name 
of the United Provinces of the Netherlands), while the southern 
is styled the Kingdom of Belgium (till towards the end of last 
century, known by the name of Austrian Netherlands). 

* Id commoo life, it is sometimes called the kingdom of Holland, but a 
kingdom of this name has nerer existed, except in the sh4^ period from 1806 
to 1810; and HoDand has never been anything else than a promnee of the 
whole Btateu 



SeS EUBOP£» PAST AND PRESENT. 



The Netherlands : PolUlcal Division, Climate, etc 



Both were however united, first until the last quarter of the 
16th century, and then again in the period from 1815 to 1830. 
Of the above-stated total area and population — 

Squaro milee. Inhabllaate. 

Tbe kingdom of the Netberlandfl proper takes ap . 11,883 2,926,000 
Ite provincee of Luxemburg and Limbing, whidi 

politically belong to Germany, take up .... 1,896 282,000 

Ohe Kingdom of Belgium takes up 11,417 4,850,000 



Total, 24,644 7,558,000 

The country, as has already been mentioned, is level, with the 
exception of a small part in the south-east, where low hills grad- 
ually rise to the Ardennes (see Introduction to Europe, page 6). 
Mostly there is no great variety in the scenery of the landscape ; 
especially in the North Netherlands, grass and cows, canals and 
wind-mills, and cleanly villages, or towns, invariably relieve one 
another with picturesque effect. 

About the Zuyder Zee^ DoUart, the lakes and rivers, as the A&vsie^ 
Scheldt^ etc., see pages 9, 1 1, and 16. The country is intersected 
by numerous canals, the most remarkable of which is the great 
canal of North HoUand^ extending from the Holder to Amster- 
dam, cost several million of florins, and will float a ship of the 
line. 

The climate is in general more moderate than in eastern oouq- 
tries in the same parallels, but frequently moist. In the southern 
half of the Netherlands it is somewhat more wholesome than in 
the northern half 

The more or less marshy soil is (with the exception of the 
North Netherland province of Drenthe, and the Belgian province 
of Luxemburg) extraordinary fertile. In North Netherlands is 
the rearing of cattle prevailing, and in Belgium agricuUurt which 
has attained here the highest pitch of improvement 



THE NETHERLAKBS. 2dS 



Geogmphical Featare*— Hhtory. 



Belgium abounds in iron and coal ; the kingdom of the Neth- 
erlands abounds in peat, which is almost the only fuel used there. 
The cattle is of an excellent breed, especially in the provinces of 
Groningen, Utrecht and Holland, South Brabant, East and West 
Flanders. The horses too are of a good breed. Butter of fine 
quality is indeed raised in Belgium, but by far more in the king- 
dom of the Netherlands, where butter and cheese are largely 
exported, partly even to America and India. The most numer- 
ous flocks of sheep are to be found in the provinces of Luxem- 
burg, Flanders, Groningen, Friesland, and North Holland. The 
rearing of hogs is chiefly carried on in the provinces of Liege, 
Namur, Luxemburg, and Friesland. The waters abound in 
fishes of various kinds. Extensive forests are not to be found 
in the kingdom of the Netherlands, and are in Belgium very 
scarce, except in Luxemburg, and partly in Hainault, Liege, and 
Namur. The Belgian soil yields excellent wheat; moreover, 
hemp and flax, rape-seed, hops, and tobacco. In the northern 
half of the Netherlands sufficient com for home consumption is 
not raised, but so much the more vegetables (even largely ex- 
ported), rape-seed, etc. Besides this the province of Holland is 
several centuries since noted for its culture of flowers, especially 
of tulips. In this province are also raised vast quantities of ex- 
cellent strawberries. 

Of commerce, manufiiotures, etc., shall be treated separately 
below ; and we will now give an historical sketch of all Nether- 
lands until their separation during the reign of King Philip II. 
of Spain, their sovereign then. 

Hittory. — In the days of the Romans, the southern half of the Netherlands 
'was inhabited by the Belgians^ and the northern half by the Bataviam ; at 
the northern boundaries of the latter lived the jFW«m«, or Frieslanders. 
About the year 64 before the Christian era, Julius Ciesar subdued the Bel- 
giaos andFrieses, and entered upon friendly terms with the Bataviana Since 



SM EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



The NeiherUad»— Historical BkMeh. 



the decay of the Roouui empire the Netherlands came aoder the sway of the 
Frank* ; and by the terms of the treaty of Verdun in 843 (see page 32) the 
northern, and after 887 also the remaining part of the Netherlands was an- 
nexed to the Qerman empire. The German emperors appointed dukes and 
earls goremorB of the Netherlandish proyinoes ; yet gradually they made 
their office inheritable and themselves independent so early as in the 10th 
oentuiy. In this way arose the earldoms of Flanders, Holland, the duchy of 
Brabant, and other lordships. In 1369 Margaret, the only heiren of FlandeiB 
entered into marriage with Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy^ who thus be« 
came possessed of that earldom (see History of Burgundy, page 200). At 
ihts SfadTie time the line of the ancient dukes of Brabant had become extinct^ 
and the only heiress, Johanna of Brabant, bequeathed the duchy to her grand* 
nephew, Anton of Burgundy, the son of Philip the Bold. In the course of 
time other parts of the Netherlands were annexed to these possessioosi, and 
in the latter half of the 16th century, nearly the whole was under the sway 
of the duke of Burgundy. The last duke in the male line of this house, 
Charles the Bold, died in 1477, and his only daughter, Mary, inherited the 
Netherlands together with Burgundy proper. She was married to the Aut- 
trian archduke MRYimirmn ; and their son Philip was married with Johanna 
of Castile, the only heiress of the united crowns of Castile and Aragon. 
Philip's and J<4ianna*B eldest son, the renowned emperor Charles V ., inherited 
all these immense possessions, and bequ e athed the Netherlands^ together with 
Spain, etc, to his son Philip II of /Spain. During the reign of the latter the 
northern provinces of the Netherlands separated themselves from the south- 
ern provinces, cu an independent state, by the name of the ** Republic of the 
United Provinces." As such they were preliminarily acknowledged by Spain 
in 1609, and definitively in 1648. The aoutkem provinces continued to be an- 
nexed to Spain, until by the terms of the treaty, oonduded at Rastadt on 
the 7th of March, 1714, they were ceded to Auttria, which in 1797 ceded 
them to France. In 1814 they were restored to Austria, that however re- 
nounced them in fiivor of an arrangement, by which the northern and southern 
provinces were reunited under the name of the " Kingdom of the Nether- 
landa" But, as has already been told, the revolution in 1830 separated them 
again ; and since that time the northern provinces have retained the name of 
a kingdom of the Netherlands, while the southern provinces are united to a 
** Kingdom of Belgium." 



THE NETHE&LAimS. 265 



The Kingdom of the Netheriaods. 



L— THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS » 

Ailxa: 18,227 square miles. 
Pofulation: 8,208,000 inhabitants. 

Of the here-stated area and population are to be deducted 1,395 
sqtiare miles, and 282,000 inhabitants, as belonging to the grand- 
duchy of Luxemburg and the Limburgian district of Boeremonde, 
which polUicaMy form part of Germany, though they are ruled by 
the sovereign of the Netherlands. Thus the kingdom of the 
Netherlands proper has 2,926,000 inhabitants, among whom the 
prevailing religion is Calvinism. But all religions are tolerated, 
and more than one third of the people are CcUholics (according 
to the census of 1844, their number was 1,100,616, inclusive those 
of Luxemburg). In point of origin, the Netherlanders, or Dutch, 
belong to the great Germanic tribe. (See Introduction to Europe, 
page 19.) 

Beside the rearing of cattle and other branches of husbandry, 
the chief means of sustenance is the commerce^ that extends over 
all parts of the world. The emporiums are Amsterdam and 
Rotterdam. Some provinces are noted for their manufactures, 
especially of lirien and pamper, Tet, upon the whole, this kingdom 
is more a commercial than a manufacturing state. 

Concerning the means of education, there are 3 universities, viz. : 
at Leyden (instituted in 1575, and in 1846 frequented by 602 
students), at Groningen (instituted in 1616, and in 1846 frequented 
by 300 students), and at Utrecht (instituted in 1636, and in 1846 
frequented by 444 students). Three other similar institutions, 

* Frequently called Holland, but that a kingdom of Holland does not exist, 

has been already remarked 

12 



2M EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



The KlBgdom of the Netherlnnds : iu Finances — NaTy— Anny, 



on a smaller scale, styled Atbenaea, are in Amsterdam, Franeker, 
and Deventer. Beside these, there are 68 Latin schools, 9 
seminaries,* 70 secondary, 2,125 public schools, etc. 

The government is a constitutional monarchy, limited by rep. 
resentatives of the people in two chambers, styled General States. 

In 1847, the public revenue was estimated at 70,742,323, and 
the expenditure at 70,283,555 florins, which thus would have 
yielded a surplus of 458,768 florins. The public debt amounted 
to 1,232,061,711 florins, but inclusive more than 203,000,000 from 
the period 1815-1830, which are to be paid by Belgium. The 
Netherlandish colonies in India, yielded in 1844 a nett reTenue 
of 2,123,424 florins. 

The army amounted, hitherto, to 43,000 men during peace, 
and to 76,000 during war, beside 25,000 men of Schutters, or 
militia, who could be increased to 80,000 men in case of neces- 
sity. Yet lately a reduction of the army has taken place. The 
navy consists of 9 ships of the line, 19 frigates, and 37 sloops of 
war, brigs, etc., 14 steamers, and 87 gun-boats. (About the year 
1790, the navy consisted of 24 ships of the line, and 40 other 
vessels of war, but the English seized nearly the wbole of it) 
The Netherlandish navy in the eastern colonies, consists of 1 
frigate, and 20 other vessels. 

There are the following orders of Honor : — 1. The military order 
of William, in 4 classes, instituted in 1 8 15. 2. The Netherlandish 
lion order, likewise in 4 classes, and instituted in 1815. 3. The 
Luzemburgian order of the oaJc crown, instituted in 1841. 

Hitiory. — ^&i the history of the NetherUmdfl, the above mentioned eepum- 
iioD of the northero provmces from the whole political bfliiy, was chiefly ugedi 
by the Prince William of Orange (see page 228), who by King Philip IL hsd 
been appointed governor of the provinces of Holland, Zealand, and Utredbt, 
and, filled with immoderate ambition and personal hatred against his 

* About the signification of these terms, see the note, pag« 65. 



TEE lilETHERLANDS. U1 



History of the KloKflom of the Neth«rlaiids. 



reigD, instigated the people under the pretext of maintaining their rightsL 
He, in 1579, prevailed upon the just-mentioned three provinces and those of 
Geldem and Friesland, to declare their independence, if not directly, yet indi 
rectly, by uniting themselves into the so-called Union of Utrecht, to which sub 
sequently also acceded Groningen and OverysseL These thus united seven 
provinces (Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Oeldem, Friesland, Groningen, and 
Overyssel) diose the prince of Orange their chief^ conferring upon him the modest 
title of a Statiholder^ or vice-regent (to wit, of the king of Spain) ; because they 
would fain not to appear in the light of rebels, but of having only maintained 
their rights and privileges. Nevertheless, they actually established an independ- 
ent republic that became one of the most influential states, and whose navy was 
in the 17th century the most powerful for a whQe. Yet their own Stattholder, 
William III. of Nassau-Orange, having only in view his personal interest, and 
aiming at the British crown (see British History, page 233), set aside the 
interest of the republic, and gradually brought it down from its high pitch of 
power, in fiivor of England. To the renowned Netherlandish East Indian 
Company, established in 1602, all the important Netherlandish colonies in 
Asia, Africa, and America, did belong (though they were held in the name of 
the General States, or government), and the nett annual profit, earned by this 
company, was estimated at 3,000,000 ducats. In 1794, the French waged war 
Against the republic, and transformed it into a so-called Batavian Republic ; 
ita last Stattholder, William Y., fled to England, and was base enough to 
deliver over nearly the whole navy to tiie English. On the other hand, the 
French compelled the republic to share in their wars, and in this way the 
Netherlandish colonies were lost and conquered by the EnglisL In 1806, 
Napolecm transformed the Batavian Republic into a Kingdom of Holland^ of 
which he appointed king his brother Louis, who, however, abdicated in 1810, 
itpoD which this state was incorporated with the French empire. In 1818, the 
Netherhmders, or Dutch, proclaimed the son of William V. their sovereign; 
England restored most of the conquered colonies, but retained three of the 
most valuable ones, viz. : Ceylon, Cape Colony, and Demerara. For this loss, 
Ketherland should have been indemnified by the above-stated arrangement of a 
rennioQ with the soathem provinces. However, in 1830, it was again England 
that urged the separation, without caring in the least for that stipulation. 
William I., king of the Netherlands since 1813, abdicated in 1840, and was 
raooeeded by his son William IL, who died in 1849, and was succeeded by 
{ua SOD WiUimn III, bom on the 19th of February, 1817. 



S68 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Klncdom of the Netherlands: Its Geographical Ditiflloos. 



The kingdom of the Netherlands is divided into 10 provinces, 
2 of which, North and South Holland, comprise the ancient 
province of Holland, while of the 8 others, Drenthe was formerly 
only a district, and North Brabant (conquered by the ancient 
republic) belonged to what was styled the '^ Oeneralty countries." 
(About Luxemburg and the Limburgian district of Roeremonde, 
see under the head of Germany.) 

1. Tlie province of Holland (2,007^ square miles, and, according to the 
census of 1846, with a population of 1,027,674 inhabitants), which anciently 
formed the chief constituent part of the earldom of Holland, that In 1S99 
was inherited by the earls of Hainault, and in 1426 by the duke of Burgundy. 
At present it is divided into J^orth and South Holland. North Holland 
(894^ square miles, and in 1846 with 468,787 inhabitants), contains : AnBTKa- 
DAM, the principal dty and emporium of the kingdom, on the Amstel river, 
that disembogues here into the T (as a branch of the Zuyder Zee is styled), 
with 226,000 inhabitants. The city is intersected by canals, over idiich there 
are 290 bridges, and which mostly are bordered by rows of treesi The 
houses and streets are kept remarkably dean, and the arrangements in the 
interior of the former give evidence of great comfort Among the numerous 
public edifices, the most remarkable is the royal palace, formerly the city> 
hall, which was reared in the period from 1648 to 1656, at the CKpeoae of 
18 million florins. It has 282 feet in front, 285 in breadth, and 116 in height, 
while its magnificent cupola (containing the finest chime of bells in the Neth- 
erlands) rises 41 feet above the roof It is built of freestone, and rests mpon 
a foundation of 18,669 piles, or long timbers, driven into the ground. Am- 
sterdam was founded in the 12th century. Zaa&dam, or Saardamy formerly 
the largest village in Holland, at present a town, in the neighborhood of Am- 
sterdam, has 12,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its numerous wtndmills 
(more than 700) and docks, where the Russian emperor, Peter L in 1697 mxf- 
fered himself to be engaged as an apprentice, in order to get a practical 
knowledge of the art of ship-building. Hie village otBroek in't Waierlmtdt 
the residence of rich inhabitants of Amsterdam, who have retired frtm bosi- 
ness, is noted for the remarkable deanliness of its houses and streets. Ko 
stranger is allowed to enter any house without having previously pulled off 
his boots and put on dean slippers. Muiden, or Mutfden, (with 1,800 inhabi- 



THE NETHERLANDS. 269 



The ProTlBce of Bolluid. 



tflatB), and Naarden (with 8,000 inhabitants), fortified towns on the Zuyder 
Zee. Medembuk, on the Zuyder Zee, with 2,800 inhabitanta, is ooosidered 
as the most ancient town in North Holland, and as the residence of the an- 
cient kings of Friesland. Other towns in North HoUand are : Weesp (with 
3,200 inhabitants), Monnikendam (with 2,900 inhabitants), Purmer&nd (with 
8,800 inhabitants, largely engaged in the cheese trade), Edam (noted for its 
cheese, with 4,600 inhabitants), Alkmaar (also noted for its cheese, with 
10,000 inhabitants), Enkhvyxefi (noted for its herring fishery, with 7,000 in- 
habitants), and Hoom (with 10,000 inhabitants, who likewise are largely en- 
gaged in the butter and cheese trade). The village of Heldir, at the entrance 
to Zuyder Zee, has 2,000 inhabitants, who for the most part consist of pilots, 
is noted for its excellent harbor, called Nieuwe Diep. Near Helder is the 
Mand of Tezel (58 square mQes, and 6,000 inhabitants), noted for its sheep 
and cheese. Other smaller islands here are: Vlieland and Tertehdling, 
The town of Haarlem, near the lake of the same name, westward and 12 
miles distant from Amsterdam, has 28,600 inhabitants, and is noted for its 
organ with 8,000 (or, according to other statements, only with 4,500) jnpes 
and 64 registers, and its trade in flowers. South HoUand (1,118 square miles, 
and in 1846 with 558,887 inhabitants) contains : the Hague (in Dutch also 
styled i Oraavenh€Mg\ the capital of the kingdom and royal residence, near 
the North Sea, 28 miles south-south-west of Amsterdam, with 66,000 inhabi- 
tants, is one of the most regularly and best built cities in Europe, and con- 
tains many handsome buildings. The neighboring village of Sohevbninoex 
(with 6,600 inhabitants) is much resorted to for sea-bathing. Near the 
Hague is also the village of Ryuwick^ with an ancient castle, where the peace 
of Ryswick was concluded in 1697. Lrydxn, a town between the Hague 
and Haarlem, with 86,000 inhabitants, is celebrated for its university. Delft, 
a town situated between the Hague and Rotterdam, with 17,000 inhabitants, 
h remarkable as the burial-place of the princes of Orange, of the Admiral 
Tromp, etc The prince, William L of Orange, was murdered here in 1684. 
Rotterdam, a dty on the Merwe (as the Meuse is called here, see page 16), 
62 miles south-south-west of Amsterdam, is next to Amsterdam the empo- 
rium of the kingdom, contains a great many stately houses and remarkable 
public edifices, and has 88,000 inhabitants. The renowned scholar Erasmus 
was bom here, in 1467. In its neighborhood is the town of Dort, with im- 
portant commerce, and 21,600 inhabitants ; it is noted in history for the Synod 
(in 1618 and 1619), which condemned Arminianism. Other towns of South 

6* 



SYO EUROPE, PAST AJSTD PRESENT. 



The Provliieea of HoUbii4 sod Zealand. 



Holland are : Oudewtter (with 2,000 mhabitaiitBX Chmda (noted for its earthen 
ware, especially tobacco pipes, baa 14,000 inbalatanta), Sohiidaic, (noted for 
its ^ and herring fishery, has 12,500 inhabitants), MaasduU (with 4,500 
inhabitants), Vlaarditigm (with 8,000 inhabitants), Vianm (with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants), Sehoonhaven (with 8,000 inhabitants), Ntemupoort (with 800 inhabi- 
tants), Aaperen (with 800 inhalntants), Leerdatn (with 1,900 inhabitants), and 
Oo&KUM (with 8,600 inhabitants). Between Dort and the sea, is the idand 
of y ooRKK, with the towns of HelvoeUliM (formerly the station of the packets 
for England, with 2,600 inhabitants), and Briel (with 5,000 inhabitants, noted 
in history for its occapation by the so-called Watergeuses in 1572). AnoUier 
iahind is Over-Flahke, or Zuyd-Voomet with the town of Qcree (with 800 
inhabitants). 

2. The prwnnee of Zealaio) (649 square miles, and in 1846 with 157,068 
inhabitants), comprising islands formed by tiie mouths of the Scheldt, and a 
part of the main land, known by the name of 8taats/Ut,nder%, It was anciently 
an earldom, which belonged to the earls of Holland, and in 1486 came under 
the sway of the dukes of Burgondy. Its chief islands are the f<dlowing : — 
CL The idand of WALOHSBnc, containing : Middelburo, fortified capital of the 
province, has 16,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its magnificent town haU. 
Fldbhino, a strongly fortified town, the great naval depot of the kiogdom, 
and station of the navy, with a fine and spacious harbor, and 8,500 inhabi- 
tants. The renowned Dutch admiral Ruyter, was bom here in 1607. Other 
towns of this island are: WedkapeUen (with 1,900 inhabitants), Veere (with 
1,500 inhabitants), Domburg (with 600 inhabitants), uadAmemuyden (with 900 
inhabitants)L b. llie island of Zuxi>-Beveland, the largest and finest of the 
province, containing : OoeSf a town, with 5,500 inhabitants. Bath^ a fi3rt com- 
manding the entrance to the Scheldt c. The idand of Nooai>-BKVELAXD^ 
once the most beautiful and most fertile of Zealand, but in 1580 and 1532 
laid waste by terrible inundations, contains at present several villages, and 
the borough of Kortgene, with 700 inhabitants, d. The idand of Sohoowsn, 
noted for its madder, and containing the towns of ZncRTgBKK (with trade in 
madder, and 7,i500 inhabitants) and Brotnoershaven (with numerous breweries 
and 1,000 inhabitants). & The idand of Tholen, containing the towns of 
Stolen (with 8,000 inhabitants) and 8t, Martmadyk (with 1,500 inhabitants). 
/. The oontinentaLpart of Zealand, until 1648 belonging to the ancient earldom 
of Flanders, and sio^ called STAAis-FLAimEas, or JDtUeh Flandtn^ contains 
the fijIlowiQg towns ApLUJB (in Frendi, called Edute, strongly fortified, with 



THE NETHERLANDS. %n 



The Provinces of Zealand, UUecht, and Geldero. 



2,100 inhabitaats), Bixrvldet (with 2,000 inhabitwitB), 8a» van OetU (with 
1,000 iDhAbitants), Axel (with 2,800 inhabitants), JfuUt (with 8,000 inhabi- 
tants), Yaendyk (with 1^00 inhabitants), Aardenburg (with 1,600 inhabitants), 
Oostburg (with 900 inhabitants), T«r Neu9e (with 1,600 inhabitants), and 
Philippins (with 600 inhabitants). 

3. The province of Utkboht (632^ square miles, and in 1846 with 168,088 
inhabitants), situated between Holland and Geldern, on the north bounded by 
the Zuyder Zee, was since the year 696 the lordship of a sovereign bishop, 
and in 1628 purchased by the Emperor Charles V., who annexed it to the 
government of Holland. It contains : Utbscht, tiie capital of the province, 
on a bnmch of the Rhine, 20 miles south-south-east of Amsterdam, has 46,000 
inhabitants, and is noted for its uniyersity, its Si Martin's church, reared in 
the 14th century, whose steeple is 888 feet high, and for the peace concluded 
here in 1718. The neighboring village of Zeyat, settled by Moravian Brethren, 
is noted for its boarding school for young ladies, and has 2,000 inhabitants. 
Amersfoort, a town on the Eem, 12 miles east-north-east of Utrecht, with 
18,000 inhabitantsL Other towns of this province are : Rhenen (with 8,000 
inhabitants, and the so-called king's house, where the unfortunate Elector 
Frederic V. lived in 1621), YaaeUtein (with 8,000 inhabitants), Woerden (with 
2,800 inhabitants), Wjgkf surnamed to, or by Duurstede (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
and Monifort (with 1,850 inhabitants). 

4. The province of Geldxrit, or Oelderland (2,007 i square miles, and in 
1846 with 366,468 inhabitants), situated between the German frontier and the 
Zuyder Zee, did primitively belong to the German empire, and was in 1648 
annexed to the dudiy of Burgundy. It contains : Arnhsdc, or Amhenif the 
capital of the province, 87 miles east-south-east of Utrecht, is strongly fortified, 
has 15,000 inhabitants, and was anciently the residence of the earls and dukee 
of Gelderland. NnreoiTXir, a fortified town on the Waal, southward and 9 
miles distant from Amheim, has 19,000 inhabitants, and is remarkable for the 
peare concluded here in 1679. On the neighboring ffeath of Mook, the 
adherents of the Prince William of Orange were in 1674 totally defeated by 
the Spaniards. Hardkrwtk, a town on the Zuyder Zee, with 6,200 inhabi- 
tants, was formerly noted for a university founded in 1648. Zctphsn, a town 
on the Yssel, has 11,000 inhabitants, and was anciently the residence of sove- 
reign earls of Zutpben, and in the middle ages a member of the Hanseatic 
I>eagu& In its vicinity is the fine royal palace Het Loo, with a beautiful 
garden and park. Other towns of this province arc : Tkiel (with 6,200 inhab> 



272 EXTROPi; PAST AllH) PRKSENT. 

The Nethertauidwh Provlaces of Overyiiel and Frlesiaad. 

itants), Bmwmid, or SaU-Bommel (with 6,000 inhabitants), KuyUnhurg (with 
6.800 mhabitants), Oromlo, or Orol (with 2,000 inhabitants), Lorfum (with 
1,800 inhabitants), B<>rkelo (with 1,200 inhabitants), ^Doesfrur^ (with 3.500 
inhabitants), Deutichem (with 2,200 inhabitants), Wageninffen (with 4,600 inhab- 
itants), Elbwrg (with 2,600 inhabitants), Nieuwkerk (with 6,000 inhabitants), 
HaUem (with 2,800 inhabitants), S^wenaer^ or iSsvauwr (with 1,000 inhalntants), 
and ffuisaen (with 1,100 inhabitants). 

6. The province of Ovkbtbbel (1,299 square miles, and in 1846 with 211,279 
inhabitants), was anciently, together with Utrecht, under the swaj of a sove- 
reign bishop, and in 1628 purchased by Charles V. and annexed to the duchy 
of Burgundy ; it contains : Zwoll, strongly fortified capital of the provinoe, 
near the Tssel and Yechte rivers, north-eastward and 62 miles distant from 
Utrecht) with 17,600 inhabitants. DsviNTsa, a town on the Yssel, is noted 
for its honey-cakes, and has 16,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province 
are: Caxpen (with 10,000 inhabitants), VolUnhiwen (with 2,200 inhabitants), 
ffasselt (with 1,600 inhabitants), Almelo (with 8,200 inhabitants), Ommen (with 
1,060 inhabitants), Bardenberg (with 8,000 inhabitants), Oldengaal (with 4,800 
inhabitants), £naeheds (with 4,400 inhabitants), and SUenwyk (with 2,600 
inhabitants). 

6. The province of Fbbslano (1,048) square miles, and in 1846 with 
246,266 inhabitants), situated on the North Sea and Zuyder Zee, and sepa- 
rated from East Friesland (belonging to Germany) by the province of Qrmin- 
gen. Friesland, formerly by way of distinction frequently called West Fries- 
land (with reference to East Friesland), anciently formed part of the country 
inhabited by the Frieslanders, and was subsequently ruled by native princes. 
In the period from 1436 to 1628 it was gradually annexed to the duchy of Bur* 
gundy, or the Netherlands. It contains : Lexuwardkn, the capital of the province, 
88 miles north-north-east of Amsterdam, carries on a considerable trade, and 
has 22,600 inhabitants. Franeker, a town, formerly noted for a university, has 
4,800 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are : Haarlingen (with 8,600 
inhabitants), Dokkum (with 8,800 inhabitants), /Sneeit (with 7,600 inhabitants). 
Workum (with 8,600 inhabitants), Hindehpen (with 1,600 inhabitants), 8ta- 
veren (once the largest town of Friesland, and the residence of its princes, 
but at present only with 1,800 inhabitants), BoUward (with 2,800 inhabitants), 
and Heerenveen (with 1,900 inhabitants). Near the coast of Friesland are 
the ielet of Ameland (with 8,800 inhabitants), and Schiermcmnikoog (with 
2.000 inhabitants). 



THE NETHERLANDa 378 

Hie PlrovlDOM ot Gronlngeo, Drenthe and North Brabant. 

*J. The province ot Gkoningen (905i square miles, aad in 1846 with 
189,714 inhabitants), situated between Friesland and the German frontier, on 
the north bounded by the North tiea, was primitayeljr ruled by German 
governors, who in the course of time made themselves independent, and 
eame in 1636 under the sway of the Netherlandish sovereign. It contains : 
GaoNiNGEN, fortified capital of the province, half way between Leeuwardea 
and Emden (the latter town belongs to East Friesland), baa 81,000 inhalm- 
tants, and is noted for its university, its town-hall, and St Martin's church 
with high steeple and excellent organ. Dslpztl, a fortified town on the 
DoUart, with 8,700 inhabitants. The town of Dam, or Apingadam, with 8,600 
inhabitants, is noted for its horse marts. WintdwUni a fortified town on the 
Rensel, with 4,000 inhabitants. RoUvm, a little island near the coast, with 
250 inhabitants. 

8. The province of Drenthe (968 i square miles, and in 1846 with 80,978 
inhabitants), situated between Overyssel and Gelderland, did for a long while 
belong to the German empire, and came in 1686 under the sway of tlie 
Netherlandish sovereign. In the time of the republic, Drenthe was not a 
province, but a territory under the immediate government of the General 
States. It contains : Assen, the capital of the province, on a canal connect- 
ing it with the Zuyder Zee, southward and 16 miles distant from Groningen, 
with 2,800 inhabitanta Frederiktoort is a settlement for the poor, who are 
engaged here in husbandry and other branches of industry, and get in this 
manner amply the means of sustenance. Its population amounts to 2,500 
inhabitants. In the vicinity is situated the town of Mspfzl, with 6,500 in- 
habitants. Koevoerden, a fortified town near the frontier of Germany, with 
2,800 inhabitants. 

9. The province of North Brabant (1,970 square miles, and in 1846 with 
890,886 inhabitants), formerly a constituent part of the ancient duchy of Bra- 
bant, and in the beginning of the I7th century conquered by the Dutch, 
contains : Bois le Dco (this is the French name, while the Dutch call it Eerto- 
ffenbo8eh)t strongly fortified capital of the province, in a plain, intersected by 
canals, 82 miles south-south-east of XJtrecht, with a remarkable church and 
town-hall, numerous manufactures, considerable conmierce, and 21,600 inhab- 
itants. Breda, a strongly fortified town, 28 miles west-south-west of Bois le 
Doc, with 14,500 inhabitants, is noted for its principal church with 2 oi^gans 
and the sepulchres of several earls of Nassau. By the terms of the treaty of 
peace oooclnded here on the 10th of July, 1668, the Netherlandish repuUio 

12* 



t74 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Tbe Kli^doiB of the NeUMriuMls: Its G«ographical DIvWom aad OolooiM. 

ceded the city of New York (then called New Amsterdam) to EoglaiMt 
Other more or leee strongly fortified towns of this province are : Bsaosr op 
Zoom (with 8,000 inhabitants), Gkktkuxdknbero (with 2,000 inhabitantu), 
8Uenbergen (with 4,300 inhabitants), the Klunderi (with 900 inhabitantsX 
Willemtiadt (with 2,000 inhabitants), Heuaden (with 2,100 inhabitants). Grave 
(with 2,800 inhabitants), RaivensUen (with 1,200 inhabitants), and Worhm 
(with 800 inhabitants). £nn>HOTKN, a town on the Dommel, has 4,100 inhab- 
itants, and is noted for its mannfiActcires of cotton goods, linen, etc. The town 
of TxLBOKO (with 13,600 inhabitants) is noted for its doth manufiietares ; and 
the town of Hdmand (with 8,200 inhabitants) for its linen mannfacfeurea. 
OtUrhoutf a boroogfa, with nmnerous potteries, and 7,500 inhabitants. 

10. The dueky of Ldibubo has, as Netherlandish province, an extent of 852 
square mfles, and a population of 198,000 inhabitants, but is divided into two 
districts, of which the one (via. : the district of Roeremoode) is p<diticaUy 
forming part of Oermany^ and, for this reason, to be described under that 
head ; while the other, viz. : the district of Maistuobt (468i square miles, 
and in 1846 with 108,931 inhabitants), forms a constituent part of the king- 
dom of the Netherlands proper, and contains : MAm&ioHT, the capital of 
this district, and one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, on the Meuse, has 
81,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its leather manufiictures, and its quarry in 
St Peter's hill containing not less than 20,000 horizontal galleries, which have 
been cut out here in a period of nearly 2,000 years. The town and fortress of 
Maestricht was conquered by the Dutch in 1682, and ceded to them formally 
in 1648. y cMLoo, a fortified town, on the Meuae, with 7,000 inhabitanta 
About Luxemlmrff, see under the head of Germany. 

To the kingdom of the Netherlands belong the following 
colonies : — 

1. In Asia : the islands of Java, Sumatra, Amboina, and other 
of the Spice Islands, etc., the greatest part of the island of Celebes. 
and settlements on Borneo, the total area of which is computed 
at 97,405 square miles, and the total population at 9,750,000 
inhabitants. 

2. In Africa : settlements on the coast of Upper Guinea, 
estimated at 2,790 square miles, with 200,000 inhabitanta. 

d. In America : the colony of Surinam in Guiana, and ihd 



THE NETHERLANDS. 2li 



Kingdom of Belgium. 



West Indian islands of Curagoa, Si. EusUUius, and two smaller 
ones, the total area of which is estimated at 39,064 sqoare miles, 
and the total population at 101,500 inhabitants. 

That Ceylon, Cape Colony, and Demerara, were likewise Neth- 
erlandish oolonies, but ceded to England in 1814, is already 
mentioned above. 



IL— THE KINGDOM OF BELGIUM. 

Aska: 11,417 fiquaie miles. 
PoFULATioN : 4,850,000 inhabitaDts. 

The population of this kingdom consists (with the exception 
of about 25,000 Protestants, etc.) of Raman Catholics^ under the 
ecclesiastical direction of 1 archbishop (at Mechlin) and 5 bishops 
(at Ghent, Bruges, Toumay, Namur, and Liege), and with nearly 
500 monasteries and nunneries. In point of origin, the majority 
of the people belongs to the great Germanic tribe, and is known 
by the name of Flemings, differing but little from the Dutch, in 
language, customs, and manners. The people in the south, or the 
Walloons, are, for the most part, descendants of the ancient Gauls, 
and speak the French language. 

It has already been remarked, that agricvlture is on a high 
pitch of improvement in Belgium. However, the various branches 
of husbandry are, by far, not the only means of sustenance here, 
as the Belgians do also excel in manufadures ; and, moreover, 
aa Belgium is the most thickly settled country in Europe, the 



27ft EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Kingdom of Beigtum : Its Manuftctortn, Commeroe, etc. 

ratio of population being 381 inhabitants on a square mile, suffi- 
cient com for home consumption cannot be raised, so that, for 
instance, in the years 1842 and 1843 corn was imported at the 
value of 6,600,000 florins. 

The chief objects of manufacture are lace (renowned from 
old : the centres of its fabrication are Brussels and Mechlin ; 
other places noted for it are Bruges, Ghent, and St. Tron ; a 
pound of the finest twisted thread for bone-lace, costs about 2.000 
florins), cloih (especially in the province of Liege), linen (especially 
in Flanders, but also in Brabant and Hainault), cotton goods 
(Ghent, Brussels, etc.), fire-arms^ cutlery, and steam engijies (Liege, 
Namur, Charlcroi), leather (Stable, Liege, and Ghent), and carpets 
(Tournay, etc.). 

Though Belgium possesses, altogether, no more than 128 mer- 
chant vessels, beside some steamers, and therefore its own ship- 
ping is very insignificant, its commerce is of great importance. 
Thus, in 1843, the exports and imports were estimated at the 
value of 516,738,461 francs, viz. : the imports at 294,584,180, and 
the exports at 222,154,281 francs. In 1845, the exports had 
increased by the value of nearly 26,000,000, and the imports (for 
a great part, transit goods and cotton for fabrication) by that of 
57,500,000 florins. 

The prevailing system of education, is more or less impregnated 
with the spirit of Catholicism ; at least, all Catholic schools are 
under the immediate control of the clergy, which, however, does 
not precisely prejudice the instruction itself There are 3 uni- 
versities, viz. : at Louvain (founded in 1426, renewed in 1815 and 
1835, and in 1841 frequented by 660 students), at Ghent (founded 
in 1816, and in 1841 with 340 students), and at Liege (founded in 
1817, and in 1841 with 350 students). Beside these three 
^bearing the Catholic stamp, there was founded in 1837 at Brussels 
a fourth university, as it were, in spite of the Catholic clergy, and 



THE NETHERLANDS. tW 



Kingdom of Belgliun: its Fuwaoes, Army, and HiBtory. 



Styled ^ Free University ;" the number of its students, however, is 
very moderate. The number of the various other schools amounted 
in 1840 to 5,189, but 2,284 of them were private schools, which 
are, for the most part, very defective. 

The govtrnment is a constitutional monarchy, the sovereign 
power being vested in a king, a senate, and a chamber of repre- 
sentatives. 

The public revenue was in 1846 estimated at 126.681,575 francs, 
and the expenditure at 126,459,281 francs. The public debt 
amounted to 317,887,632 francs, on the 1st of January, 1845. 

The army consists of about 32,000 men on the peace, and of 
nearly 86,000 men on the war footing. Except some gun-boats, 
Belgium has no navy. 

In 1832, an arder of honor was created by the name of Leopold 
ordeTj for civil and military officers, in 5 classes. 

History. — ^The eaeential points of Belgian history are ahready stated aboye; 
we will, therefore, only add some particulars. Since the establishment of the 
Netlierlandish republic, towards the end of the 16th century, the southern 
provinces of the Netherlands, continuing to be under the sway of Spain, and 
retaining the Catholic creed, were for this reason commonly styled either the 
Spanish, or the Catholic Netherlands^ and since 1714, when they were ceded 
to Austria, they were known by the name of the Austrian Netherlands. In 
1794, they were conquered by the French, and, by the terms of the treaty of 
peace, concluded at Campo Formio in 1797, formally ceded to them. That 
they in 1814 were restored to Austria, but that this power renounced them 
in favor of the united kingdom of all Netherlands, and that finally this latter was 
dissolved again in consequence of the Belgian revolution of 18S0, has already 
been mentioned. By the terms of an agreement brought about in 1839, the 
grandrduchy of lAtxendmrg was divided between the kingdoms of the Neth- 
erlands and of Belgium, the latter acquiring its western, and the former 
retaining the eastern hal£. In 1881, the Belgians elected Leopold duke of 
Saxe-Coburg (consort of the late British princess Charlotte, who died in 1817^ 
their hereditary king. • 



nn EUROPE, PAST Ain) PRESENT. 

Kiogdom of Belgiain: tbe ProTinoe of Soulh Brabaiit. 

The kingdom of Belginm, since the alterations and arrange- 
ments just mentioned, is divided into 9 provinces. 



1. Hie province of South Brasakt (1,278 square miles, and, acoordtng to 
the census published oo the Ist of January, 1844, with 6&4,758 inhalMtant^), 
towards the centre of the kingdom, bears the appellation of South, in order to 
distinguish It from North Brabant (see under the head of *' Kingdom of the 
Netherlands"), though both these provinces were once constituent parts of 
the andent duchy of Brabant^ to which also belonged the greatest part of 
the present province of Antwerp. This duchy was since the days of the 
Frankiah sway ruled by native dukes, who at first were vaasals of the Gkmiaa 
empire, but made themselves independent in the course of tima About the 
remaining part of its histoiy, see page 264. The province of South Brabant 
contains : Brussels, the metropolis of the kingdom, and royal residence, oo 
the river Senne, westward and 76 miles distant from Aiz la Chapelle, had in 
1846 a population of 124,781 inhabitants, exeltuive of the tuburbSy whose total 
population amounts to more than 40,000 inhabitants. Brussels ranks among 
the finest cities of Europe, and is noted not only for its extensive manufactures 
of lace, carpets, etc^ but also for several of its public edifices, especially for 
its Gothic city hall (&cing the chief market place, where in 1668 the counts of 
Egmont and Hoom were executed), whose steeple is 864 feet high, and the 
St Oudule church, containing pictures by Rubens and other masters of the 
Flemish school Southward and 10 miles distant from Brussels, is situated 
the village of Watbrloo (w}th 1,900 inhabitants), noted for the great battle 
fought on the 18th of June, 1816. Ix>uvain, a town on the Dyle, 16 miles 
east-north-east of Brussels, with 28,000 inhabitants, is noted for its university, 
its churches, and town-halL In the middle ages, Louvain was a city, with 
nearly 200,000 inhabitants, and remarkably flourishing by its doth and other 
woollen manufoctures, that gave employment to more than 160,000 operatives 
But the latter revolted in 1882, and having been punished for it, they mositly 
emigrated to England. The university of Louvain was in the 16th oentuij 
sometimes frequented by 6,000 students. Other towns of this province are : 
Viltforden (with 8,000 inhabitants), TirUmoni, or Tienen (with 8.600 inhabi- 
tants), Wdvre (with 6,600 inhabitants), Nivellet, or NyvH (with 7,700 inhabi- 
tanta), Haidx,(xHaUe (with 6,000 inhabitants), DieH (with 8,000 inhabitants), 
MoniaigUf in Flemish, Seherpenheuvel (with 1,800 inhabitants), Aerwchat (with 



THE NETHERLANDS. M 

The Belgian Proviocei of Antwerp ud Eaat FlAndeii. 



4,000 inhabttants), «nd Hoegaerden (witb 8,000 inhabitantu). Tubm and 
Brtdne-Lalieu, boroughs, with respectively 2,000 and 8,000 inhabitants. 

2. The provtnctf of Antwerp (1,097 square miles, and in 1844 with 886,894 
inhabitants), anciently a constituent part of the duchy of BrabatU, contains: 
Aktwsbp, fortified capital of the province, and the chief commercial city in 
Belgium, on the right bank of the Scheldt (which river is here 2,160 feet 
broad), northward and 28 miles distant from Brussels, has 80,000 inhabitants, 
and is noted for its magnificent Gothic cathedral (whose steeple is 444 feet 
high), its merchant's exchange (reared in 1581, and the most ancient and 
laigest one in Europe), and its citadel (reared in 1667 by the duke of Alba, 
and valorously defended in 1832 by the general Ohassd). Antwerp was 
towards the end of the 16th and during the greatest part of the 16th century 
the emporium of nearly all Europe. At a later period it was the residence 
of Rubens, and other eminent painters of the Flemish school Lm, a town, 
10 miles east^outh-east of Antwerp^ is uoted for its breweries, and has 
14,000 inhabitantsL Herentah and MoogatreUen, towns, with respectively 
8,000 and 1,600 inhabitants. Arendonk (with 2,600 inhabitants), and Oheel 
(with 8,600 inhabitants), boroughs. Mkghlin, a city on the Dyle, half way 
between Antwerp and Brussels, is the residence of the archbishop and Primas 
of Belgium, has a remarkable cathedral (founded in 1260, but not completed 
before the year 1476 ; its steeple is 348 feet high), aud 26,000 inhabitants, 
and is celebrated for its laoe, considered as the finest in Brabant 

8. The province of East Flandebs (1,160 square miles, and in 1844 with 
799,428 inhabitants), which once formed the eastern half of the ancient earl- 
dom of FlanderJt, whose first earl was Baldwin I., who lived in the 9th cen- 
tury. Maigaret, the daughter and heiress of the 24th earl, Louis 11, was in 
1869 married to Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who thus became poft- 
aeesed of all Flanders. This province is the most thickly settled in Belgium, 
and noted for its linen. It contains: Ghknt, the capital of the province 
(anciently also the capital of the earldom), on the Scheldt, 84 miles west- 
south-west of Antwerp, and north-westward and 84 miles distant from Brus- 
aelsy has various remarkable ancient edifices, among them the cathedral, the 
palace where Charles V. was bom in 1600, and a castle, once the residence 
<tf the earls of Flanders and of the dukes of Burgundy, and a population of 
90,000 inhabitantsL Moreover, Ghent is the centre of the Belgian cotton man- 
nfMtures, and is also noted for its trade in flowers. In 1814 the treaty of 
peace between the United States and Great Britain was signed here. Oin»- 



280 EUBOFS; PAST AND PRESENT. 



The Belgian Provinoes of Eaal and Weat Flanders. 



NAAKDB, a fortified town on the Scheldt^ with a remarkable town-hall, and 
6,000 inhabitante. DaNDEaMONDE (in French, TenretHOHde^ or Termonde)^ a 
fortified town at the mouth of the Dender into the Scheldt, is noted for ite 
flax and linen-bleacheries, and has 8,500 inhabitants. Other remarkable 
towns and boroughs of this province are: Ahst^ or AaUt (noted for its hops, 
has 16,000 inhabitants), Oeert»herghni^ in French ChrammorU (with 7,700 in- 
habitants), Ronae^ in French Rcnaix (with 18,00 inhabitants), Ninove (with 
5,000 inhabitants), Deyrue (with 5,000 mhabitonts), JSeeloo{\nih 9,600 inhab- 
itants), Zele (with 11,000 inhabitants), WeUeren (with 9,500 inhabitants), 
Waerschat (with 5,500 inhabitants), Homme (with 8,500 inhabitants), Loiu- 
ren (with 16,500 inhabitants), Beveren (with 5,500 inhabitants), and Rupd- 
monde (noted for its bricks, has 2,500 inhabitants). The town of St. Nikolas 
(with 18,500 inhabitants, and numerous manufactures, especially of leather^ 
is the chief place of the so-called Waeslandt a tract of land noted for its 
highly cultivated soil and its fine flax. The above-stated boroughs of Hamme, 
Lokeren, Beveren, and Rupelmonde are also situated in this tract The for- 
tified borough of Zufyndreckt (with 1,200 inhabitants), on the left bank of the 
Scheldt^ right opposite Antwerp, is considered as the t6te-de-pont of Antwerp, 
and is for this reason also named Ttte df Flandru, or (in Flemish) VlaamMek- 
ffoofd 

4. The province of Wan FLANDxaa (1,257 square miles, and in 1844 with 
659,270 inhabitants), which formed the western half of the ancient earldom 
of Flanders (see above), contains : Beuges, the capital of the province, north- 
westward and 28 miles distant from Ghent, has 45,000 inhatatants, and is 
noted for its cathedral (with the sepulchres of Charles the Bold and his 
daughter Mary), and its numerous manufactures of linen, looe, etc In the 
14th and 15th centuries Bruges was fiunous for its commerce. CouataAY (in 
Flemish, CortTyk)^ a town on the Lys, and near the French frontier, has 20,000 
inhabitants, and is noted for its linen of the finest quality. Coiocnnts, a town 
on the French frontier, has 2,700 inhabitants, and is by the river Lys divided 
into two parts, of which that on the right bank belongs to France since 1714. 
RouLKES (in Flemish, Rouuelaer), a town, with 10,000 inliabitants, is noted 
for its flax and linea Yfxen, in French YprtB^ a fortified town on the little 
river Yperle, with a Gothic town-hall, a remarkable ancient cathedral, lace 
manu&ctures, and 17,500 inhabitants. Ostendb, a fortified maritime town oo 
the North Sea, is much resorted to for sea-bathing, and has 12,500 inhabitants 
Another fortified maritime town is Niedpoet, or Nietewpori (with 8,a00 n»- 



THE NETHERLANDa M. 

The Belgian Proviooea of Weet Flanden, fiainault and Namor. 

habttants), noted in history for a battle in 1600 between the Dutch and Span- 
iards. Veume (in French called J^ytmes), a town near the North Sea, carries 
on a considerable trade in com and provisions, and has 4,800 inhabitants. 
Other towns and boroughs of this province are : Mxknbk, or Menin (is noted 
for its Uce and linen, and has 8,000 inhabitants), Wabneton, or Waetten (also 
noted for its lace, has 6,000 inhabitants), Wenoiek (with 6,800 inhalMtants), 
laeghem (with 9,000 inhabitants), Thielt (with 12,500 inhabitants), Meulebeke 
(with 9,000 inhabitants), Moonele or Moordede (with 4,400 inhabitants), 
Dixinuyden (with 3,500 inhabitants), Poperingen (with 1 1,000 inhabitants), 
Blankenberghe (with 2,000 inhabitants), Thorout (with 8,000 inhabitants), and 
JUehierveldt (with 7,000 inhabitants). 

5. The province of Hainault (1,449 square miles, and in 1844 with 679,536 
Inhabitants), anciently an earldom of the same name, which, however, so early 
as in the 12 th century came under the sway of the earls of Flanders, and 
subsequently under that of the dukes of Burgundy. It contains : Moks (in 
Flemish it is named Bergen\ fortified capital of the province, on the former 
high road between Brussels and Paris, is noted for its coal mines, and has 
24,000 inhabitants. In its vicinity is the village of Jemappes (with 8,000 
inhabitants), noted for a battle in 1792, between the French and the allied 
powers. Ath, a fortified town, on the Dender, is noted for its linen manufac- 
tures, and has 9,500 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are : Roulx 
(with 2,800 inhabitants), Soigniet (with 7,000 inhabitants), Leiuse (with 5,500 
inhabitants), Lesjnnes (with 5,000 inhabitants), Enghien (with 4,000 inhabi- 
tants), Braine le Comte (with 4,700 inhabitants), Binche (with 5,500 inhabi- 
tants), Fontaine PJSviqve (with 2,800 inhabitants), Beaumont (with 1,900 
inhabitants), Chimay (with 3,000 inhabitants), and Ligne (with 2,000 inhabi- 
tants). Thdin, a town on the Sambre, with 4,000 inhabitants, did formerly 
belong to the sovereign bishopric of Liege. CHAaLsaoi, a fortified town, on 
the Sambre, witli 7,500 inhabitants, is noted for its manufactures of fire-arms 
and hardware, and did anciently belong to the earldom of Namur. Tournat 
(in FlemLsh, J)oomik\ a fortified city, on the Scheldt, south-westward and 46 
miles distant from Brussels, is noted for its manufactures of carpets and 
porcelain, and has 30,500 inhabitants. The villages of Fontenay and Fleuna 
are noted for battles at different times. 

6. The province of Namub (1,422 square miles, and in 1844 with 251,326 
inhabitants), chiefly comprising the ancient earldom of Namur^ which in 1421 
"was sold by Earl John III. (who had no descendants) to Philip, duke of 
Burgundy. It contains: NAUua (in Flemish and Dutch, luuned Nmnen), 



288 EITROPB, PAST AND PRBSENT. 

TbB Belglui Provinoes of Namur and Li«g«. 



fortified capital, on tbe Meuse, 86 miles south-eoath-east of Brussels, is noted 
for its fire-arms and cutlery, and has 24,600 inhabitants. Marienhwrg and 
FkUippeviUe^ Uttle but fortified towns, with respectiyely 700 and 1,600 iiihub- 
itant& DiNAMT, a town on the Mouse, is noted for its freestone and marble, 
and has 6,600 inhabitants. Other towns and boroughs of this fH-ovince ure: 
Bintvignea (with 1,600 inhabitants), Waleowrt (with 1,100 inhalutants), Roclufort 
(with 1,200 inhabitants), Andenne (with 4,600 inhabitants), and Oembhux 
(with 2,000 inhabitants). The village of lAgny^ 18 miles south-south-east of 
Waterloo, is noted for 'a battle on the 16th of June, 1816 (but two days 
previous to the battle of Waterloo), in which the Prussians were defeated by 
the French. 

7. The pnmnce of Liiaa (1,128 square miles, and in 1844 with 426,768 
inhabitants), between South Brabant and the Prussian Rhenish province, com- 
prising in substance the territory of the ancient aovereign hUhoprie of lAege^ 
which was established in the city of Liege in the beginning of the 8th century 
by St Hubertus, and was an actual member of the German empire untQ 
towards the end of last century, when it was conquered by the Frendi, 
together with the Catholic Netherlands, with which it has since continued to 
be united. It contains: Lucob (in Flemish and Dutch, named Lmk\ the 
capital, at the junction of the Ourthe and Meuse, 64 miles eastrsonth-east of 
Brussels, and 28 miles west-south-west of Aix la Chapelle, has a stroQglj 
fortified citadel, a renmrkable cathedral, and 78,000 inhabitants, and is fiunod 
for its fire-arms, cannon foundry, iron works, and coal mines. The neighboriDg 
village of Seraing (with 8,600 inhabitants) is noted for its manufactures of 
steam eng^es, etc. The ancient abbey of 8t. Lambertihal is at present noted 
for one of the most considerable glass manufiu^tures. The borough of Hxbstaj.l 
(6 miles north-east of Liege, with iron works, and 6,600 inhabitants) is renuu-k- 
able as the ancestral seat of tlie Franki^ Majordomus Pipin of HerttetU, 
great^andfatfaer of Charlemagne. VRBViEas. a town on the Wese, half-waj 
between Liege and Aix la Chapelle, has 21,000 inhabitants, and is celebrated 
for its numerous and excellent cloth numu£actures. Hie boroughs of Thenr 
(with 8,600 inhabitants) and Olons (with 2,000 inhabitants), are noted, the 
former for its iron foundry and marble, and the latter for its manufieictures of 
straw hats. Spa, a town, south-eastward and 18 miles distant from Lie^e, 
and 20 miles south-south-west of Aix la Chapelle, has 8,800 inhabitants, and 
is celebrated for mineral waters, which are also to be found in the neig;fa- 
boring village of Chaudfontaine. The town of Hut (on the Meuse, between 
Liege and Namur, with 8,000 inhabitants) is noted for ita mountam castle, and 



THE NETH£RLAin)S. 288 

The Belglaii ProTlnoes of Liege, Ltmburg and Lnxembui^. 

romantic eoyiroiiB. The town of Viw, or Weset, od the Meuse, with 2,200 
inhabitants, baa likewise romantic enyirons. The town of LncBuaa (noted for 
its cheese and doth mannfitctures, and with 2,200 inhabitants) did not belong 
to the bishopric of Liege, but was formerly the capital of the ancient duchy 
of Lhnburg (whose history will be found under the head of Germany), to 
which also belonged the towns of fferve (noted for its cheese, and with 8,500 
inhabitants), Dalhem (with 900 inhabitants), and ffodimont (with 1,500 inhabi- 
tants). To the ancient duchy of Brabant did belong the towns of Stablo 
(with very considerable leather manufactures, and 8,700 inhabitants), UamU 
(with 1,000 inhabitants), and Landen (with 1,050 inhabitants). 

8. The province of Limburg (987 square miles, and in 1844 with 177,184 
inhabitants) has, but for the name, nothing in conunon with the ancient duchy 
of Limburg (whose history will be found under the head of the Netherlandish 
German states), but does only comprise parts of the territory formerly 
belonging to the hithoprie of Liegey containing : Hasselt, the capital of this 
province, on the Demer, north-westward and 14 miles distant from Mastricht^ 
with 7,400 inhabitants. St. Tron (in Flemish, St. Trujen), a town, south- 
westward and 9 miles distant from Hasselt, is noted for its manufactures of 
lace and fire-arms,, and has 9,000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province 
are : Tongem (with 5,600 inhabitants), BiUen (with 8,000 inhabitants), Maaaeyh 
(with 4,200 inhabitants), Looz, or JBorchloen (with 1,400 inhabitants), and 
Beeekem (with 1,000 inhabitants). 

9. The province of Luxxmnma (1,704 square miles, and in 1844 with 
180,709 inhabitants), comprising the western half of the ancient duchy (at 
present grand-duchy) of Luxemburg (see above, in the History of Belgium : 
the history of this duchy, or grand-duchy, will be found under the head of 
Germany), and containing : Aulon, the capital of this province, amidst ezten- 
aive forests, 14 miles westrnorth-west of the city of Luzembui*g, with leather 
manufactures, and 4„000 inhabitants. Other towns of this province are: 
Battogne (with 2,600 inhabitants), Marehe eti Famine (with 1,600 inhabitants), 
St. Hubert (with 1,600 inhabitants), La Roche (with 1,000 inhabitants), Neuf 
chateau (with 1,600 inhabitants), Chiny (with 1,150 inhabitants), and Viel 
Balm (with 2,900 inhabitants, and the ruins of the castle of Salm^ the ancestral 
seat of the German princes and earls of Salm). Bouillon, a fortified town 
near the French frontier, with 2,800 inhabitants, and a mountain castle, anciently 
the residence of the renowned leader of the first army of crusaders, and first 
long of Jerusalem (in 1099), Godfrey of Bouillon. This town was formeriy 
the capital of a duchy of the same name. 



GERMANY. 

Akba : 244,876 square miles. 
PoFULAxioN ; 42,000,000 inhabitante. 

Germany is sitnated in the centre of Europe, between 55^ 
and 45^ north latitude, and between 5° 45' and 19° 45' east 
from Greenwich. On the north it is bounded by the North and 
Baltic Seas and by Denmark ; on the south by the Adriatic Sea, 
Italy and Switzerland ; on the east by Hungary and the Polish 
provinces of Russia, Prussia, and Austria ; and on the west by 
France and the Netherlands. 

The distance between Germany and GribraUar is nearly equal to 
that between Germany and Moscow, viz. : more than 1000 miles ; 
and to Stockholm in Sweden it is just about as far as to Naples in 
Italy. 

In the northern and western parts of Germany the surface is 
more or less level ; the southern and eastern parts are traversed 
by the mountain ranges described pages 6-8 ; and towards the 
southern extremity branches of the JJps are running in an east- 
erly direction. 

About the rivers and lakes of Germany, see Introduction to 
Europe, ^^ 9 and 10, pages 11, 13, 16 and 17. 

The climate is both moderate and healthful throughout Ger- 
many. 

Though the country is intersected by about 60 navigable riv- 
ers, which thus would afford the greatest facility of connecting 
them one to another by canals, the latter are rather few in num- 



GERMANY. 286 



Natoral Products. 



her. The principal and most useful canal is the so-called Lauit 
Canal, crossing the northern half of Bavaria and uniting the 
Rhine with the Danube. This deficiency is however amply com- 
pensated by numerous public roads and rail-roads, which latter 
are at present crossing almost every German country. 
The chief natural products of Germany are the following : 

CcttN, which not only is raised sufficiently for home coDsomptioii, but even 
fur ezportatioa For the soil is generaily fertile, and agricultare is carried 
on with diligence and great skill. Wins, especially along the Rhine and 
most of its tributaries, and in the German provinces of Austria. Timbkb, 
' which is exported in considerable quantities from the southern and middle 
parts of Germany. The mountain ranges are generally covered with exten- 
Rtve forests ; hence the final syllable toald (forest) in the proper names of so 
many of them ; for instance, Schwarzwald (Black Forest), Odenwald, Boeh- 
merwald, etc. FruiUf in great variety, and partly in immense quantities. 
jFYdUB, which is cultivated throughout Germany, but especially in Silesia, 
Bohemia, Moravia, Westphalia, etc. Moreover hops (the best quality is to 
be found in the northern part of Bavaria, and in Bohemia), and hemp 
(chiefly in the kingdom of Hanover). — Horsbs, more than 6,000,000 in 
number, and for the most part of excellent breed. Those of Mecklenburg, 
Hanover, Holstein, and Oldenburg, rival the finest T*^gli««h horses, and are 
even frequently superior to them, if perhaps not in swiftness on the tur^ but 
in other more useful qualities. Nearly the whole remount of the French 
army b supplied with German horses. Cattle, whose total number of heads 
amounts to more than 15,000,000 (double the amount of the cattle in France), 
and the finest breed of which is reared in Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, £ast Fries- 
land, Holstein, Oldenburg, Dessau, and Mecklenburg. Shbsp, about 80,000,000 
in number, and at present for the most part of improved breed ; for which 
reason their wool is one of the chief staplea Mcxft (more than 8,000,000) 
are reared in vast numbers in Westphalia (noted for its excellent hams), Ba- 
varia, etc Moreover, Germany abounds in game^/owUy bees (great quantities 
of wax and honey are exported), etc — Silver, extracted from the mines in 
Saxony, Bohemia, Hanover, and Prussia, to the annual amount of between 
160,000 and 200,000 marks. Iron (more than 4,000,000 quintals annually) ; 
TiH (especially in Bohemia and Saxony); Copfsb (about 80,000 quintals an- 



EUROPE^ PAST AND PRESENT. 



Maaulkctorefl mad Commeroe of Germaay. 



noally); Quioksiltke (in Illyria); Lkad (nearly 200,000 quintals); and 
abore all, Salt, of which about 5 million quintals are annually made. llMre 
is perhaps no country where minereU springs of any description are more 
abundant than in Germany, where mcxreoTer the spas, or watering-places, 
especially those of Bohemia, Silesia, Bavaria, Baden, and Nassau, are every 
year, in the summer season, visited by foreigners firom various parts of 
Europe in quest of health or pleasureii 

The German manufactures are important and Tarious, and 
their chief articles are the following : linen (the finest qnalitieB 
in Silesia, Bohemia, Lusatia, and Westphalia), icaoUen goods 
(especially in the Bhenish province of Prussia, and moreover in 
Moravia, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Saxony), caUon goods (above 
all in the kingdom of Saxony, and at Berlin, Elberfeid, Barmen, 
in Bohemia and Lower Austria), silks (especially in Orefeld and 
Berlin, which moreover are famed for their vdvet; in Vienna, in 
the southern part of Tyrol, etc.), hardware^ cutlery^ and fire-arwu 
(in the Bhenish province of Prussia, in some parts of Westpha- 
lia and of the Prussian province of Saxony, in Austria, etc.), 
leather (Malmedy is famous for it, but also some places in Bohe- 
mia, Silesia, etc.), porcelain (the porcelain manu&ctures of Ber- 
lin, Vienna, and Meissen may be considered as the finest in 
Europe), glass (no country in the world fabricates so much glaaa 
as Germany, especially Bohemia is celebrated for it), musical m- 
slrumeTUs (first-rate pianos are constructed not only in Vienna, 
Augsburg, Prague, and other cities, but even in villages of the 
southern and middle parts of Germany ; excellent violins, espe- 
cially in Tyrol), gold- and silver-smithes wares (in which excel, 
Augsburg, Vienna, Berlin, and Breslau), and finally, optical^ ekir 
rurgicalj and other similar instruments^ which are partly superior 
to those of England or France. 

In coMHERCE, Germany is surpassed by Great Britain, Franoe, 
and Bussia, nevertheless it is carried on to a great extent, eape- 



GSRMAirr. M7 



Commerce, Trade, sod Means of Edocalion. 



cially by Hamburg^ Bremen^ and Trieste^ and next to them, by 
Altona, Lubeck, Stettin, Stralsnnd, Bos took, Wismar, Kiel, and 
Emden. The chief exports are : grain, timber, wool, linen, hard- 
ware, lead, sine, qnicksilver, glass, salt, woollen and cotton goods, 
horses, cattle, and batter (the latter, especially, from Holstein 
and Mecklenburg). The inland trade is very considerable, and 
the principal cities and towns engaged in it are, Vienna, Leipsio, 
Cologne, Elberfeld, Magdeburg, Berlin, Breslau, Prague. Augs- 
burg, Frankfort on the Mayne, Frankfort on the Odor, Botxen, 
Laibach, etc. 

The Ukrary itistittUiatis in Germany, are both numerous and 
celebrated. The universities, all on a large scale, and comprising 
the four faculties of theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and phi- 
losophy (inclusive astronomy, etc.), are so eminently arranged, 
and answer the purpose so well, that they are much resorted to, 
even from other countries. At present, there are 28 univeksities 
on this scale in Germany, viz. : — 

Five in the German provinces of Austria : at Prague (founded 
in 1348), Vienna (in 1365), Olmutz (in 1581), Gratz (in 1486), and 
Injispruek (in 1672). 

Five in the German provinces of Prussia: at Gfreifswald (founded 
in 1456), HaUe (in 1694), Breslau (in 1702), Berlin (in 1810), and 
Bonn (in 1818). 

Three in Bavaria: at Wurtzburg (founded in 1403), Erlangen 
(in 1743), and Munich (in 1826). 

Two in Baden: at Heidelberg (founded in 1386), and Freiburg 
(in 1457). 

One in Saxony: at Ldpsic (founded in 1409). 

One in Mecklenburg: at Rostock (founded in 1419). 

One in Wirtemberg: at TulnngeTi (founded in 1477). 

One in Hesse-Gassel : at Marrburg (founded in 1527). 

One in Saxe- Weimar : at /e»a (founded in 1557). 



t88 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Pabllc Libraries, Pletnre Galleries, etc., and Schools In Gennaoj. 



One in Hesse-Barmstadt : at Giessen (founded in 1607). 

One in Holstein : at Kiel (foanded in 1665). 

One in Hanover: at Goeitingen (founded in 1737). 

(Towards the end of last century, there were, moreover, uni- 
versities at Erfurt, Wittenberg, Frankfort on the Oder, Helmst&dt, 
Binteln, Duisburg, Altdorf, and in 18 other places, which, however, 
since have been abolished, or united with others.) 

The pvJblic lidra/ries are likewise on a large scale, and while there 
are about 50 of them, which contain more than 25,000 volumes 
each, there are nearly as many that contain above 100,000 volumes. 
So, for instance, at Munich there is one with 600,000, and another 
with 160,000 volumes; the royal library at Berlin numbers 
500,000, the imperial at Vienna 350,000 volumes ; beside these, 
there are public libraries at Dresden (with 220,000), Goettingen, 
(with 300,000), Hamburg (with 200,000), Stuttgart (with 200,000), 
Wolfenbttttel (with 190,000), Prague (with 130,000), Weimar 
(with 120,000), Darmstadt, Frankfort, Breslau (with 200,000 
volumes), etc., etc. 

Munichy Vienna^ Berlin^ Dresden, and Goettingen^ iQ&y> ^>^ some 
regard, be considered as central points of sciences and arts, not 
only with regard to Germany, but also to other countries. Highly 
distinguished are the picture galleries in Dresden, Vienna, Monchen, 
and Berlin (that of Dusseldorf is since the year 1806 removed to 
Munich), the cabinets of ruUural curiosities in Vienna, Prague, 
Munich, Berlin, Goettingen, and Hamburg, and the observatories 
in Berlin, Vienna, Goettingen, Munich, Prague, and near Gotfaa. 

No country can rival Germany in the general diffusion of 
knowledge; and common school education is the more widely 
extended, as parents are forced by the law to send their children 
to school, or at least to give evidence of having in a suitable 
manner provided for their education. The children of the poor 
enjoy, of course, the benefits of instruction, free from ezpensea 



GERMANY. 280 



The Cooimon School System of Oennaoj. 



The total number of children frequenting the common schools in 
Germany, amounts to more than 6,000,000. The common public 
schools in the kingdom of Saxony, for instance, were in 1840 
frequented by 303,506 children, and those of Prussia in 1843 fre- 
quented by 2,328,146 children ; and as in 1840 the total popuk- 
tion of Saxony was 1,709,880, and that of Prussia in 1843 was 
15,471,765 inhabitants, it is impossible to imagine, with regard 
to common school education, a more just ratio between school- 
children and adults (inclusive of infants), than this, which is one 
to five, or six. About 1 5,500,000 Prussian dollars are, in Germany, 
annually bestowed upon this branch of school education ; and the 
927 teachers in the common public schools of Saxony, for instance 
(where, as in other German countries, most of these schools are 
in the villages of the peasantry), receive a salary of respectively 
120, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700, Prussian dollars, 
which, ihere^ is equal to as many American dollars. But while 
they thus are placed in a situation more or less free from cares 
for sustenance, they are not allowed to occupy any teachership 
without having previously been carefully instructed in the so^alled 
school-seminaries, and given evidence of solid knowledge in a 
rigorous examination. That with these arrangements scarcely 
none above six years old are to be found throughout Germany, 
who cannot read, and but very few who cannot write, is not to be 
wondered at. Some years ago, there were among 122,897 men 
of the standing Prussian army, only two soldiers who could not 
write, and these were not Germans, but Poles from the province 
of Posen. The particulars about the higher schools, will be found 
in the description of the various German states ; and it may only 
be remarked here, that the total number of Ij/cea in Germany 
amounts to nearly 100, of gymnasia to more than 400, of so-called 
Latin schools to about 800, and of school seminaries to nearly 1,100. 
(About the signifioation of these terms, see the note page 65.) 

13 



290 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

CharaclerUUc of the Geiman Scholars in fenenl. 

Many of the learned men in OermaDy are, indeed, distuiguiabed for their 
attainments in literature and scienoe, but in general only in philology, history^ 
pathology and other branehee of mediccU aciencey juriaprudeneef mineralogy^ 
and metallurgy; while in nearly all other scientific branches, the learned men 
of other European countries rival, and, even in some points, by &r surpass 
them. This deficiency is chiefly owing to an unlucky tendency to hihUola- 
try, which much prevails among the (German 8cholar& They are more or 
less filled with the wrong idea, that all and every knowledge may be acquired 
from books, even the art of ship-building, for instance. Indeed there are 
many scientific branches, which can and must be learned chiefly from printed 
books; but for obtaining a sound judgment, it is indispensable to study, at the 
same time, the open book of practical life. About eighty years ago, it became 
fashionable to babble after the manner of atheistical philosophers of the 
Voltaire school, and since that time, not only Rationalism sprung up in the 
province of theology, but also other theories and hypotheses of the most 
nonsensical kind were brought forward in Germany. Thus, for instance, one 
scholar, named Ballenstddt, pretended that the human race had sprung from 
a primitive slime, or mud, that had been quickened by electric flashes and 
thunder claps ; another, of the name of Wagner, has, by a profound study in 
his closet, discovered that our globe is an animal, whose sweat presents itself 
in the evaporation of the waters, while its circulation of the blood makes 
itself known by the tide 1 Even in recent times, several German natunlista 
still harbor the opinion, that man is properly nothing else but a monkey fully 
developed, and has descended either from the Orang Outang in Borneo, or 
from the Boggo (Pan Africanus) in Guinea ! Had these learned men, who 
never have been much out of doors, compared monkey skulls with human 
skulls, and, above all, carefully studied the natural history of these animals, 
they would long since have been restored to reason, and become sensible of 
the palpable truth, that a brute can never become a rational being, and that» 
for this same reason, monkeys will still remain monkeys, even if those scholars 
should be foolish enough to try to instruct or educate them. How far the 
constructors of philosophical systems in Germany have gone, may be inferred 
from the fact, that Mr. Michelet, professor of philosophy in the uni?ersity o( 
Berlin, boldly maintains, in his works and lectures, the following proposition : 
** What we call God, is nothing else but human culture in its highest potency I" 
Whoever has troubled himself with reading the debates in the so-called 
Oerman parliament) which gave up the ghost last summer, will haye bad 



G£BMANT. 291 



Origin and B«ligion of the Gennnot. 



ample opportamty to notice the total lack of practicel capacity oo the part 
of Gknnaa bookworms and shallow literati Fortonately there are also a 
great many eminent and devout theologians, as well as philosophers endowed 
^witfa sound judgment ; and by these and the common sense of the German 
nation in general, those bookworms are at least prerented fiom doing more 
miachief than they haye already done. 

In point of origin, the majority of the population belongs to 
the great family of the Germanic tribe, while about 6 or 7 million 
inhabitants of north-eastern, eastern, and south-eastern provinces 
belong to the Slamc tribe (see Introduction to Europe, $12, pages 
1 8 and 19). These latter are known by the names of Wenden and 
Kassuben (in Pomerania), of Sorben (in Lusatia, etc.), Czeohen 
(in Bohemia), etc. ; however, with the exception of the tribe in 
Bohemia, they have assimilated themselves almost entirely to 
other Germans. 

In point of religion, Catholicism is previuling in the southern 
half of Germany, and Protestantism in the northern. The num- 
ber of Roman Catholics is between 22 and 23 millions, and that of 
ProUstcmU amounts to more than 18 millions. Since the year 
1817 the Lutherans and JReformists in Prussia, Baden, Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Nassau, and the Bavarian Palatinate have united 
into one common church, styled Evangelical. But in Saxony, 
Hanover, Mecklenburg, and Holstein, the Lutheran, and for in- 
stance, in Hesse-Cassel the Beformed religion still prevails. The 
number of Jews in Germany amounts to about 500,000. 

Before entering into German history, it may be suitaUe to 
give some particulars with regard to the ancient German Mmpire, 
which was formally dissolved in 1806. Officially it wi^ styled 
either the Hdy Roman, or the Roman Ghrman Empire. The 
term ^* Boman" had reference to the historical fact, that the first 
wearer of the German imperial crown, viz. : Charlemagne, was 
orowned Boman emperor (see History of Europe, ^14, page 31). 



SM EtTBOPE, FAST AND PRESENT. 

Biitorlcal P&rtienlan about the ancient Gormna Empire. 

The term ^ Holy" rested upon the opinion of the emperor being 
the protector and defender of the holy see and of all Christen- 
dom. The States of Empire (Beichsst&nde), nominally 1762, 
or at least 376, yet actually only 221 in number, consisted of 
independent (L e., in local affiurs), or immediate (reiohsonmittel- 
bar) archhishops, bishops^ (Mois, provosts (Beichsprdbste), duchies, 
margraviates, principalities^ earldoms, lordships, and imperial cities 
(ReichsstAdte). Besides these, there were certain territories be- 
longing to knighthood (rittershaftliche Gebiete), imperial villages 
(Reichsddrfer), etc. Most of these States formed part of those 
10 circles, into which G-ermany was divided since the days of 
Emperor Maximilian I., for the purpose of maintaining public 
peace and order, and ezecutinff sentences of the supreme ooxuts 
of the Empire with armed force, in case of necessity. They 
were organized in a similar manner as the empire itself^ but bad 
for the rest no political power. These 10 circles were the fol- 
lowing : 

1. The Austrian dreUy comprising the present €^erman provinoee of Ant- 
tria» with the ezoeptioD of Bohemia, Moravia and Aiutrian Silesia. 

2. The Burffundian ctrv/tf, camprising the present kingdom of Belgium, 
with the exception of the ancient bishopric of liege, which belonged to the 
WestphalJBD circle. The political connection between the Boigundian cirde 
and the German empire was however only a nominal one. 

8 The Lower Bhenith circle, comprising the former three eodeelasUca] 
electorates of Mentc, Treves, and Cologne, the electoral Palatinate, etc. 

4 The Upper MkerUah circle^ comprising Hesse Caasel, the greatest part of 
Hesse-Darmstadtt the Bavarian palatinate, the imperial cities of FnakSott, 
Worms, Spire, etc 

6. The ^atikUh eirele, comprising the greatest part of the northern half 
of the present kingdom of Bavaria, etc 

6. The Bavarian circle, comprising the southern half of the present king- 
dom of Bavaria. 

7. The BwMan eirde, comprising the dnchy of Wfaiemberg, the margm- 



GERMANY. 898 



Gennaay: Its asctont Geographical DlvUiooa. 



▼iate of Baden, the prindpelities of HohenaoUern, and in tafastance the Sw»- 
bian district of the fvesent kingdom of Bavaria. 

8. The Wettphaliau' circle, oomjHrisiDg the present Pmssian province of 
Wes^ihaiia, and some parts of &e Rhenish province (Elberfeld, Dusseldori^ 
Cleve, Aix la Ohapelle, etc), moreover, the bishopric of Liege, some parts of 
the present kingdom of Hanover (Osnabrtlck, Yerden, etc.), etc 

9. The Upper 8axon circle, comprising the present Saxon kingdom, grand- 
duchy and duchies, the present Prusian provinces of Brandenburg, Pomera- 
nia (with some exceptions) and Saxony, the principalitiee of Scfawanburg, etc. 

10. The Zower Siuson circle, c«nprising the greatest part of the present 
kingdom of Hanover, Bronswick, Mecklenburg, Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen, 
liubec, etc 

The abov&mentioned states of the empire were since the latter half of the 
llth century Beld(»n or never personally present at the Diet, but were repre- 
sented there by plenipotentiaries. According to the terms of the constitution, 
the diet was to be convoked at least every tenth year, but since the year 1663 
it was permanent) and held its sessions at JiaUtbon (on the Danube and in the 
present kingdom of Bavaria). The supreme judicial power was vested in 
two imperial tribunals, via. : the Imperial Chamber (Reichskammergeridit) 
at Wetzlar, and the Imperial Avlic Council (Reichshofrath) in Yienna. 

If not exactly since its existence, but at least since ttie death of the last 
German Carolingian, Louis IIL, or since the year 911, the German empire was 
Dot a hereditary, but an elective monarchy. The right and privilege of elect- 
ing the emperor was exclusively vested in the elkotobs, l e., those most 
powerful states of the empire that had exercised this right from the b^in- 
ning. Primitively they were only 7 in number (viz. : the electors of Mentz, 
7Vevee, Cologne, Bohemia, Palatinate, Saxony, and Brandenbwrg), but in the 
17 th century two others (of Bavaria and Bruntwick-IAinebwrg) were added 
to them. The principal elector was the archbishop of Mentz. llie election 
of the emperor took place at Frankfort on the Mayne, where at the same 
time (since the year 1564) the emperor was crowned by the archbishop and 
elector of Mentz. Though the emperor was the nominal sovereign of all 
Germany, he was in the exercise of his executive power restricted even nu>re 
than the king or queen of Great Britain. 

In consequence of the conquests of the French on the left bank of the 
Riune, and the treaty of Luneville in 1801, the German empire underwent 
mjuxy substantial alterations. The archbishops of Treves and Cologne not 



3^4 EtTROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Eocant Folltleal CSiaiiges in Qermauj, 



only were deprived of their territories, but also of tlieir character as actual 
electora. The elector of Mentz was restricted to his principality of ABchaflfrm- 
burg OD the Mayne. In short, all German territories on the left bank of the 
Rhine were to be ceded to France, and in order to indemnify their princes, 
the sovereign bishoprics, etc^ were secularized and divided differently. 

But for these alterations, the German empire retained its ancient forms and 
dganicatioD. Tet, in 1806, Napoleon induced the majority oi the German 
princes to unite into a confederation, which was styled the BhenUh Oottfethro' 
turn. As by this arrangement the Geiman empire had actually ceased to 
ezist, the emperor, then Francis IL, did on the 6th of August^ 1806, proclaim 
its formal dissolution. 

In 1806 and 1807, Napoleon created the following new states in Germany, 
viz. : — 1. The grarMtuehy of Berg, which was first given to Murat^ Napoleon*s 
brother-in-law, and in 1809 to Napoleon's nephew; it comprised the ancient 
duchy of Berg, and several parts of Westphalia, and had in 1809 an area of 
6,709| square nules, and a population of 878,167 inhabitants. 2. The gramd- 
duchy of Wurzburg, which in 1806 was given to the former grand-<luke of 
Tuscany, Ferdinand Joseph (see History of Tuscany). It had, in 1808, an 
area of 1,661 square miles, and a population of 256,831 inhabitants, and 
consisted of the secularized sovereign bishopric of Wfirzburg. 8. The kin^fdom 
of WntphaHOf in 1807 created and given to Napoleon's brother Jerome^ It 
had then an extent of 14,826 square miles, with 1,912,808 inhabitants, and 
comprised the greatest part of Hesse-Oassel and Hanover, Brunswick; and 
many parts of the present Prussian province of Saxony, and district of Miwi^^^^ 
Its capital and royal residence was CasseL 4 The grandduehy of Fntmkforty 
i^ush comprised, besides the city of this name, the principality of Ajschafien- 
burg (see above), and the districts of Hanau and Fulda, and waa in 1809 
created in fiivor of the above-mentioned former archbishop and elector of 
Mentz, Charles Theodore of Dalberg. It had an extent of 1,874 square milei^ 
and E population of 800,000 inhabitants. 

After the political eyents in 1814 and 1815, these new creations 
disappeared, and the respective territories were restored to their 
former sovereigns ; other sovereigns, who until then had retidDed 
their sovereignty, were mediatized,* and, according to the tenor 

* That la, their territories were annexed to larger neighborii^ states, under 



aBRMANT. 895 



ne Gemum ConfederattoD of 1815-4B. 



of a treaty ooncladed at Vienna on the 8th of June, 1815, a union 
of the several German states was formed by the name of Germanic 
GoNFEDEKATioN, the object of whioh was to provide for mutual 
safety and defence. Each state was independent within itself, 
but for general purposes the whole was governed by the Diet, a 
body composed of plenipotentiaries from the different states, and 
residing at Frankfort on the Mayne. On the 5th of November? 
1816, the Diet held its first session. It was voted, according to 
circumstances, either in a committee, or in full session. The 
Austrian plenipotentiary presided. Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, etc., 
had each one vote ; while of the smaller states, several together had 
one vote in common. The order of succession was the following : — 

Austria, having in the eommittee, 1 Tote* 

Pruaaia, « " 1 « 

Bavaria, ** ** 1 « 

Saxony, • •* 1 * 

Hanover, « •* 1 « 

TVirtembeig, • * 1 " 

Baden, « « 1 *« 

Hease-Casael, « « 1 « 

Hesse-Darmstadt and Hesse-Homburg, together, " *t i u 

Denmark (on account of Holstein and Lauenburg), ** « | « 

Ketherland (on account of Luxemburg and Limbuig), *' a | « 

Saxe- Weimar and the S Saxon duchies, together, " » i u 

Mecklenburg-Schverin and M. Strelitz, . « « x '* 

Brunswick and Nassau, .... ** ** . 1 ** 

Oldenburg, Anhalt, and Schwarzhurg, " ** L " 
HohenxoUem, Liechtenstein, Reuss, Schaumburg- 

lippe, Lippe-Detmold, and Waldeck, . ** « i u 

liubeck, Hamburg, Bremen, and Frankfort, " u i u 

Total in the committee . . 17 ** 



whose sovereignty they themselves were pUiced, whUe they in substance 
retained their independence in local affiurs. 



M« 



EUBOPB, PASrr AND PRESENT. 



Orgtniatlon of the former Garmaii Diet 


The BO-called pleimm, or fiill seBsion, was 


held whenever the 


qnestion was of fundamentftl laws of the Confederation, or 


arrange- 




in this plenum waa 


voted in the following order of snooession : — 






Austria^ hayiiigiiithepleiiiim,4ToieB. 


Pruasia, 






* u 


4 « 


Sazonj) . • • . 






t u 


4 « 


Bavaria, . . • < 






t H 


4 - 


Hanover, . • • • 






> « 


4 « 


Wirtembeigy 






• U 


4 « 


Baden, • • • 






■ ff 


S « 


Hesse-Cassel, . • 






> 41 


S « 


Hesse-Dannstadi, 






> U 


S « 


Holstein-Lauenburg, . 






1 « 


s - 


Liucemburg-Iimbui^, . 






I « 


8 « 


BruDBwick, . 






i « 


2 « 


Mecklenburg-Scfaweriii, 






i « 


2 « 


Nassau, .... 






1 u 


2 ** 


Saxe-Weimar, . • « 






1 a 


1 ** 


Saze-Coburg-Gotha, • , 






1 « 


1 ** 


Saze-Meiningeii, . • , 






1 ff 


1 * 


Saxe- Altenburg, . 






( « 


1 *" 


Mecklenbaig-Streli^ . 






1 m 


1 ** 


Oldenbufg,. 






I u 


1 " 


Anhali-Dessau, . 






t M 


1 ** 


Anhalt-Bernburg, 






( a 


1 ** 


Aobalt-Kothen (siDce Nov., 1847, 


.beoomeyoid), * 


1 tt 


1 ** 


Schwarzbargf-Sonderehausen, 




( a 


1 ** 


Schwarsbur^Rudoktadt, . 




f « 


1 ** 


Hohenzollern-HechingeD, , 






1 a 


1 ** 


Iiiechtenstein, . 






1 H 


1 ** 


Hoheiixolleni-SigiiiariiigeD, , 






1 u 


1 ** 


Waldeck, . 






1 a 


1 ** 


Reuss, elder line, . , 






1 M 


1 ** 


Reuse, younger line, . 






( « 


1 • 


Schaumburg-Lippe, . 






M 


1 « 



GERMAKT. S9V 

The Sapranw TritnuMlp Id Genaany. 

Lippe-Detmold, haTing in the plenum, 1 yoie. 

Lubcck. « u I u 

Frankfort* •* « 1 a 

Bremen, « tc j « 

HambuTg, * "1 

Hesse-Homborg, " "I 






Total in the plenum, 69YotesL 

Since the dissolution of the ancient German empire, there are 
no supreme courts for all Germany more, but the larger states 
have their own, while the smaller German states have supreme 
courts in common. Thus, the Saxon grand-auchy and duchies, 
together with the principalities of Reuss, have a supreme court 
at Jetui in common ; the duchies and principalities of Anhalt and 
Schwarzburg at Zerbst ; the grand-duchies of Mecklenburg at Ros- 
tock ; Brunswick and the principalities of Lippe and Waldeck at 
WdffenbiUtd^ and the 4 Free Cities (Hamburg, etc.) at Lubeck; 
while Liechtenstein appeals to the supreme court at Initspruck, 
Hesse-Homburg to that of Darmstadt, and the principalities of 
Hohenzollem to that of Stuttgart. The strength of the confed- 
eraJL army was in 1830 fixed at 303,484 men. 

History of Qermany. — Little or nothing b known of German history ante- 
rior to about 100 years before our Christian era. The country was known to 
the Romans by the name of Germania, and its southern and western parts 
conquered by them, especially Rhaetia (comprising in substance the present 
Tyrol), Vinddicia (South Bavaria and the south-eastern part of the present 
kingdom of Wirtemberg), and NorUwn (arch-duchy of Austria, Stjria, Carin- 
tbia, and part of Carniola). The chief German tribes, mentioned by the 
Romanf), were the Cimbriawt (whose principal seat was in Jutland), TeuiotuM 
(in Mecklenburg), CfuUts (chiefly in Hesse), Chertuks (in the centre of the 
present kingdom of Hanover and Lippe-Detmold), and Marcomana (in Bohe- 
mia). About the VandalSy SuevianSj etc., see History of Europe, § 3, page 
24b The ancient Germans were ruled by natiye princes electe4 out of fflxm 

13^ 



298 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Htetory or Germany. 

irioos famiHes ; their leaders in time of war were commonlj caOed dmket, and 
elected from among the moet valiant warri<w8. They had no cities or towns, 
but lived in rou^ huts or cottages scattered about^ and in only rather few 
instances united to a village. Chastity and hospitality were their character* 
istic virtues. Since the discontinuance of the migration of nations (see His- 
tory of Europe, g 8), which had brought about many political aheratioos in 
Germany, and at the period of the foundation of the Prankish kingdom by 
Olovis (see History of Europe, § 8, page 26), the most powerful of the Ger- 
man tribes were the following : — 1. The FaiESLANDsas, along the coast of the 
North Sea, between the Zuyder Zee and the mouth of the Weser. 2. Tlie 
Saxons, occupying the whole tract of land between the Rhine and Eider 
rivers, that comprises at present Westphalia, the principalities of lippe, the 
middle and soutiiem parts of Hanover, Brunswick, and Holstein. Those of 
Westphalia were particularly also called WeUphaliaiM (those in the neighbor- 
hood of Minden sometimes Erigers), those of Holstein North Albin^iant, and 
those of Brunswick sometimes Eastphaliana, 8. The Franks, consisting of 
Rijmarian Franks (in the present Rhenish province of Prussia), who under 
the reign of their king, Olovis, conquered nearly all Gaul and imparted their 
name to this country, and of 8alie Franks, from whom is derived the name 
of Franconia, which is still the common name of the northern half of Bavaria, 
where tiiey had their principal seat 4. The Alemanni, primitively called 
SuevianSf and occupying the whole tract of land, whidi in a later period 
formed the Swabian circle (see above). 5. The Bajoabians, the forefathers 
of the Bavarians proper, had their principal seat in the southern half of the 
present kingdom of Bavaria. 6. The Thurinoians, living in the countries at 
present consisting of the Saxon grand-duchy and duchies. All these tribes 
were subjected partly by Olovis and his Merovingian successors, partly by 
Charlemagne, and thus incorporated to the great Prankish empire; and not 
before the year 843, when this empire was divided, by the treaty of Verdun 
(see History of Europe, § 14, page 31), Germany became indepenJent Char- 
lemagne's grandson, Louis II., sumamed the German^ was its first independ- 
ent king (see History of Europe, § 14). He was called Louis the Second on 
account of his fother, Loub the Pious, having been the first sovereign of Oer 
many with the name of Louis. When Louis II. died (in 876), the Gennan 
kingdom was divided among his three sons, of whom the two eldest died 
successively in 880 and 882, after which the youngest, Charles III., sumamed 
the Fait attained to the power, first in Germany, and then m nearly nil 



GERKAKY. 299 



History of Gonnanj. 



other parts of the ancient Frankish empire. His great-grandfather Oharle- 
magne was, as first emperor, considered also as first sovereign of Germany, 
and for this reason denoted with the name of Charles L Charles the Bald 
(brother of Louis the German), was crowne*<l emperor (in 876), considered as 
Charles IL, though he was properly only the sovereign of Fi'ance (see His- 
tory of Europe, § 14). Charles the Fat having been dethroned in 887, he 
was in Germany succeeded by his nephew, the duke of Carinthia, Abnulph 
(887-899), who was the first German king realizing the claims upon the im- 
perutl crown (see page 82). With his Bon. and successor, Louis III., sumamed 
the Child (899-911), the German line of the Carlovingians became extinct^ 
and henceforth the German empire was an elective monarchy. For, the weak- 
ness of Charlemagne's successors had allowed the most powerful among the 
vassals to make themselves almost independent, and these were the dulcet of 
Saxony (to whom tiie Thuringians had for the most part been subjected), of 
Fra'aeoniOj Suevia (Swabia), Bavaria^ and Lorraine. However they finally 
agreed upon electing a common sovereign, and they first chose the duke of 
Franconia, who, as Conbad I, reigned from 911 to 918. After his death the 
duke Henry of Saxony, sumamed the Fowler, was elected king of Germany. 
Henby I. united in himself all the virtues of a truly great man ; he maintained 
internal peace and order, built a great many regular towns (for instance* 
Herseburg, Meissen, Quedlinburg, Nordhausen, Goslar), and put to the rout 
(in 933, near Merseburg) the Magyars, who until then had nearly every year 
made plundering and devastating inroads into Germany. Endowed with 
similar great qualities was his son and successor Otho L (936-972). In 962 
he was in Rome crowned emperor by the pope, and as since this example was 
followed by his successors, the German kings were henceforth commonly 
styled Roman-German emperors. Otho's next three successors were Otbo II. 
(972-983), Otho IIL (988-1002), and Henby IL, sumamed the Holy (1002- 
1024). With Henry II. the imperial line of the Saxon house became extinct 
and now Con&ad II. (1024-1039) was elected, belonging to the ducal house 
of Franconia, or the Salic Franks (for which reason the emperors of this 
house were frequently called the Salic emperors). His son and successor, 
Henry III (1039-1066), was the most energetic of all German emperors; 
and it is no doubt, that had he lived longer than actually was the case (for he 
was only 39 years old when he died in 1066), he not only would have turned 
the elective monarchy into a hereditary one, but also made of Germany a 
very powerful empire, with whose domestic affiurs the popes would never 



SOO EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

History of Germanf . 

hare dared to meddle, as they in later periods did, to the greatest prejudice 
of the political independence of Germany. This was first tried successfully 
bv Pope Qregory VII. during the reign of Henry's son, Hkkrt IV. (1056— 
1106), whom he treated in the mast humiliating manner. With Henry IV.'s 
son and successor, Henbt V. (1106-1125), the line of the so-called Salic em- 
perors became extinct ; next to him was elected Lothar IL (earl of Supplin- 
genburg, in the present duchy of Brunswick : Lothar the Second he was 
styled with reference to Lothar I., who by the terms of the treaty of Verdun 
in 848 had borne the imperial crown), who reigned from 1125 to 1137, in 
which period the long-lasting struggle between the Ouelphs and Ghibellin^s, 
or between the adherents of the powerful houses of Saxony (which duchy, 
ui^cther with that of Bavaria, was under the sway of the Guelphs) and Ho- 
heustaufenXuuder whose sway was tlie duchy of Swabia), originated, by that 
Lothar, whose son-in-law was duke of both Saxony and Bavaria, grossly 
offended his rivals. But after his death these very rivab of the celebrated 
house of Hohenitaufen were elected, first Conrad III. (1137-1152), then hia 
nephew Frxdkrio I., sumamed Barbarossa (1152-1190), and next to him his 
sou Henbt VL (1190-1197). When the last-named emperor died, his son 
Frederic was only 8 years old, and of this circumstance the Guelphs availed 
tliemselves, and elected (in 1108) one of their adherents, Otho (son of 
Henry, sumamed the Lion, duke of Saxony), while their adversaries electe«l 
Henry's younger brother Philip, sumamed of Swabia (1198-1208), king of 
Germany. But the latter was murdered in 1208, and since Otho IV. reigned 
without opposition until the year 1216, when Henry's son (see above), Frkeh 
ERZO II. (1215-1250), was elected. With Frederic's son and successor, 
Conrad IV. (1250-1254), the house of Hohenataufen became extinct, and 
now a period of nearly 20 years ensued, which in German history is known 
by the name of Intkrreign, and to which conveniently could be applied 
what is said in Judges, xvil 6 : "In those days there was no king in Isntel, 
but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.** For not only the 
sword-law exercised its barbarous sway uncontrolled throughout Germany, 
but also the number of petty sovereigns increased from year to year, so that 
at the end of the 18th century it amounted already to almost 150 (dudiiea, 
principalities, earldoms, bishoprics, free cities, etc.). Some of the German 
princes tried indeed to put an end to this anarchy, by electing in succession 
the earl William of Holland (t1256), RicJuird of Cornwall (-fl272). and 
King Alpfumto of Cattilia (who never set a foot ou the German ground) ; hut 



GERMANY. 801 



History of Germaoy. 



these mock-kings had no authority at all, so much tiie less as thej actually 
were not recognized as kings or emperors of Germany. No German prince 
was, under the existing circumstances, willing to accept the crown. Finally 
it became evident to all that the continuance of such a state of things would 
lead to common ruin \ even the pope insisted energetically upon the election 
of a new sovereign of all Germany; and so then Bodolpb I. (1278-1291), 
earl, or count of Bapaburg in Switzerland (see page 166), was elected. He 
pix>Yed himself worthy of the confidence shown to him, and succeeded in a 
rather bhort time to restore tranquillity and order to the country. Ottokar, 
king of Bohemia and sovereign of nearly all the other present German prov- 
inces of Austria, refusing to acknowledge Rodolph as emperor, was declared 
outlawed, defeated in two decisive battles, and, with the exception of Bohe- 
mia and Moraria, deprived of his possessicxis. Carinthia was given ui fee 
to the earl Mainhard of Tyrol, but with Austria (L e., the present archduchy 
of Austria^ Styria, and Camiola, Rodolph invested his own sons, Albert 
and Rodolph, and thus laid the foundation to the domestic power of the hauae 
of Hapfhurg in Attslria. It was perhaps owing to this somewhat selfish 
proceeding, that not his eldest son but the earl Adolphus of Nmmu (1291- 
1298) was elected king and emperor of Germany. However Rodolph's son 
acquiesced not in it, but took the field against Adolphus, defeated and 
kiUed him in a battle at Gellheim (in the present Bavarian Palatinate), and 
was now recognized as emperor, by the name of AuBaT L (1298-1308). 
In tiie period from his death (in 1808 ; he was murdered by his own nephew) 
nntU towards the middle of the 15th century, princes from different houses 
moonted the imperial throne. Firsts Henrt VIL (1808-1818), from the house 
of Luxemburg ; and next to him, Louis IV. (1818-1847), sumamed theBavenian, 
because he belonged to the reigning Bavarian house of Wittelsbach. Then one 
party elected the Earl Gunthsb of Sehwanburg, while another party elected 
Henry V IL's grandson, Charles of Luxemburg, and the latter, or Charles IV. 
(1347-1878), got the better of tiie other, the more so, as Gunther soon died 
(in 1849). Charles IV. is remarkable as the author of the so-called Golden 
Bull, L e., a public document concerning the election of an emperor, the rank 
or dignity of the 7 electors, etc., which was published in 1856. He was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son Wknosblaus (1878-1400), who cared so little for the 
public welfare, that in 1400 four tflectors elected the Palatine Rupert (1400- 
1410) in his place. Rupert, however, made himself unpopular, likewise. 
moreoTer, he had not been generally recognized as emperor ; one party elected 



808 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

HIalory oT Germany. 

the maigraye lodoeus of Morayia (a cousin of Wenoeslaos) ; another, Wenoes- 
laus* brother Sigismund ; and thus there were at one period 3 Oennan kings, 
or emperors, at once (for Wenceslaus lived until 1419). Finally, Sigismund 
(1410-1487) maintained himself in the possession of the imperial crown. 
During his reign, the Council at Conttance was held in 1416, and John Hun 
burnt there, which gave rise to the wsr of the Hu4sUes in Bohemia, that lasted 
from 1419 to 1486. It may be noticed here also, that Sigismund sold the 
margraviate of Brandenburg (which he had inherited), together with the 
electoral dignity, to the buigrave Frederic of HohewsoUem^ at the price of 
400,000 ducatsw Sigismund died in 1487, and was succeeded by his son-in-law 
Albeet IL (1487*1489) o/Atutria, and henceforth only princes of this house 
(with one single exception) were elected emperors. Albert's successor was 
his cousin, Frkdkrio liL (1439-1498), who was the last-elected German kii^ 
crowned emperor at Rome; while his son Maziicilian I. (1498-1519) was the 
first who proclaimed himBelf ** elected German emperorP which siooe was the 
usual title of the sovereigns of the German empire. Daring Maximilian's 
reign, the Reformation began ; by that, Luther published his ninety-five pro|>> 
ositions on the 81st of October, 1617. Most of the public acts of Maximil- 
ian's grandson and successor, Ghablis Y. (1619-1656), had reference to the 
Reformation, as, for instance, the diets at Worms (in 1621), Sjnre (in 1629), 
Augsburg (in 1680), the so-called Schmalkaldian war (in 1546X the treaty of 
Passau (in 1662), the treaty of peace, concluded at Augsburg in 1656, bj 
which the religious differences were settled, and the Oouncil at Trent (sinee 
the year 1646). Charles renounced the Atutrian estates (which he had 
inherited from his grandfather Maximilian) in favor of his younger broflier, 
FxBDiNAMD L (1666-1664), who at the same time had been elected emperor. 
Ferdinand was succeeded by his son Maximilian II. (1664-1576), who^ like 
his father, was noted for his demenoy and equity. His son and suoceseor 
RoDOLPB IL (1676-1612), was a very learned scholar, but the much mors 
unfit for ruling, which also may be said of his brother Matthias (1612-1619), 
under whose reign the Thirty Yean War (1618-1648) originated. It is easy 
to conceive that an event of so important consequences, as the RefbrmatiQQ 
had proved to be, must produce a violent fermentation in the minds of the 
majority of Roman Oatholios, and at last lead to a reaction and open hostilitiesL 
Thus, in the course of time the mutual eMispefation between the CatholicB 
and Protestants had increased to the highest pitch, and both parties waited, 
as it were, only for a plausible pretext to strike the first blow. This pre t ext 



GERMANT. BOS 



History of Gennany. 



was offered, by that the Protestants at Prague precipitated the imperial 
goTemors from the windows of the royal castle, on the 28d of May, 1618. 
The Bc^emians then elected the elector Frederic Y. of the Palatinate their 
king, but were defeated in the battle near Prague, on the 8th of November, 
1620, and soon the war extended to all parts of Germany. Meanwhile, the 
cousin of Biatthias, Faanni Aim II. (1610-1687), had been elected emperor, and 
daring his reign the principal events of the said war took place : the total 
defeat of King Christian V . of Denmark in the battle of Lutter on the Baren- 
berg (21th of August, 1626), the taking of Magdeburg by storm (20th of May, 
1681), the battle of Breitenfeld (7th of September, 1681), the battle of 
LIktzen (16th of November, 1682), etc. Ferdinand IL was succeeded by his 
son FiaDiivAND IIL (1687-1657), whose reign is noted for the Weatphalian 
treat jf of peaee^ concluded on the 24th of October, 1648, respectively at 
Mtknster (with reference to the Catholic concerns) and OsnabrQck (with 
reference to the Protestant concerns). By the terms of this treaty, the execu- 
tive power of the emperor was restricted still more than ever before. Ferdi- 
nand IL died in 1667, and was succeeded by his son Leopold I. (1657-1706), 
who waa succeeded first by his eldest son Joseph I. (1705-1711), and then by 
a younger son Chaeleb VI. (1711-1740), with whom the male line of tho 
liouse of Hapsburg became extinct He bequeathed all his patrimonial 
dominions (comprising the present Austrian momuchy, with the exception of 
the Polish provinces and of the former Venetian territories) to his only 
daughter, the celebrated Queen Mary Tkerenty who was married to Francis 
Stephen, dake of Lorraine^ from which cause the house of Hapsburg has 
since been styled Haptburg-Lorraifie, There arose claims upon the Austrian 
dominions on the part of several German princes, above all of Charles Albert, 
elector of Bavaria, and cousin to Mary Theresa. Yet the latter prevailed, 
both against him and the other pretenders, with the exception of Frederic IL 
of Prussia, to whom she ceded the greatest part of SUesia. Charles Albert 
was, however, elected emperor by the name of Charles VII., but as he already 
died in 1746, Mary Theresa's consort was elected emperor by the name of 
Fkancib L (1746-1766). He died in 1765, and was succeeded first by his 
^dest son Joseph IL (1765-1790), and then by a younger son Leopold IL 
(1790-1792). Leopold*8 son, Feancxs IL (1792-1806), wm the last German 
e mp eroff as has already been mentioned above, where also the alterations the 
pcditieal body of Germany underwent since tiie beginning of the present 
century, have been alluded to. The revoltUiont which occurred in Germany in 



S04 EXTROPi; PAST AND PRESENT. 



IFistory of Germany— Reoeol RevoloUom. 



the years 1848 and 1849, are too fresh in rememfaranoe than that they needed 
to be related here ; yet with reference to their actual causea, we cannot fiorbear 
to draw the attention of the reader to the following facta First, we hare 
seen above that no country can rival Germany in the general diffusion of 
knowledge, and that its literary institutions are both numerous and oelefarated. 
Secondly, Qermany is renowned for various branches of its numerous mami- 
factures. Thirdly, both its commerce and inland trade is very coD8iderabl& 
Besides this, the agriculture is in general conducted with a skill almoat 
unri\*alled, and the horses, sheep, and cattle, there belong, for the moat part^ 
to the finest breed. Still we add, that for instance, the system, long ainoe 
adopted there in medical concerns, may be called eacemplary, and that the 
administration of justice is likewise in the best order. Now we ask, whether 
all these advantages could possibly have been obtained, if Qermany bad been 
under the sway of tyrants and despots, as German party-leaders would make 
foreigners believe ? On the contrary, the very fact of these advantages pre> 
supposes liberal and benevolent principles on the part of the govemmenta in 
general. The assertion of those party-leaders, that the German people had 
to bear enormous public chaiiges, and especially all the expenses of the prinoely 
courts in that country, is completely a talk at random. First in Germany the 
taxes are lower than in almost any other country of Europe— for, upon am 
average, each inhabitant has to pay only one afid a half dollars per annum;* 
whereas, the proportion of taxes in England is at the rate of t«M, and in 
-^Fxance, at present, at the enormous rate of fourteen doUars. (The particolan 
of the proportion of taxes in Germany will be found below, and in the 
description of the several German statea) And, secondly, with regard to 
the expenses of the princely fiunilies and courts in Germany, the people have 
to contribute out of their pockets not one tingle cent towards them. The fiiet 
is, that these families subsist entirely on the revenues of their domaint, or 
family estates. They are possessed of property, as well as milliona of private 

* In the financial year ending on the 80th of June, 1 844, the public expendi- 
ture of the United States was $82,958,827. At the same period, the total 
population of the Union was about 19,500,000 inhabitants. Thus, 19,500,000 
divided into 88,000,000 gives a ratio of |1 69 per inhabitant But let even 
the average amount of the expenditure be only $25,000,000, the ratio per 
inhabitant is still at least $1 25— i e., exduaive of the aeparate pnUio cfaaigee 
in the single states. 



GBBMANY. 805 



Recent RefTolatUms In Germany. 



men tbroaghout the whole world ; and that this property oonsista chiefly of 
family estates, commoDly called domains, maken no difference. We have 
Men above, that the ancestor of the reining royal family in Prussia, Frederic 
of HohcnzoUem, was able to pay 400,000 ducats in cash to Emperor Sigis- 
mnnd — an immense sum at that time 1 Rodolph of Hapsburg was, before 
his accession to the imperial throne, one of the wealthiest earls in Switzerland. 
The Guel]^ ancestors of the house of Brunswick-Hanover, were wealthy 
and powerful barons in Italy and Southern Germany. We could dte other 
instances to show that the German princes descend from wealthy ancestors, 
who entailed their large estates as feoffments in trust upon their descendants. 
The revenues from these estates far exceeding the expenses of the princely 
households, it is evident that the assertion that German princes did live at 
the charges of the people, is a fabrication. On the contrary, in former thnes 
the surplus of the revenues, applied to purposes of public service then as well 
as at present, proved almost sufficient for the public expenditure ; and what 
the people had to pay in taxes, was a trifle. Only the wars and other 
extraordinary contingencies since the first French revolution, have increased 
the taxes of the German people, still to a comparatively very low ratio. In 
the table, page 808, that of some countries is indeed higher than the average 
ratio of one and a half dolhirs, but this is chiefly owing to the raU-roads, 
which in Germany, for the most part, have been constructed at the expense 
and on account of the public treasury. Thus, neither tyranny nor despotism 
on the part of the princes, neither incapacity nor malevolence on the part of 
the rulers, neither heavy taxes nor infringement of the rights and liberties of 
the people have brought on the revolution in Germany, but the artifices of 
those very party-leaders, who in this way endeavored to satisfy their immod- 
emte ambition and unreasonable discontent That the reader may not 
charge us with partiality, or exaggeration, we shall cite their own word*. 
Last summer, as is known, a republic in the grand-duchy of Baden and the 
Bavarian palatinate was established, but soon put down agaia Now, of 
oourse, the leaders took to flight ; and Mr. Bretitano, the ex-president of the 
transitory republican government, had just time enough to publish an address 
to the people of Baden, in which, among other things, he says : — " Fellow- 
eitixens t Tou will be astonished to learn from the records, to what pur- 
poses your money has been appropriated; how few there were who, 
without self-interest, devoted themselves to the cause of the people, and how 
the great minority did not make a step without asking payment for it out of 



806 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Excess of PopulstioB in Germany 



the public treasury. In the first beginning of our revolution, hundreds of 
adventurers flocked into our country ; they boasted of their having suffered 
for the sake of liberty, and claimed the reward of it in ready money out of 
your treasuries. At the head of this party was Struve^ whom the aruiy 
disdains on account of his cowardice. I had put my trust in the constituent 
assembly ; but I have been disappointed. The majority of its members oun- 
sisted of entirely unqualified common brawlers. I could name a great number 
of valiant bullies, who, under various pretexts, declined dangerous com- 
missions as ' unworthy of themselves,' while they greedily sought to obtain 
others which they could perform in perfect safety at the expenses of the 
public treasury." We should think that these revelations speak clear enough 
to every one who desires to become acquainted with the actual causes of the 
German revolutions. There is no state in the world that can boast of its 
being a perfect one ; for the simple reason that man himself is not perfect 
Thus, the German states cannot either boast of perfection; but tiieir chief 
defect can neither be laid to the governments* charge, nor be remedied by revo- 
lutions ; for it consists of nothing else but etccces of populcUwH, and hence 
vfant of »ubn8tenee on the part of a great many inhabitants, especially amoo^ 
the lower classes of society. In 1807, the total population of Germany was 
26,226,000 inhabitants, while in the beginnuig of 1848 it was, in round 
numbers, 42,000,000 — thus in 41 years, an increase of more than 15,1&0,000 
inhabitants I The increase would have been far more considerable but for the 
wars which occurred prior to 1814, and which caused, directly and indirectly, 
great mortality. The German emigrants who came to tiie United States in 
these last twenty-five years, are, for the most part, natives from the grand- 
duchy of Baden, the kingdom of Wirtemberg, and the Bavarian palatinate ; 
and whoever will take the trouble to ask them for what reason they have 
emigrated, they will tell him (of course, in so far as they do not belong to the 
political refugees), that it was chiefly want of eubnstence in their native 
country that induced them to leave it and to go in search of a livelihood on 
the other side of the Atlantic. In the last-named countries, the people 
depend for subsistence chiefly on husbandry, and partly on manu&cturea. 
In 1807, tlie population of the grand-duchy of Baden was 840,000 in- 
habitants, who in general had the means of subsistence, but since, this pop- 
ulation has increased by more than half a million, amounting at present to 
about 1,S80,000 inhabitanta. Thus, while in 1807 only 146 lived on a square 
mile, this ratio has increased to 288. The population of Wirtemberg was in 



GERMANT. 807 



The Geographical and Political Diviaioiifl of Germany. 



1801 at the ratio of 169 iDhabitants to tlie square mile, but in the beginning 
of 1848 it was at the ratio of 282. In the Bavarian palatinate are living 
268, and in the governmental district of Dusseldorf (with an area of 2,094 
square miles, and a population of 892,600 inhabitants) not less than 426 
inhabitants on a square mile ! The most populous states of the Union are, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut ; yet^ according to the census 
of 1840, the ratio of population in the first-named state was onlj 98, in the 
second 80, and in Connecticut 66, on a square mile. In comparing this ratio 
with that of the named German countries, the exceeding competition and 
rivalry in all branches of industry and livelihood, may indeed not be wondered 
at. The ratio of population in the other German countries varies, upon an 
average, between 160 and 210 ; while the ratio of all Germany is 171 inhab- 
itants to a square mile. 

We shall now describe the different German states according 
to their actual political condition in the beginning of the year 
1848, for the reasons alluded to, page 1. Moreorer, the altera- 
tions proposed by the above-mentioned so-called German parlia- 
ment, have not been noticed at all by the different governments ; 
and some few others resolved upon by the latter, may be consid- 
ered either as transitory, or as immaterial. 

The following geographical and statistical table of Germany, 
in detail, shows at once the order of succession, followed in the 
description of the several states, their geographical situation, 
their area and population, their respective capitals, and the ratio 
of tax-paying per inhabitant. S. G. signifies Southern Germany ; 
C. G. signifies Central Germany ; N. G. signifies Northern Ger- 
many. The particulars of the ratio in paying taxes will be found 
in the description of the several states, and some of them are 
already given above. Wherever the ratio is omitted in this table, 
there the public expenditure is either covered by the revenues 
of the domains, etc., or the ratio is less than ijf dollars: as, for 
instance, in the principalities of Reuss. 



BUROPi; PAST AKD PKBBENT. 



;&Z«S , , =£:S, S), SSS;;z 



, S3,S,,S3,,,, 



l|IHillllllllll!ili|i!Hl 






f.fiiiiifiiU|.yJ|sM!lfiffcsi 



I 



f 



:f,| 

Iff i! J 



1:1 






1 illlpSlilH 

Sll'.l- I ill ISIlhl|4 



:|j|f s s 1 s o'i„v=' 

g^^a5 < 3 S 




GERMANY, 800 



The German Provtaoes of Amtria. 



L GERMAN PROVINCES OF AUSTRIA. 

Ajlea : 76,147 square miles. 
Population : 12,700,000 iohabitaDts. 

They consist of the following constituent parts of the Aiui- 
trian empire : 

(a.) The arch-duchy of Austeia (15,070 squiu-e miles, and 2,400,000 iohab- 
itaDts), on both sides of the Danube, with Vienna as capital 

(6.) The ddchy of Sttria (8,690 square miles, and 1,000,000 inhabitants), 
OQ the south side of the former, with Oratz as capital 

{c.) The kingdom of Illybia (9,052 | square miles, and 1,125,000 inhabi- 
tants), comprising Carinthia, Camiola, and tiie 80<»lled Autlrian Friaul, 
with Klagenfurt^ Laihaeh, and Trieste as capitals. 

(d) The earldom of TvaoL (11,140 square miles, and 900,000 inhabitants), 
between Bavaria and Italy, on the west bounded by Switzerland, and on the 
east connected with the Austrian arch-duchy and Illyria. Its capital is 
Jnnspruck. 

(e.) The kingdom of Bohxmia (20,096 J^ square miles, and 4,600,000 inhahi- 
tants), between the arch-duchy of Austria and the kingdom of Saxony, with 
JPrague as capital. 

(/.) The margraviate of Moravia and A^iutrian Silksia (10,607 square 
miles, and 2,810,000 inhabitants), between Bohemia and Hungary, with 
.firuitn as capital 

{g) The duchies of AuscHwrrz and Zator (1,491 square miles, and 866,000 
inhabitants), near Cracow, belonging politically to Germany, bat in every 
other respect to GaHda, with Auschwitz as capital 

The detailed description of these German provinces will be 
found under the head of the Austrian empire, as it would be in- 
conyenient to describe them separately. 



SIO EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Tbe German ProTiooea of Pniflsla. 



IL—GERMAN PROVINCES OF PRUSSIA. 

Ajlea: 71,696 aquare miles 
Population : 12,280,000 inhabitants. 

Thet oonsist of the following constituent parts of the kingdom 
of Prussia: 

(a.) Tbe province of Beandenbuiio (16,684 square miles, and 2,020,000 
inbabitants), between the Oder and Elbe riyers, with Berlin as capitaL 

(b.) The province of Pomeranza (12,238 square miles, and 1,166,000 inhabi- 
tants), on the Baltic, and crossed by the Oder river, with Stettin as capitaL 

(c.) The province of Silesia (15,799 square miles, and 3,049,500 inhabitants), 
along the north-eastern frontier of the kingdoms of Saxony and Bohemia, 
with Breslau as capitaL 

(d) The province of Saxony (9,818^ square miles, and 1,741,500 inhabi- 
tants), between Brandenburg and the kingdom of Saxony, crossed by the 
Elbe river, with Magdeburg as capitaL 

(«.) The province of Westphaua (7,838| square miles, and 1,470,000 inhab- 
itants), between Central Germany and the kingdom of the Netherlands, with 
Munster as capitaL 

(/*.) The Rhenish Province (10,878 square miles, and 2,788,000 inhabitants), 
on both sides of the Rhine, but chiefly on its left bank, with Coblentz, the seat 
of its governor. 

The detailed description of these German provinces will be 
found under the head of the Prussian Kingdom, as also in this 
case it would be inconvenient to describe them separately. It is 
true, that in the period when the so-called German parliament 
was still alive, the other Prussian provinces (at least the provinoe 
of Prussia) were declared constituent parts of Germany like* 
wise ; but this arrangement is to be considered as a transitory 



QERMANT. Sll 



The Kingdom of Bayaria. 



one, BO muoh the more as it is yet very donbtfol what part 
Pmssia generally may aet with regard to the political organiza- 
tion of Germany. 



m— THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA. 

Aksa : 29,708 square miles. 
Population : 4,450,000 inhabitants. 

• 

This kingdom (officially styled Bayem in German), next to 
Austria and Prussia, the most important state in Germany, forms 
the middle part of Southern Germany, is on the south separated 
from Italy by Tyrol, and consists of two distinct territories, sit- 
uated about 40 miles apart, the smallest of which being on the 
left bank of the Bhine. 

According to the census of 1843 the total population was 
4,440,327 inhabiUnts, of whom 1,226,753 were FroUgtants (for 
the most part Lutherans), and more than 63,000 Jews, the re- 
mainder consisting of Roman CeUhdics^ with 2 archbishops (at 
Manchen and Bamberg), and 6 bishops (a6 Augsburg, Passau, 
Begensburg, Eichst&dt, Worzburg, and Spire). 

The most remarkable of the mountain-ranges are, beside 
branches of the Alps, the Bohmerwald, MdUelgebirge, Spessartj 
etc. (see page 7) ; and of the rivers the Danubej and one of the 
chief tributaries of the Bhine, the Mayne, with the branches 
noted, page 16. About the most remarkable ZaA:e5, see page U. 
The Louis Canal, mentioned above (page 285), is crossing the 



tlS EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gannany.— Kingdom of Bawta. 

northern half of Bavaria from north to sonth, and its whole 
length is 107 miles. 

With regard to natural products, Bavaria is noted for its er- 
tenBvve forests y yielding annually about 2^ million cords of timber 
and firewood, its excellent wines (in Franconia and the Bavarian 
palatinate), and hops. It abounds in salt and molybdena (plum- 
bago), and its other principal minerals are coal, iron, copper, 
and some quicksilver (in the Bavarian palatinate). Cattle, sheep, 
huAtfOB, and uogRj are abundant. 

Agriculture and other branches of husbandry furnish the 
chief means of subsistence. Breweries are very numerous, and 
the Bavarian beer is celebrated throughout all Germany. Man- 
ufactures are carried on to a great extent, and the most noted 
among "them are those of optical, chirurgical, and musical instru- 
ments, of crucibles, gold and silver articles, leather, and wax 
candles. The inland trade is considerable. 

Of the above-mentioned (see page 287) 3 Bavarian universities, 
that of Munich was in 1846 frequented by 1,406 students, that 
of Wurzburg by 450, and that of Erlangen in 1842 by 309 stu- 
dents. Besides these institutions there are 9 lyoea, 26 gymnasia, 
about 60 Latin schools, 9 seminaries (about the signification of 
these terms, see page 65), 3 poly technical, 5,400 common schools, 
etc. 

The government is a limited monarchy, the sovereign power 
being vested in a king and two legislative chambers. In the 
budget for the period of 1843-1849, the fvhlic revenue was esti- 
mated at 31,736,407 florins, and the expendiiure at 31,536,407 
florins annually. The piiblic ddi amounted in 1838 to about 
126 million florins* The regular army consists during poaee 
of 20,500, and in time of war of 56,269 men. The troops 
which Bavaria, as a member of the German confederacy, was 
bound to furnish, amounted to 35,600 men. 



( GEBMANT. 813 



Kb^om of BaTai1»— its History. 



There are the followiDg orders of honor : — 1. The order of St. 
Hubertus^ instituted in 1444, and renewed respectively in 1708 
and 1800, only for princes and officers of the highest rank. 2. 
The order of St. George^ instituted in the days of the crusades, but 
renewed in 1729. 3. The order of Maximilian Joseph^ instituted 
in 1806, only for military officers. 4. The order of the Bavarian 
crownj instituted in 1808, for civil officers. 5. The order ofLouis^ 
instituted in 1 827. 6. The order of St. Michael, instituted in 
1693, but renewed and altered in 1808. 7. The order of St. The- 
resa, instituted in 1827, for ladies. 8. The order of St. Elizabeth, 
instituted in 1766. 

History. — ^The present Bavaria, aDciently fornuog part of Vindelicia and 
Noricum (see History of Germany), came since the fall of the Roman empire 
first under the sway of the Ostrogoths, then under that of the Frankish em- 
pire, though it was, since the end of the 6th century, governed by native 
dukea belonging to the house of Affilolf, The Bavarian dukes, who thus 
were vassals of the Frankish kings, continued in the same relation of depend- 
ence to the German empire since the treaty of Verdun in 848 (see page 31). 
In the period from 947 to 1180, barons from different houses were invested 
with the duchy, and the most renowned among them were those belonging 
to the house of the GttelplM (since the year 1071), until in 1180 the yet 
reigning dynasty of Wittelsbach became possessed of it. The duchy of Ba- 
varia comprised however only the present provinces of Upper and Lower 
Bavaria ; all the other territories have in the course of timo been annexed 
to it : the Upper Palatinate in 1628 (at the same time the electoral dignity 
waa conferred on the duke of Bavaria), the formerly sovereign bishoprics of 
Augsburg, Bamberg, Wurzburg, Eichstadt^ and Passau, together with severa^ 
imperial cities, in 1808 ; the imperial cities of Augsburg, Nuremberg, and 
Landau, the greatest part of the territories in the province of Swabia, and 
the principality of Ansbach in 1806 ; the principality of Bayreuth and the 
imperial city of Ratisbon in 1810 ; the principality of Aschaiienbarg and the 
grreateet part of the present Bavarian palatinate in 1814. According to the 
terms of the treaty of peace concluded at Presburg on the 26th of December, 
1806, the electorate of Bavaria was raised to a kingdom. Tyrol (which was 
UTtffiayftH to it in 1805), and the former sovereign archbishopric of Salaburg 

14 



tl4 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gemumj. — Kingdom of BsTmria. 



irere in 1813 respectively restored and ceded to Austria. King M»»iM;iMi« 
Joseph L died in 1825, and was succeeded bj his son Louis I, who abdicated 
in 1848, and was succeeded bj his son Maximilian 11^ the still reigning king, 
bom in 1811. 

In 1808 the kiDgdom was divided into circles, whose names, after 
the example of France, were derived from the rivers within their 
limits. But in 1837 these names were altered into others of 
historical signification and long since commonly nsed. They are 
still styled circles, and are 8 in number. The capitals of the 
circles are in the following description marked with a cross (-{-). 

L The eirele of Uppba Bavaria, comprising chiefly that part of the ancient 
duchy of Bavaria, which ever has been styled Upper Bavaria, and besides it 
some other territories annexed to it since 1803. 1. The ancient tbtehf of 
Bavaria, within the limits of this circle, contains: -|~MinacH (in Q«nnan 
MUnchen), the capital of the kingdom, and royal residence, on the Isar, west' 
ward and 230 miles distant from Vienna, with 115,000 inhabitants, and 6 
suburbs (the most remarkable of which is called the An), is to be considered 
as one of the central points of sciences and arts in Germany, and noted for 
its splendid galleries of paintings and sculpture, literary institutions (see In- 
troduction to Germauy), palaces, churches, etc Munich was founded in 1175 
by the duke Henry of Bavaria and Saxony, sumamed the lion. The neigh- 
boring village of Nymphenburg (with 1,200 inhabitants) is noted for its por- 
celain manufacture and royal palace, where the royal £unily uses to reside 
in the summer season. The little village of Kaftrloh is noted for ita market 
for cattle held here in the month of September, and the village of Hohndin- 
den (eastward and 18 miles distant from Munich), noted for a battle on the 
8d of December, 1800. Hohenaekwangau, an ancient feudal castle, ooee be- 
longing to the celebrated house of Hohenstaufen, at present arranged and 
furnished in a magnificent stylo, and the private property of the king. T&Ainc- 
BiKDr (with 2,400 inhabitants), and Rbicbbnhall (with 8,000 inhahitant&\, 
towns between Munich and Salzburg, noted for their salt-springs* Isveovr 
btadt, a fortified town on the Danube, northward and 44 miles distant from 
Munich, has 10,200 inhabitants, and was formerly noted for its univer^tity 
(instituted in 1472), which in 1802 was transferred to Landshot, and n 18^ 



GERMANY. 815 



Kingdom of BaTaria— Its Googmphical DlririoiiB. 



united with the imireraity of Miinicfa. Old Oetting, a market-town near the 
Austrian frontier, has 1,700 inhabitants, and is noted for its holy shrine, and 
the sepulchres of various princes, and of the field-marshal "Hlly (-|-1632). 
Tkgxbnbxk, formerly a Benedictine abbey, at present royal residence in the 
summer season, is situated on a lake of the same name, 30 miles south-south- 
east of Munich. In its neighborhood is a noted bathing-place, named KretU. 
The town of Rain (with 1,200 inhabitants), on the Lech, near its junction 
with the Danube, and at 28 miles distance from Augsburg, is noted for the 
victory gained by Qustavus Adolphus on the 5th of April, 1632, which 
opened to him the way into Bavaria. The town of MuAldorf (with 1,600 
inhabitants), on the Inn river and near Salzburg, is noted for battles in 1259 
and 1322. Other towns, more or less deserving to be noticed, are: JSrding 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), Pfaffenhofen (with 2,000 inhabitants), Moothurg 
(with 1,800 mhabitants), WeUheim (with 2,500 inhabitants), Schongau (with 
1,600 inhabitants), Landsberg (with 3,300 inhabitants), Wauerhurg (with 
2,400 inhabitants), Friedberg (with 2,000 inhabitants)^ Aichaeh (with 1,800 
inhabitants), Sehrobenhauten (with 1,800 inhabitants), and BurgKauaen (with 
2,500 inhabitants). 2. The ancient sovereign bishopric of Freising (instituted 
in 724 and secularized in 1803) contains : FaxisiVG, a city on the Isar, 22 
miles north-north-east of Munich, with a remarkable cathedral* and 5,400 
inhabitants. OarmUeh (with 1,600 inhabitants), Mittemoald (with 2,100 m- 
habitants), and Partenkirehen (with 1,100 inhabitants), market-towns. 8. 
Tlie once highly renowned provosUhip of BercJUetgaden (which was instituted 
in 1106, raised to the dignity of a principality, and possessed of a territory 
218 square miles in extent, but was secularized in 1803) contains : BsacBTBS- 
GADEN, a town near the frontier of Tyrol, has 1,800 inhabitants, and is noted 
for its saltrsprings and toys, or carved works of ivory, etc. 4. To the ancient 
archbishopric of Salzburg formerly belonged the towns of Laufxn (with 
1,900 inhabitants), and 7\'ttmoning (with 1,200 inhabitants), and the boroughs 
of Waging and TeUendorf, with respectively 650 and 500 inhabitants. 

IL The circle of Lowza Bavaua, comprising chiefly that part of the 
ancient duchy of Bavaria, which ever has been styled Lower Bavaria, and 
besides it, the former territory of the ancient sovereign bishopric of Passau. 
1. The aneierU duehy of Biwaria, within the limits of this circle, contains : 
-f-LANDSHUT, capital of this circle, romantically situated on the Isar, north- 
eastward and 40 miles distant from Munich, with 10,300 inhabitants, 9 churdies 
(the steeple of one of them is 422 feet high), and the ancient mountain castle 



816 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germany. — ^Kingdom of Bavarlm. 

of TVauaniU, ooce the residence of the Bavarian duke& In the period from 
1802 to 1826, Landshut was the seat of a umversity, at present in MnnicL 
Stbacbing, a town on the Danube (crossed here hy a renuurkable bridge of 
stone), 28 miles east-south-east of Ratisbon, with 7,800 inhabitants, numeroos 
breweries, and considerable trade in grain and horses. KKLmtiM, a town on 
the left bank of the Danube, at its junction with the AJtmuhl (which river is 
brought into connection with the Mayne by the Louis Canal), south-westward 
and 12 miles distant from Ratisbon, with 2,200 inhabitants. Other more or 
less remarkable towns are: AhenUberg (with 1,800 inhabitants), ViUkoftn 
(with 2,200 inhabitants), OtUrhofen (with 1,200 inhabitants), Deggendarf (with 
^?dO inhabitants), and Orafenau (with 760 inhabitants). The village of 
JScibnu^ between Landshut and Regensburg, is noted for a battle on the 
24th of April, 1809, between the French and Austrians. The marketrtown 
of OaTENBURG (with 1,100 inhabitants), westward and 9 miles distant from 
Passau, was formerly the capital of a sovereign earldom of the same name, 
and 82 square miles in extent 2. The former territoiy (of an extent of 426 
square miles) of the ancient sovereign Inthopric of Passau (instituted in 737, 
and secularized in 1803), contains: Passau, fortified dty on the Danube, at 
its junction with the Inn (which latter river separates the dty frtxn the 
Austrian territory), has a remarkable cathedral, and 11,000 inhabitants, and 
is noted for the beauty of its ladies. The market-town of Hafnenell (with 
1,350 inhabitants) is noted for its crucibles made of molybdena. In aome of 
them can be melted 2,000 marks of silver at once. 

IIL The circle of Uppaa Palatinatb and Ratisbon, diiefly comprisii^ the 
ancient Upper Palatinate and the former imperial dty of Regensburg, part 
of the andent duchy of Bavaria, etc 1. The farmer imperial ciijf of 
^-Ratisbon (in German, Regensburg), at present the capital of thb cirtde, is 
situated on the right bank of the Danube (crossed by a stately bridge, built 
in the period from 1186 to 1146 of freestone, and having a length of 1,091 
feet), 64 miles north-north-east of Munich, and south-eastward and 50 miles 
distant from Nuremberg, with 18 churches, 4 convents, numerous breweries 
and manu&ctures, a considerable trade, and 22,000 inhabitants. The most 
remarkable public edifices of this dty (which in the 12th century was mdowed 
with the privil<$ges of an imperial one, and in 1809 annexed to Bavaria) are 
the cathedral, reared in the 13th century, the dty hall (where, in the period 
from 1668 to 1806, the Diet of the ancient German empire held its sesdons). 
and the buUdings of tlic former immediate abbeys of Obermtka^ter, Kieder* 



GERHAinr. M 



The Kindgom of Bavaria— its Geographical DiTiriona. 



mikiistery and Si Emmeran. The latter is at present the property and resi- 
dence of the prince of Thuro and Taxis, formerly postmaster-general of the 
German empire. These abbeys were instituted respectiyely about the 
years 896, 900, and 662. To the former sovereign or immediate bishopric of 
Ratixbon (which was instituted in the beginning of the 8th century, and secu- 
larized in 1808, but which had nothing in common with the city of Ratisbon) 
did belong the market-towns of Wbrtk (with 1,000 inhabitants) and Dcnaustauf 
(with 750 inhabitants). Near the latter is the WaJhaUoy a building reared in 
1880-1842 by order of King Louis of Bayaria, and devoted to the memory 
of celelnrated Germans. 2. The Upper Palntinate, primitively belonging to 
the dukes of Swabia^ and in the period 1829-1628 annexed to the Palatinate 
on the Rhine, contains ; Ambeeo, formerly the capital of the Upper Palatinate, 
on the high road between Regensburg and Bayreuth, eastward and 84 miles 
distant from Nuremberg, with several remarkable public buildings, various 
manufactures, and 11,000 inhabitants. In the neighboring town of Hirtchau 
(with 1,600 inhabitants), Jerome of Prague, the friend of John Huss, was 
taken prisoner in 1416, and conveyed to Constance, where he was burnt. 
Other more or less remarkable market and proper towns of the Upper Palat- 
inate are : Cwtel (with 1,200 inhabitants), Neumarkt (with 8,200 inhabitants), 
Nokbwrg (with 1,700 inhabitants), Neunhurg vor dent Walde (with 2,100 inhab- 
itants), JtocUng (with 1,600 inhabitants), Waldmunehen (with 2,200 inhabitants), 
Tiraehenreuth (with 2,500 inhabitants), Waldsaawn (with 1,660 inhabitants), 
JSsehenbaeh (with 1,850 inhabitants), and Kemnath (with 1,650 iohabitants). 
8. That part of the ancient duchy of Bavaria within the limits of this circle, 
contains : Stadtamhof (literally : town at the court), a town on the left bank 
of the Danube, opposite to Regensburg, with 2,200 inhabitanta CAom, a town 
on tiie Regen river, with various branches of industry, and 2,200 inhabitants. 
JHHfurt (on the Altmfkhl, with 1,000 inhabitants), and Riedenbwrg (with 1,050 
inhabitants), towns. 4. The former principality of Nfvburg (about its par- 
ticulars, see under the head of the circle No. YIL), within the limits of this 
circle, contains : Hilfoltstbin, a town on the Roth river, 46 mUes west-north- 
-west of Regensburg, with a remarkable ancient palace and town-hall, and 
1,600 inhabitants. Kdllmunz (with 1,800 inhabitants), Par«6^^ (with 600 
inhabitants), and Regenatauf (with 1,650 inhabitants), market- towns. 5. The 
former principality of Bulabaeh (which in 1809 was annexed to that of 
Neuburg), contains: Sulzbaoh, once its capital, near Amberg, has 8,100 inhab- 
itanta, and is noted for its andent mountain castle. Wcidtn^ a town, with 



tlS EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Ginamuj. — ^Kingdoan of BaTarfim. 

2,400 mhabHantB. Voken8irau$$, a mftrket-towD, with 1,600 ioluibltiuits. 

6. Within the limits of this arde is bIbo diaated the medUUe dtteJuf of Leuek- 
tmherg (andentlj- a landgraTiate, whidi in 1646 was annexed to BaTsriaX 
belonging to the Duke Maximilian of Lenchtenberg (aon-ln>law of the Rosoian 
emperor Nicholas), whose &ther, Eugene Beaohamois, was in 1817 iuTested 
with it and the principality of Eichstadt. It contains : LxucHnxBxaa, capital 
of the dndiy, 62 mQes east-north-east of NoFemberg. with 600 inhabitanta. 
In its nei^borhood is situated the town of Pfreimdty with 1,600 inhahitanta. 

7. To yarious other territories did formerij belong: Nedstadt, suniamed a» 
der Waldnaby a town on the Waldnab river (hence its surname), near the 
frontier of Bohemia, with 1,600 inhabitanta Sckbtuee, a town, witii 1,800 
'vohaxAtSDbL Preytiadt^ a town on the Sdiwarzach river, with 900 inhabi- 
tants. Neiutadi am Oulm, a town in the vicinity of Bayreuth, with 1^00 
inhabitants. 

IV. The circle of TJpfke Fkanoonia, comprising chiefly the ancient prind- 
pality of Bayreuth, and the formerly sovereign or inunediate bishopric of 
Bamberg. 1. The former principality of Bayrevth was, together with the 
principality of Ansbacfa (see the next circle), primitively a consUtueot part of 
the aocietit bwrgramate of Nuremberg, which had its seat in a castle within 
the walls of the city of Nuremberg, but in other respects nothing in oommon 
with the latter. The first hbtorically-known bmgraye, was Qodfrey of 
Hohenlohe, who lived about the year 1188. But already so early as in 1164 
the house of Hohenzollem was invested with the burgraviate, and sinoe suc- 
cessively with other dominions, forming at last the two named principalities. 
When the burgrave Frederic YI. in 1417 was invested with the electorate 
and margraviate of Brandenburg (see page 802), he retained hia pos- 
sessions in Franconia, but his two grandsons divided the inheritance in audi a 
manner that the one succeeded in Brandenburg, and the other in Bayrenth 
and its dependences. The latter line became extinct in 1791, and both prin- 
ctpalities (of Bayreuth and Ansbach) were now annexed to the dominimie of 
the other line, or to the kingdom of Prussia. The prindpality of Bayreoth 
(1,684 square miles, and in 1801 with 218,600 inhabitants) was in 1807 ceded 
by Prussia to France, which retained it until 1810, when it ceded it to Bavana. 
The prindpality of Ansbach (1,448 square miles, and in 1800 with 244(,0OO 
inhabitants) was ceded by Prussia to Franoe in 1806, and by the latter power 
to Bavaria in 1806. The princes of Bayreuth and Ansbach bore the title of 
mwgrem9, with reference to the margraviate of Brandenburg. Bare i9» far 



GERMANY. 810 



The KiDgdom of Bavaria— Its Geographical Divisions. 



Uie present, only the question of the former principality of Bayreuth, which con- 
tains (within the limits of this circle, or in the so-called Highland of Bayreuth) : 
-f-BAYBxuTH, formerly its capital and princely residence, at present the capital 
of Upper Franconia, on a branch of the Mayne, 42 miles north-north-west of 
Nuremberg, with 17,000 inhabitants, a remarkable ancient castle, and one of 
the largest opera-houses in Germany. The former princely gardens here 
coTer a space of about 84 acres. Culxbach, a town on a branch of the 
liayne, 14 miles north-north-west of Bayreuth, is noted for its breweries, has 
4,250 inhabitants, and was, in the period from 1603 to 1726, the residence of 
a collateral line of the princely house of Bayreuth. Hof, a town at the 
frontier of Bohemia and Saxony, is noted for its wooUen, linen, and cotton 
manu£fictures, and has 7,000 inhabitants. Wunsiedxl, a town half-way between 
Bayreuth and Eger, with various manufactures, iron mines, and 4,000 inhabi- 
tants. The market-town of Muggendoaf, south-westward and 16 miles distant 
from Bayreuth, with 460 inhabitants, is noted for its extensive and highly 
remarkable caves. Other towns are: Naila (with 1,700 inhabitants), >Se/6 
(with 8,400 inhabitants), Weisaenntadt (with 2,400 inhabitants), Behau (with 
2,000 inhabitants), XM(lurt^«<«u& (with 950 inhabitants), Munchberg (with 2,300 
inhabitants), Bemeek (with 1,100 inhabitants), and Ooldkranaeh (with 1,000 
inhabitants). 2. The territory of the former sovereign, or immediate bishopric 
of Bcanberg^ which primitively, and until 908, belonged to the powerful earls 
of Babenberg, and in 1006 was transformed into this bishopric that continued 
to exist for nearly 800 years, when it was secularized in 1803, at which period 
it had an area of 1384 square miles, and a population of 185,000 inhabi- 
tants, contains : Bamberg, formerly the capital of this bishopric, on the Regnitz, 
near its junction with the Mayne, northward and 32 miles distant from Nurem- 
berg, with important trade, noted breweries, and 21,500 inhabitants. Its 
most remarkable public edifices are: the cathedral (reared by Emperor 
Henry XL, whose sepulchre is here), the palace of the former sovereign bishops 
(reared in 1702, and remarkable for that Alexander Berthier, Napoleon's 
marshal, precipitated himself out of one of its windows, on the 1st of June, 
1815), the ext^isive hospital reared in 1787, and the former Benedictine 
abbey. Bamberg, whose foundation was laid in 804, was in the middle ages 
frequently the gay and splendid resort of the imperial court, of the knight- 
hood, etc. Ebermanxstadt, a town romantically situated on the Wiesent 
river, south-eastward and 16 miles distant from Bamberg, with 750 iohabi- 
tanta. Other towns ore : Hdchttadt (noted for its hops, with 2,000 inhabitants), 



S20 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



GermMiy.— Kingdom of fiavarta. 



HoUfdd (with 1,100 inhabitants), Weiamunn (with 1,100 iDhabitantsX 
genauraeh (with 1,850 inhabitants), i^orrA/iWm (with 3,200 inhabitants), PotUnr 
sitein (with 1,000 inhabitants), Stadtsteinaeh (with 1,400 inhabitants), Kupferherg 
(with 950 inhabitants), LiehtenfeU (with 2,200 inhabitants), TnuchnitM (with 
850 inhabitants), SiafeUtein (with 1,260 inhabitants^ and Krouaeh, or Cranaeh 
(reooarkable as the birth-place of the celebrated painter Lucas of Granadi, a 
contemporary of Luther, has 8,000 inhabitants, and carries on a considerable 
trade in timber and lumber). 8. To the Franconian immediate nobility of the 
empire did, among other places, belong : Thurnau, a town on the Au riTer, 
north* westward and 9 miles distant from Bayreuth, with 1,500 inhabitants, 
and a remarkable ancient castle, or palace of the count of Oiech. Pom- 
mertfelden, a village in the vicinity of Bamberg, with 650 inhabitants, 
belongs to the count of Schonbom, who occupies a magntfioent palace here. 
4. To the former territory of the dty of Nuremberg did belong the towns 
of Grafenberg (with 1,100 inhabitants), and BeUenttein (with 700 inhabitants), 
the village of Egglofstein (with 650 inhabitants), etc 

v. The circU of Central Frangonia, comprising the former prindpality 
of Ansbach, the Lowland of Bayreuth (see above), the cify of Nuremberg 
and its former territory, eta 1. The former principality of Afubaeh (a his- 
torical sketch of which, together with other particulars, is given above, under 
the head of Bayreuth), contains: -^^i^bba^^b* ^ An*paeh (anciently also 
called OnoUhaeh\ formerly its capital and princely residence, at present the 
capital of Central Franconia, on the Franconia Rezat river, south-westward 
and 28 miles distant from Nuremberg, with various manufiictures, and 18,000 
inhabitants. The former palace of the margraves, or princes, of Ansbadi 
was reared in the years 1687 and 1688, and is at present noted for a valuable 
library and gallery of paintings. Schwabach, a celebrated manufiictnriiig 
town, southward and 9 miles distant from Nuremberg, has 8,800 inhabHanta, 
and is especially noted for its pins and needlea Another renowned mamilac- 
turing town is Furth, in the vicinity of Nuremberg, with 16,000 inhabitants. 
Heilbbronn (not to be confounded with Heilbronn in Wirtemberg), a markets 
town on the little Schwabach river, south-westward and 10 mOes distant from 
Nuremberg, is remarkable as the burying-place of most of the ancient bur- 
graves of Nuremberg, and has 860 inhabitants. Other more or less remark- 
able towns are : Uffenheim (vnih 1,760 inhabitants), W<U9ertrHdtng€n {wiih 
2,100 inhabitants), Feuehtutang (with 2,600 inhabitants), WindAach (with 1,250 
inhabitants), J/erA;«9u2i>i/( with 860 inhabitants), i7«>db>Adm (with 1,900 



GERMANY. S21 



The Kingdom of BayariA— 418 Geofnphloal DItIbIoim. 



habitants), Kadohburg (with 1,400 inhabitants), Chmxenhanum (with 2,700 
inhaUtants), and Zeuierthatuen (with 1,500 inhabitanta). 2. The eo-called 
Louiand of Bayreuth (to distinguish it from the above-mentioned more 
mountainous Highland of Bayreuth) contains: Erulngsn, a town on the 
Regnitz, northward and 12 miles distant from Nuremberg, has 11,000 inhabi- 
tants, and is noted for its uniyersitjr. Other towns are : Neuttadt an der 
Aiteh (on the Aisch river, with 3,200 mhabttants), Baiersdorf (with 1,600 
inhabitants), and Markt-Mrlbaeh (with 1,800 inhabitants). 8. The ancient 
territory of the formerly independent, or imperial city of Nuremberg (in the 
long period from the 10th century to 1806), contains : Nuakmbkro (in Oer> 
man Niirnberg\ a city on the Pegnitx river, 96 miles north-north-west of 
Munich, and south-westward and 140 miles distant from Leipaic, has 48,000 
inhabitants, was in the middle ages and in later periods highly celebrated for 
itA inland trade, manufactures, and its collection of works of art, and is at 
present the most important trading and manufacturing place at least in Ba- 
varia. Its city hall, reared in the period from 1618 to 1619, is one of the 
largest in Germany, and contains valuable pictures of Albert Dtlrer, which 
are also to be found in the beautiful St Sebaldus* and St Laurentius* churches. 
The above-mentioned (see page 818) castle and ancient residence of the bur- 
graves was in 1427 sold to the dty. Within the limits of Nuremberg's for- 
mer territory were, among other places, situated : Altdorf, a town on the 
Schwarzach river, 14 miles eastrsouth-east of Nuremberg, has 8,000 inhabi- 
tants, and was formerly noted for its university (instituted in 1678, and in 
1809 united with the university of Erlangen), where in 1699 Wallenstein 
made his studies. Hsbsbsuok, a town on the Pegnitz, has 2,400 inhabitants, 
and is noted for its excellent hops. Lauf, a town on the Pegnitz, with vari- 
oos manufactures, and 8,100 inhabitants. 4. Other imperial cities were until 
the year 1808 the foUowmg: Rothenbubo ak deb Taubbb (surnamed thus, 
because it is situated on the Tauber river, has several remarkable churches, 
and 6,600 inhabitants), Dinkbubbuhl (like the former, situated near the fron- 
tier of Wirtemberg, has 6,000 inhabitants), Windshbdc (north-westward and 
18 miles distant from Ansbach, with many breweries, and 8,600 inhabitants), 
and Weissenbobo (commonly surnamed im Ncrdgau^ south-eastward and 28 
miles distant from Ansbach, with various manufacture^ numerous breweries, 
and 4,800 inhabitants). 6. To the Teutonic order (see page 46) did belong: 
Ellingen, a town on the Swabian Rezat river, south-eastward and 27 miles 
distant from from Ansbach, with an extensive palaee, and 1^600 inhabitaQftM. 

14* 



Zn EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Gennany.— Kingdom of Bavaria. 

EDingen and its dependencies (forming together a territory of 85 square inileB 
in extent) belong at present to the descendants of the late Bayariaa field' 
manhal, Wreda 6. The formerly sorereign, immediate bUkoprie of EHehmaA 
(institnied in 741, and secalariced in 1808), whose territory (469 square miles, 
and in 1808 with 56,000 inhabitants) forms at present a mediate principality, 
belonging to the duke of Lenchtenberg (see above), contains: Eichbtaut, its 
capital, on the Altm&hl, 60 miles north-north-west of Munich, has 7,000 in- 
habitants, and is noted for its cathedral and other public edifices. Spalt; a 
town on the Franconian Rezat river, southward and 22 miles distant finom 
Nuremberg, has 1,850 inhabitants, and is renowned for its hops. Other towns 
are : Beilnffries (with 1,200 inhabitants), Berching (with 1,600 inhabitants), 
Abenberg (with 1,200 inhabitants), Oreding (with 1,160 inhabitants), Ser- 
riedm (1,450 inhabitants), and Ohmbau (with 850 inhabitants). 7. To vari- 
ous mediatized princes belong the following territories : of ffoketdohe-Sekil' 
lingrfurtt (21 square miles, and 8,800 inhabitants) ; of Schtoartenberg (101 
square miles, and 12,600 inhabitants ; the prince of this name resides oom< 
monly in Vienna) ; and of Pappenheim (75 square miles, and 9,800 inhabi- 
tants, belonging to the earl of this name, who resides in tiie town of Papfkh- 
BBiic, romanti<»lly situated on the Altmuhl, near Eichstadt, and having 
2,250 inhabitants). The town of Markt-Einerikeim (with 600 inhabitants), 
belongs to the count of Rechtem-Limpurg, and the town of BurghoMiaidi 
(with 1,000 inhabitants), to the count of GastelL 

VL The eireU of Lower FaANOoiaA and Asohaffbxburo, comprismg 
chiefly the former sovereign, or independent bishopric of Wilrzburg, and tiie 
prindpahty of Aschafienburg. 1. The territory of the former independent 
hifhopric of Wurtburg (instituted in 741, and secularized in 1803, at which 
period its extent was 1,917 square miles, with 240,000 inhabitants) oontadns: 
-{-WuazBOBG, fortified capital on the Mayne, half way between Frankfort 
and Nuremberg, with considerable trade, various manufactures, and 27,600 
inhabitants. Wurzburg is noted for its splendid and extensive palace (form- 
erly the residence of the bishop^ and reared in the period from 1720 to 1740), 
its university, and its excellent wines. KrrzDcauc, a town on the Majne, 
•ontb-eastward and 14 miles distant from Wilrzburg, is noted for its brewe- 
ries, and has 5,100 inhabitants. Kissingkn, a town on the Franoonian Saale, 
northward and 82 mUes distant from Eitsngen, has 1,800 inhabitants, and is 
noted for its mineral waters and salt-springs, and much resorted to for bath- 
ing. KtHnesvofSN, sumamed tm Qtclfddn, a town on the Franconian Saale, 



GERMANY. 35» 



The Kingdom of BaTarift— its Geographical Diririoos. 



westward and 23 miles distant from Goburg, with 1,750 inhabitaot& JShem 
(with 1,200 inhabitants), BoMfurt (with 1,960 inhabitants), EUmann (with 
1,500 inhabitants), OeroUhofen (with 2,200 mhabitanto), Volkaeh (with 2,100 
inhabitants), BeUdhach (with 2,500 inhabitants), Ochtenfurt (with 2,300 in* 
habitants), Aub (with 1,050 inhabitants), CarUtadt (with 2,250 mhabttants), 
Amatein (with 1,600 inhabitants), OemuTiden (with 1,650 inhabitants), Mun- 
tierttcuU (with 1,650 inhabitants), Newtadt an der Saale (with 1,500 inhabi- 
tants), BUchofsheim var der Rhon (with 1,850 inhabitants), Fladvngtn (with 
050 inhabitants), and MellrichMtadi (with 1,850 inhabitants), more or less 
remarkable towns. 2. The fonner principality of Atelutjfenburg^ which, 
ontil 1808, did belong to the electorate of Mentz, and at that period had an 
area of 487 square miles, and a population of 70,800 inhabitants, oontains: 
AscHAFFKNBnaG, foTmerlj electoral residence next in rank to Menta, on the 
Mayne, between Frankfort and Wurzburg, with 0,500 inhabitants, a magnifi- 
cent palace (formerly electoral, at present royal), and seTenil other remarkable 
public edifices. The neighboring village of Bettingen (with 600 inhabitants) 
la noted for a battle against the French, which was won by King George IL 
of England, on the 27 th of June, 1743. Obembnrfff a town near the Mayne, 
with 2,000 inhabitants. Klingenberg, Pnttdten^ and Lohty towns on the 
Mayne, with respectively 1,050, 1,000, and 8,800 inhaUtants. Oab, a town 
half way between Folda and Aschaffenburg, has 4,500 inhabitants, and is 
noted for its salt-springs. Miltjcnskbo (on the Mayne, 22 miles south-south- 
east of Aschaffenburg, with 8,100 inhabitants), and Amorbaoh (near Milten- 
berg, with a magnificent princely palace, and 2,000 inhabitants), two towns 
beloqging at present, together with other neighboring places, to the prince of 
liKiNiNGEN. 8. The towns of Bbuckbnau (north-westward and 16 miles dis- 
tant from Kissingen, has 1,800 inhabitants, and is much resorted to as a 
watering-place), and Hammblburo (northward and 28 miles distant from 
Wurzburg, with 2,700 inhaUtants), did formerly belong to the territory of 
the immediate bishopric of Fulda. Sohwiinfuat, formerly an imperial dty 
(since the 14th century to 1808), on the Mayne, 28 miles north-north-east of 
Wurzburg, with 7,400 inhabitants. Oastbll, the capital of a mediate earl- 
dom of the same name, between Kitsingen and Bamberg, has 750 inhabitants, 
and is noted for its wines. Wieaentheid (a market-town, with 1,150 inhabi- 
tants), and Gaibaeh (a village, with 450 inhabitants, and a beautiful palace), 
belong to the earl of Sehonbom. The market-towns of Euein-Hkubaoh and 
K&kuz-Wbbtbbkiic, on the Mayne, with respectively 1,700 and 850 inhabi- 



824 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Oermaiiy. — Kingdom of BaTula. 

tanta, and noted fur their wines, belong at present to the mediatized prince 
of Lotoenttein- Werthheim. 

VIL The circle of Swabia and Neuburo, comprising the territories of 
numerous formerly sovereign or immediiite princes, prelates, etc — all together 
(with the exception of the principality of Neuburg) belonging to the Swabian 
circle of the German empire (see above, page 292). The name of Steabia 
occurs in Germany very frequently in common life, and has geographically 
the same signification as formerly that of *' Swabian circle" (see page 299). 
It is derived from the ancient Suevians, who were first commonly known by 
the name of Alemanni, and subsequently called Swabians. In the beginning 
ot the lOth century, Swabia was raised to a duchy, with which in 1094 the 
celebrated house of Mohentiaufen was invested ; that retained it until itself 
became extinct in 1268. Since, the duchy was divided in vaiious smaller 
territories. 1. ImpeHal cities^ until 1803 (Augsburg until 1806), were the 
following : *f>AcGBBUBO, at present the capital of this circle, on the liech, 
north-westward and 88 miles distant from Munich, has 88,000 inhalntants, and 
so many stately public and private buildings, tliat Sir Robert Peel, who was 
here several years ago, declared it to be the finest city he ever had seen. At 
least, Augsburg may boast of the solidity and tasteful style of most of its 
buildings. Among its public edifices are especially to be noticed : the city 
hall (the most magnificent in Germany, both with regard to its exterior and 
interior; it was reared in the beginning of the 17th century, and contains, 
among other numerous rooms, a richly decorated hall, 110 feet long, 58 broad, 
and 52 feet high), the Gothic cathedral (whose foundation was laid in the lOth 
century), several other churches, the chapel where, on the 26th of June, 15S0, 
the Lutheran confession of faith was presented to Charles V., etc In the 
15th and 16th century, Augsbuig was the ciiief staple place for the goods 
conveyed overland between Antwerp and Venice ; and is still noted for its 
inland trade and mannJaetures. Kxmptsn, formerly an imperial dty, on the 
lller, 60 miles southrsouth-west of Augsburg, has 7,800 inhabitants. Katrr- 
BEUBKN, until 1808 an imperial city, on the Wertach river, 40 miles south- 
south-west of Augsburg, with 8,800 inhabitants. MsmavoxN, formerly an 
imperial city, near the lller river, south-westward and 44 miles distant firom 
Augsburg, has 8,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its hops. Lindau, respect- 
ively, until 1790 and 1805, an imperial dty, on the lake of Constance, south- 
westward and 100 miles distant from Munich, is fortified, and has 4.S50 
inhabitants. Nordlinobn, until 1808 an imperial city, near the frontier of 



OERMANT. 826 



The Kingdom of Bavaria— ilB Geogmpbieal DivisioiM. 



Wirtemberg, eastward and 60 miles distaoi from Stottgart, with 6,700 inhab- 
itants, a remarkable Gothic church, and considerable manutEictures of woollens 
and linen, is noted for the decisive battle on the 7th of September, 1634, and 
situated in the so-called i2iM, a district renowned for its extraordinary fertility 
of the soiL Donauwobrth, formerly an imperial city (but aotoally only until 
1607), on the Danube, northward and 27 miles distant from Augsburg, with 
2,700 inhabitants. 2. To the formerly sovereign or immediate Hthoprie of 
A-ugtburg (instituted in 590, and secularized in 1808 : but for the cathedral, it 
had nothing in common with the city of Augsburg) did belong: Dilunokn, a 
town on the left bank of the Danube, north-westward and 28 miles distant 
from the city of Augsburg, was formerly the residence of the bishop, and has 
8,500 inhabitant& In the period from 1562 to 1804, a university was here. 
FusasEN, a town on the Upper Lech, near the frontier of Tyrol, is noted for a 
treaty of peace concluded here in 1745 between Austria and Bayaria, and 
has 1,800 inhabitants. Orahen^ a village, with only 400 inhabitants, but 
remarkable as the ancestral seat of the princes and earls of Fugger, whose 
ancestor, John Fugger, emigrated in 1870 to Augsburg as a poor linen-weaver, 
yet by his industry laid the foundation to the immense riches of liis descend- 
ants. 8. The following towns did belong to various immediaie abbeys secular- 
ised in 1808, as: Gboknsnbaoh, with 1,750 inhabitants, and Obergwueburg, 
with 1,400 inhabitants (to the abbey of Eempten, instituted in 778) ; Ono- 
BKUBEN, with 1,500 inhabitants (to the abbey of the same name, instituted in 
764); other abbeys were : Uraberg (instituted in 1126), Roggenbwrg (instituted 
in 1 126), Weiietihaua«n (instituted in 982), etc. 4. The former margrwiate of 
BurgaUf which belonged to Austria in the period from 1801 to 1805, contains : 
BuKGAU, a town on the Mindel river, north-westward and 28 miles distant 
from Augsburg, with 2,500 inhabitants. Gitsnzbuko, a town on the Danube, 
north-eastward and 14 miles distant from Ulm, has 8,200 inhabitants, and is 
noted for its bleacheries. Xrumbaeh, a market-town, with 1,850 inhabitants, 
is noted for its linea 5. The former lortkhipi of Minddheim and SeHwabeek^ 
of which in 1612 Bavaria became possessed of (in the period from 1706 to 
1714, the duke of Marlborough was invested with Mindelheim), contains: 
MiicoKLHKiM, a town on the Miodel river, south-westward and 80 miles distant 
from Augsburg, with a royal castle, several churches, and 2,700 inhabitants. 
Twrkhehn and llleriiaaen^ market-towns, with respectively 1,650 and 1,200 
inhabitants. Immenstaot, a town, eastward and 27 mQes distant from Lindau, 
until 1804 beloQging to the Count Kdnigsegg-Qothenfela* has 1,200 inhabttants. 



8Se EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gemaay.— Kiagdon of Bavaria. 

and carries on a considerable linen trade. A. The depenident primcipaiUy of 
Okitinoen (belonging to the princes of Oettiqgen-WaUerstein and Oettingen- 
Spielbeiig, under the sovereignty of Bavaria, and having an area of 250 square 
miles, and a population of 42,(K)0 inhabitants), contains: Wallkrstkin, a 
town, and the residence of the prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein, in the above- 
mentioned Ries, near Nordlingen, with a stately princely palace, and 2,000 
inhabitants. OrmNOEN , a town, and the residence of the prince of Oettingen- 
Spielbeig, on the Wemitz, 9 miles noHh-north-east of Nordlingen, with two 
castles, or palaces, and 8,800 inhabitants. 7. The mediate dominions of the 
princeB and earU of FuooEa (whose ancestor lived at fint in the above-men- 
tioncMl village of Oraben), together, 298 square miles in extent^ and with 
80,000 inhabitants, yielding annually about 860,000 florins, contain, among 
others: Babkithausen, town and residence of the prince of Fugger^Babenhan- 
sen, south-westward and 88 miles distant from Augsburg, with 1,750 inhabit 
tants. GLorrr, toxni and residence of the earl of Fuggtir-Olott, north-westward 
and 22 miles distant from Augsburg, with 760 inhabitants. KiacHincnc, town 
and residence of the earl of Fugger-Kirchheim, in the vicinity of Babenhaoaen, 
with a beautiful palace, and 1,850 inhabitants. WaiasKNHoaN, town and 
residence of the earl of Fugger-Kirchberg-'Weiseenhom, north-westward and 
18 miles distant from Babenhausen, with 1,650 inhabitants 8. To the dependent 
earldom of Pappenheim (see under the head of Oentral Franoonm) bdongs 
the village of Solnhofbn (with 650 inhabitants), celebrated for its eztenetve 
quarries, whose slabs are wonderfully adapted to lithography. 9. The former 
principcdUy of NiUBuao (which, together wiUi Sulsbach, did primitively 
belong to the duchy of Bavaria, but in the period from 1507 to 1790 was 
possessed by a collateral line, when it was restored to Bavaria), contains: 
Nkitburo, sumamed <m the Danube^ a town on the Danube, 27 mflea nortlk* 
north-east of Augsburg, with a remarkable castle, and 6,660 inhabitants, 
Monheim, a town at the high-road between Augsburg and Nuremberg, with 
1,900 inhabitanta HoBCRSTAnr, a town on the Danube, 28 miles west-eoatik- 
west of Neuburg, has 2,600 inhabitants, and is noted for its remarkable Gothic 
castle, and two battles in 1708 and 1704, the latter of which is commonly 
named after the neighboring village of BLiNoanM, or Biendheinu The towna 
of JAnUnff&H and Oundef/ingenf have respectively 4,000 and 8,800 inhabi- 
tants. 

Yin. The «tVe{0 of the pALATiNATit (2,247 square miles, and 608,000 inliab- 
Itsnts) comprises chiefly territories, which, both poUticaUy and in oamaioci 



aERMANY. 827 



The Kingdom of Bavaria-- Its Geographical Dlvlsioiii. 



life, we^ and are etiU, known by the name of Palatinate. The political par- 
ticolars will be found below. 1. As capital of this circle, we mast first describe : 
-[-Spnix, one of the oldest former imperial cities (in 1801 ceded to France, 
and in 1814 to Bavaria), on the Rhine, southward and 46 miles distant from 
Mentz, and north-eastward and 70 miles distant from Strasburg, with 17 
drarcbes, and 9,600 inhabitants. Julius Ciesar resided frequently at Spire, 
whidi in the middle ages was the burial-place of Qerman emperors, whose 
highly remarkable sepulchres are to be seen in its magnificent Gothic cathedral 
In the period fit>m 1629 to 1691, Spire was the seat of the Imperial Chamber 
(see page 298). Landau, formerly likewise an imperial dty, south-westward 
and 18 miles distant from Spire, has 6,500 inhabitants, is strongly fortified, 
and was in the period from 1680 to 1815 possessed by France. To the former 
soTereign or immediaie hhhoprie of Spire (which was instituted in 848, and 
aeci^arized in 1808, but had nothing in common with the dty of Spire), did 
belong the towns of DsinESHsiif (noted for its wines, has 2,600 inhabitants), 
Sdeaheim (with 2,100 inhabitants), and Rheinzabem (with 2,100 inhabitants), 
and the villages of FotH (with 850 inhabitants) and Ungtiein (with 1,160 
inhabitants), noted for their wines. 2. To the former Electoral Palatinais 
(see its particulars under the head of Baden) did belong: FaAMXXNTHAL, 
Jinrmerly the third in rank among its capitals, near the Rhine, north-westward 
and 9 miles distant from Mannheim, is noted for its various manufiustures, and 
has 6,000 inhabitants. Neustadt, sumamed an der ffaardt, a town at the foot 
of the Haardt Mountains, westward and 18 miles distant from Spire, is noted 
for its wines, and has 6,160 inhabitants. In its neighborhood is situated the 
litde village of Hakbach, with the ruins of an andent castle, reared by 
Emperor Henry IV. GxaMERSHKiM, a fortified town on the Rhine, southward 
and 18 miles distant from Spire, with 2,800 inhabitants. Rodolph of Haps- 
burg died here on the 15th of July, 1291. KAissasLAUTERii (frequently also 
called Zautem)y a town on the Lauter river, 36 miles west-north-west of Spire, 
with 7,460 mhabitants. Wolfbtsin, a town on the Lauter river, north-west- 
ward and 12 miles distant from Kaiserslautem, has 1,000 inhabitants, and is 
noted for its quicksilver mines. Other more or less remarkable towns are : 
Oggertheim (with 1,700 inhabitants), Wacke^iheim (with 8,000 inhabitantsX 
JEdenkoben (with 6,000 uihabitanta), Otterherg (with 2,600 inhabitants), Roeh- 
efihau9en (with 1,800 inhabitants), and Lautereek (with 1,200 inhabitants). 
8. Ilie former patoHne principality of Zweibrueken (which primitively be- 
longed to the house of the Palatinate, and since the beginning of the 16t^ 



8«8 EUROPE, PAST AJH) PRESENT. 

Gennany.— Kingdom of BaTarU. 

oentury was aa independent or immediate principality oitil 1799, when its 
sovereign, Mft-gimUiftn Joseph, inherited all Bavaria and Electoral Palatinate), 
contains : ZwsiBauscKxir, or Deux-PonU (its French and English name), far- 
merly the capital of the principalttj, on the Erbach river, westward and 50 
miles distant from Spire, with manufactures, and 7,800 inhabitants. Aioi- 
WEiLKR, a town on the Queich, 28 miles west-south-west of SjHre, with 2,800 
inhabitants, and the remarkable ruins of the once so-renowned castle of 
TrifeU, where King Richard of the Lion Heart was kept prisoner in 119S. 
Other towns are : Hombwrg (northward and 9 miles distant from Deux-Ponts, 
with 8,200 inhabitants), Bergzabem (with 2,900 inhabitante), Outel (with 2,400 
inhabitants), and Obermoaehd (with 1,200 inhabitants). 4. The former Icrd- 
$hip of Hanau-Liehtenberg (which in the period from 1786 to 1801 did belong 
to Hesse-Darmstadt), contains : Pikmasknz, a town in the vicinity of Zwei- 
brucken, has 6,800 inhabitants, and was in the middle of last century the 
residence of the landgrave Louis IX. of Hesse-Darmstadt 5. The former 
earldom of Leiningen (which belonged to the house of this name, but was in 
1814 ceded to Bavaria), contains the towns of Durkhehk, or Turkhehn (with 
4,600 inhabitants), and Grusnstadt (with 3,600 inhabitants). 6. To varioos 
other former sovereigns did belong : Lamdstuhl, a town in the vicinity of 
Kaiserlautem, with 1,960 inhabitants (did belong to the count of Sicklngen) ; 
Bluskastel, a town in the neighborhood of Zweibfucken, with 2,000 inhabt- 
itants (belongs still to the prince of the Leyen) ; Winnweilkr (was formerly 
the capital of the earldom of Falkenstein, and has 1,400 inhabitants^ and 
GoKLLHSiM, or Oellheim (a market-town, north-westward and 20 miles distant 
from Mannheim, noted for the battle on the 2d of June, 1298, and with 1,750 
inhabitants, did beloQg to a collateral line of the house of Nassau). 



GERMANY. dft9 



Tht Kingdom of WirlemberK* 



lY.— THE KINGDOM OF WIRTEMBERG. 

AsKA : 7^61 square miles. 
Population: 1,750,000 inhabitants. 

WiRTEMBERo (officially stjled Wurtitmberg in German) is 
situated between Bavaria and Baden, and surrounded by these 
states, except on the south, where it is washed by the waters of 
the lake of Constance. 

The majority of the population consists of Lviherans^ and the 
Temainder (with the exception of about 12,000 Jews) of 500,000 
Itoman Catholics, with a bishop in Bottenburg. 

The chief mountain-range is the Swabian Alp, and next to it 
the eastern part of the Black Forest (see page 7). The Neckar 
(one of the tributaries of the Bhine), with its branches of the 
Kocher and Jaxt^ crosses the country in the direction from south 
to north, and the Danube in the direction from west to east. 
Besides the lake of Constance, the Feder lake deserves to be 
noticed. 

The chief natural products are : grain (sufficiently raised not 
only for home consumption, but also for exportation), wifiesy 
fruits (as, apples, pears, cherries, etc.), and timber; furthermore, 
cattle, horses, and sheep ; finally, iron and saU, 

Among the manufactures of Wirtemberg, those of linen have 
long since been renowned. Other principal articles are : wool- 
len, cottons, leather, cTitlery, etc. The inland trade is rather consid- 
erable. 

The means of education are well arranged. Besides a uni- 
versity at Tabingen (see page 287), which in 1846 was frequented 
by 863 students, there are 3 lycca, 6 gymnasia, 78 Latin schools, 



8S0 EUROPE, PAST AIXD PRESENT. 

Oemuny.— Kingdom of Wlrtemberg. 



several seminaries, etc. (see tbe note, page 65), and 2,256 oom- 
mon schools. 

The government is a limited monarchy, the sovereign power 
being vested in a king and two legislative chambers. In the 
budget for the period of 1844-1845, the public revenue was esti- 
mated at 10,869,807 florins, and the expenditure at 10,711,210 
florins per annum. The public debt amounted on the first of 
July, 1840, to 22,695,068 florins. The regular army consists on 
the peace footing of 7,426 men, and on the war footing of 20,094 
men and 4,988 horses. Troops to be furnished with regard to 
the German confederacy, 13,955 men. 

There are the following orders of honor: — 1. The military order 
of merits in 3 classes, and instituted respectively in 1806 and 
1818. 2. The order of the Wlrtemberg crovm, instituted in 1818. 
3. The Frederic's order, instituted in 1830, in commemoration of 
the late king, Frederic I. 

History. — ^The kernel of the present kingdom of Wirtemberg ooosists of 
the ancient duchy of Wirtemherg^ which prior to the year 1495 was an earl- 
dom^ primarily forming part of the above-mentioned (page 824) dudiy of 
Swabia. The first hittorieally known earl of Wirtemberg was UJric Z, who 
reigned in the period of 1246-1266, and whose patrimonial dominions em- 
braced only small parts of the present Neckar and Black Forest circles. His 
son (-|-1825) and grandson extended the limits of the earldom by annexing 
to it neighboring districts, which they either inherited or pmxfaased. That 
Mompdgard was towards the end of the 14th century acquired by marriage, 
has already been mentioned under the head of France, page 208. In this 
way the earldom (whose name was derived from the ancestral castle of Wir- 
tineberg, or Wurtemberg, near Oanstadt) gradually increased to an ext«it, 
that Emperor Maximilian L was induced to raise it to the dignity of a dMcAy 
in 1496. Its last duke, since 1797, was Frederic IL, who in the treafy of 
peace concluded at Luneville in 1801, ceded Mompelgard to France, but was 
in 1808 amply indemnified by the territories of several immediate prelates 
and imperial cities ■, at the same time the electoral title was conferred on him. 
By the terms of the treaty of Presburg in 1806, the eaildom of HohenbeiK 



OEBMASTT. 8S1 



The Kinsdom of Wlitembeiv— Ito OaognpUoil DirlsloiM. 



and seyeral other dominioiM, were ceded to Mm, and he aflsomed the royal 
tUU. He died, as King Frederic L, in 1816, and was soooeeded by his aooi 
the still reigiUDg kingi William I^ bom in 1781. 

The kingdom is, sinoe 1817, divided into 4 provinces, styled 
circUsj which are subdivided into 64 bailiwicks. The capitals of 
the circles will be found marked with a cross (-}-)• 

L The Keokas Cikcls, comprising chiefly parts of the ancient duehy of 
Wirtemberfff containing : STcrroAaT, capital of the kingdom, and royal resi- 
dence, on the little Nesenhach river, a branch of the Xeckar, south-eastward 
and 40 miles distant from Carlsruhe, and north-westward and 120 mQes dis- 
tant from Munich, has 46,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its magnificent 
royal palace, its opera-house, and its royal library, which, among other 
raluable works, contains a collection of 12,000 bibles, in 68 difierent lan- 
guages. Stuttgart has been the seat of its sorereigns since the year 1321. 
-[-LunwiasBURG, capital of the Neckar Circle, near the Neckar, northward 
and 9 miles distant from Stuttgart, has 10,700 inhabitants, and is noted for its 
extensire royal palace, containing valuable collections of paintings, etc. In 
its vicinity is situated the market-town of Aspzao, with 1,700 inhabitants, 
and the fortress, or fortified castle of Hohenasperg. Canstatt, a town on the 
Neckar, and in the vicinity of Stuttgart, has 6,500 inhabitants, and is noted 
for its mineral waters. Other more or less remarkable towns are : Mark- 
grdningen (with 8,000 inhabitants), Vaihingen (with 8,200 inhabitants), 
Lauffen (with 4,000 inhabitants), Braekenheim (with 1,700 mhabitants), GUff- 
glingen (with 1,500 inhabitants), Besigheim (with 2,500 inhabitants), Bietig- 
heim (with 2,900 inhabitants), Bdnnigheim (with 2,400 inhabitants), Neustadt 
an dtr Linde (with 1,500 inhabitants), Mbehnuhl (with 1,600 inhabitants), 
Widdem (with 1,400 inhabitants), Marhaeh (with 2,500 inhabitants), Orot^- 
boUvMT (with 2,500 inhabitants), Baeknang (with 4,500 inhaUtants), Murrhard 
(with 2,600 inhabitants), Waihlingen (with 8,100 inhabitants), Winnendm 
(with 8,100 inhabitants), Bbhlingen (with 8,400 inhabitants), Sindelfingen 
(with 8,700 inhabitants), and Leonberg (with 2,200 inhal^tants). The viUage 
of Maulbkonx is remarkable for its ancient Cistercian monastery (instituted 
in 1187), which after the Reformation was transformed into a theological 
aeminary. WsiNSBBaG, a town on the Sulm river, northward and 28 miles 
distant from Stuttgart^ with the ruins of a once highly renowned castle, and 



m EtTBOPE, PAST AJfD PRESElfr. 

C a iiiii y.-'KlagdoM of Wlrtembeis. 

2,100 inhabitanta. Obertienfeld, a markei>town between Stuttgart and 
Weinsberg, has 1^00 inhabitantB^ and is noted for its pensoonnaire, orboard- 
ing-scfaool for yoong ladies of rank. In its vicinity is situated the solitary 
village of Prevorttf with 460 inhabitants. 2. Tlie following were imperial 
eitie» until 1808 : HnLBRomc, a city on the Neckar, northward and 20 mfles 
distant from Stuttgart^ has 11,700 inhabitants, carries on a considerable in- 
land trade, and is noted for its manufactures. Esbum gen, formerly an impe- 
rial city, on the Neckar, south-eastward and 7 miles distant fit>m Stuttgart, 
has 12,100 inhabitants^ and is noted for its optical and other similar instm- 
i2)<*Qt8, and its wines. Wkil, formerly an imperial city, on the Wurm river, 
and north-westward and 9 miles distant from Stuttgart, has 2,000 inhabitants, 
and is remarkable as the birth-place of the celebrated astronomer Keppler 
(bom in 1671, and +1630 at Ratisbon). 8. The mediate earldom of Lowen- 
ttein (68 square miles, and 7,000 inhabitants), belonging to the prince of 
Lowenstein, contains : Lowknstein, its capital, in the vicinity of Weinsberg, 
is noted as a watering-place, and has 2,000 inhabitants. 4. The mediate 
lordship of Schwaigem, belongs to the earl of Heipperg, (8(»-in-law of the 
reigning king of Wirtemberg), and contains, among others, the town of 
SoHWAiGERN, with a palace of the earl, and 2,000 inhabitants. 6. Hie towns 
of Neekartulm (with 2,600 inhabitants), and OundeUheim (with 1,200 inhabi- 
tants), formerly belonged to the Teutonic order. 

IL The Black Forxst Cibole, comprising other parts of the ancient dodiy 
of Wirtemberg, the former earldom of Hohenberg, and the following (until 
1608) imperial eitiei : 4-REUTUNaxM, at present the capital of this circle, south- 
ward and 18 miles distant from Stuttgart, is noted for its numerous printing- 
offices and manufactures, and has 12,800 inhabitants. Ronwxu^ formerly 
an imperial city, on the Neckar, south-westward and 82 miles distant fitxn 
Keutlingen, with considerable trade, and 6,600 inhabitants. 2. The former 
earldom of Hohenberg^ which since 1881 did belong to Austria, and was 
ceded to Wirtemberg in 1606, containing: RoTnofBuao, a city in the neighbor- 
hood of Tilbingen, is the residence of the Catholic bishop of Wirtemberg, and 
noted for its musical instruments, and has 6,600 inhabitants. Hoaa, a town 
on the Neckar, with doth manufoctures, and 2,060 inhabitants. Other towns 
are: 06<frm2or/(with 1,900 inhabitants), Sehramberg (with 2,800 inhabitants)^ 
Spaiehingen (with 1,800 uihabitants), Schemberg (with 1,600 inhabitants), and 
JiHcdingen (with 1.000 inhabitants). 8. The ancient duehy of Wirtemberg, 
within the limits of this circle, contains : Tukbinokt, considered as the seoood 



QERMANT. 88t 



The Kingdom of Wirtemberg^its Geognphleal DMelons. 



capital of the kingdom, on the Neckar, 18 mUes south-south-west of Stutt- 
gart, has 9,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its university (see above and 
page 287). UaACH, a town on the Rough Alp, south-eastward, and 20 mUes 
distant from Stuttgart, has 8,500 inhabitants, and is renowned for its damask 
linen. In its vicinity is situated the town of Metzhtgin, surnamed vnter 
Uraeh (beneath, or at the foot of Urach), with 4,200 inhabitants, and noted 
for its wines and oom-markets. Ehningxn, the largest and finest market-town 
in the kingdom, in the neighborhood of Reutlingen, has 5,000 inhabitants, 
who for the most part consist of pedlars. Pfullin gvn, a romantically situa- 
ted town, near Reutlingen, with 4,000 inhabitants, is noted for its fruits and 
wines. Calw, one of the most industrious manu&ctuiing towns in the coun- 
try, westward and 22 miles distant from Stuttgart, with 4,500 inhabitants. 
The neighboring village of fftrtehau (with 800 inhabitants), was once noted 
for its magnificent Benedictine convent, instituted in 880. llie romantically 
situated viUage of Deinach (with 500 inhabitants), is much resorted to as a 
watering-place. Other noted watering-places are the towns of Liehenzell 
(with 1,1U0 inhabitants), and WUdbad (with 1,800 inhabitants). TinTUNGEif, 
a town on the upper Danube, 28 miles north-north-west of Constance, has 
6,700 inhabitants, carries on a considerable corn-trade, and is noted for its 
znnnufiu^ures of cutlery. Not fiir from here is situated, on a solitary steep 
rock, 2,174 feet high, the once celebrated fortress of Hohentwibl, now in 
ruins. The towns of Balingen (with 3,200 inhabitants), and Bhingen (with 
4,400 inhabitants), carry on a consdderable trade in com and cattle. Other 
more or less remarkable towns are : Nurtingen (noted for its musical instru- 
ments, has 8,900 inhabitants), Neuffen (with 1,800 .inhabitants), Orotgingen 
(with 1,100 inhabitants), Herrenherg (with 2,200 inhabitants), Nagold (with 
2,600 inhabitants), AUetitteig (with 2,100 inhabitants), Bulach (with 1,800 in- 
habitants), Neueiiburg (with 1,700 inhabitants), Freudenttadt (with 4,100 in- 
habitants). DomtUUen (with 1,250 inhabitants), Alfdnpach (with 1,800 
inhabitants), Stdz (with 2,200 inhabitants), and Domhan (with 1,500 inhabi- 
tants). 

IIL The Danube Cirolb, comprising only a small part of the ancient duchy 
of Wtrtemberg, while the remainder consists of territories annexed to the 
kii^om smce the year 1803. -f-ULM, at present the capital of this drtHe^ 
formerly an imperial city, on the Danube at its junction with the Uler, south, 
eastward and 46 miles distant from Stuttgart, and westward and 42 miles 
distant from Augsburg, is strongly fortified, and has 18,400 inhabitants, and 



SM EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Genna&ytf— Kiiigd(Nn of Wirtomberg. 

Vff besides for numerous mannfactures, especially noted for its magnifioeat 
Gothic minster or cathedral, which is 4^5 feet long, 200 wide, and 141 feet 
high, and whose steeple is 887 feet in height In the middle ages, Ulm was 
b high reputation for its extensive trade. In 1806 the Austrian general 
Mack capitulated here with 80,000 mea Ulm had, being an imperial dtj, 
ft considerable territory, which, among other places, contained Oeidinffen, 
ft town with 2,200 inhabitants, and noted for its fine turneries in iTory, 
horn, Ac Ismt, an imperial town until 1808, near the firontier of BaTsriai 
with important linen trade, and 2,000 inhabitants. It belongs at present to 
the count of QuadL Wanoen, formerly an imperial city, westward and 9 
miles distant from Isny, with various manu&ctures, and 1,700 inhabitanta. 
liEUTKiaoB, likewise an imperial city until 1808, southward and 40 miles dis- 
tant from Ulm, is noted for its linen, and has 2,200 inhabitants. Buobhobi^ 
an imperial city until 1808, on the lake of Constance, received by the late 
king Frederick L, the name of Friedriehsha/en, and has 1,800 inhabitants. 
RAVKNSBoaa, likewise an imperial city formerly, 46 miles south-south-west of 
Ulm, with various manufectures, important trade, and 6,800 inhabitants. 
BiBXftAOB, an imperial city until 1808, on the little Rise river, 23 miles south- 
south-west of Ulm, with various manufactures, and 6,100 inhabitants. Buchau, 
formerly an imperial city, on the Feder lake, 9 miles west-south-west of Bib- 
erach, has 1,900 inhabitants, and is noted fcHr its stately castle or palace, of the 
prince of Thurn and Taxis (see Ratisbon), which was, until 1803, the seat of 
an independent abbey, instituted in the beginning of the 10th century. Aww^y 
the other formerly independent abbeys, is especially to be noticed the Benedic- 
tine abbey of Wkingabten (close by the market-town of Altdorf in the 
neighborhood of Ravensbuig), instituted in 920 as a nunnery, but in 1D47 
transformed into a monastery. Its buildings are magnificent and eztensivek 
and its churcli contains an organ with 6,666 pipes. In 1803, when this abbey 
was secularized, the house of Orange-Nassau became possessed of it^ bat m. 
1806 it was ceded to Wirtemberg. 2. Of the territories of 8 princes, wbo 
respectively until 1803 and 1806 were sovereign or independent, deserve to be 
noticed the dominions of the princes of Waldburg (181 square miles, and 
86,000 inhabitants), containing : Wukzaoh, a town in the neighborhood of 
Leutkirch, with 1,100 inhabitants, and a palace of the prince of Waldburg^ 
Zeil-Wurach, Aicfistetten (with 700 inliabitants), and Winterttettetutadi 
(with 460 inhabitante), market-towns. 8. The formerly so<»lled JSwAiam 
Auttria, which in 1806 was ceded by Austria to Wirtemberg, contaiziB! 



0£RMANT. 886 



The Kingdom of Wlrtemberiff— its Geographical DivisioDS. 

EHOfOKN, a town on the Schmiechen river, south-westward and 16 miles dis- 
tant firom Uhn, with considerable trade, and 8,000 inhabitants. Mondebkin- 
OKN, a town on the Danube, has 1,900 inhalntants, and is noted for its horse- 
marts. Saulgau, a town on the Schwarzach, with considerable corn-trade, 
and 2,800 inhabitants, is noted for its town-hall, and church with beautiful 
paintings on glam. Other anon or less remarkable towns are: Waidaee 
(with 1,800 inhabitants), Mengm (with 2,100 inhabitants), Riedlingen (with 
1,800 inhabitants), and Tettnang (with 1,400 inhabitants). The market-town 
of Lanffenargeti (with 1,100 inhabitants) is noted for its com trade. 4. The 
ancient duchy of Wirtemberg within the limits of the Danube circle, contains : 
BiAUBBDBBK, a town on the Blau, a branch of the Danube, westward and 9 
miles distant from Ulm, has 2,100 inhabitants, and is noted for its linen, and 
especially for its theological seminary, in the buildings of a former Benedic* 
tine convent) instituted in 1096. Gokppingkn, a town on the Fils river, 28 
miles east-south-east of Stuttgart^ is noted Ux its manufiustures, and has 6,600 
inbabttantSL In its vicinity is situated the market-town of HoBENsrAUFXir, 
with the ruins of the ancestral castle of the once so renowned family of this 
name, and 1,100 inhabitants. MuMsiNGsir, a town on the Rough Alp, westward 
and 28 miles distant from Ulm, is noted for its damask linen, and has 1,660 
inhabitants. Kibchrxim, sumamed tmier Teek, a town on the Lauter (a branch 
of the Danube, and thus not to be confounded with the Lauter in the Bava- 
rian palatinate), north-westward and 82 miles distant from Ulm, with 6,600 
inhabitants, various maouihetures, and the ruins of the ancient castle of Tick 
once the ancestral seat of the dukes of this name, whose dominions were pur- 
chased by the Earl Eberhard of Wirtemberg in 1881. 

lY. The Jazt Cibolb, comprising for the most part territories annexed to 
Wirtemberg since the year 1 808. Among them are : — 1. Those of the formerly 
sovereign or independent provwUhip of KUtoangen, which was instituted 
in 764 as a Benedictine convent, and secularixed in 1808, containing: -f-Eur 
1VANOEN, at present the capital of this circle, formerly the residence of the 
provost, on the Jazt river, north-eastward and 46 miles distant from Stuttgart^ 
-with remarkable GU>thic church, noted horse-marts, and 8,800 inhabitanta 
Wa8$eralfingen, a marketrtown, with iron-works, and 1,600 inhabitants. 
A^bUgem&nd^ a village on the Kocher, wiUi iron-works and 760 inhabitantu 
2. The following 6 cities were imperial cities until 1808: Hall, ot 8ehwabiaek 
MaU (Swabian Hall), on the Kocher, eastward and 27 mQes distant from 
Beilbroim, has 6^00 inhabitants, and is noted for its salt springs, Gtothk 



886 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germwiy. — Kingdom of WIrtemberg. 

diurdi, town-hall, and trade in cattle Omurd, or Sehwabisch Ommmd (an- 
dentlj it was called KatMerereuih), on the Renu river, was once renowned 
for its manufactures of glass, wax-candles, gold and silver articles, hut has at 
firesent only 7,000 inhahitanta Aalbn, on the Kocher, southward and 9 
Diiles distant from BUlwangen, is noted for its hreweries and iron-works, and 
has 8,300 iohabitants. GuraoEir, on the Bnmz river, has 2,860 inhabitants, 
and is noted for its mineral water and manufiutures of cutlery ; and Boptoi- 
GKN, iu the vicinity of Ellwangen, with 1,600 inhabitants. 8. Hie Teutonic 
Order, instituted (as has already been related, page 46) in Palestine in 1190, 
and since the year 1280 conquering the ancient Prussia, left it, since its aeco- 
lariaation in 1625, and went to (Germany, having there oonnderable dominion? 
(together, 809 square miles, with 84,000 inhabitants), which were secularised 
in 1809, and partly ceded to Bavaria, partly to Wirtembeig. The grand- 
master of the order resided at Meeokkthbim, a town on the Tauber, near the 
frontiers of Bavaria and Baden, with a beautiful church, mineral waters, and 
2,400 inhabitants. Lauohhkim, a town on the Jazt, with 1,200 inhabitants. 
4. To the former margraviate or principality of Anthach (see Bavarian drde 
of Central Franconia), did belong and were ceded to WIrtemberg in 1810: 
Crailshkim, or KraiUhcim (northward and 14 miles distant from Ellwangen, 
with numerous manufactures and 8,000 inhabitants), Ocrabronn (with 700 
inhabitants), and Creglingen (with 1,400 inhabitants), towns. 5. The formerly 
sovereign or independent, but since 1806 mediate principalities ^ Soken- 
lohct belonging to the princes of this name (descendants of Duke Eberhard 
of Franconia, brotlier to Emperor Conrad I.), who at present are divided into 
two chief branches; viz., the Catholic branch of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg 
(with the collateral lines of Bartenstein, Jaxtbei^^, and SchillingsfdrBt), and 
the Protestant branch of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (with the collateral lines of 
Langenburg, Kirchberg, and Oehringen, the latter being formerly named 
Ingelfingeii), and having together an area of 786 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of 114,000 inhabitants, contain: Obheinoen, a town on the Ohm river, 
north-eastward and 14 miles distant from Heilbroon, is the residence of the 
prince of Hohenlohe-Oehringen (formerly named Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen), and 
has 8,800 inhabitants Inoblpimokn, a town on the Kocher, with 1,660 inhab- 
itantsi LiNOBNBoao, a town on the Jazt, with 900 inhabitants, is the rosidenoe 
of the prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. KmcHBERO, a romantically situ- 
ated town on the Jaxt, eastward and 22 miles distant from Oehringen, has 
1,800 inhabitants, and is the residence of the prince of Hohenlohe<Kircfaberg. 



GERMANY. 8ii7 



The Kingdom of Wirtembarg— its Geographical DiTisions.— Grand-Dachy of Baden. 

B/LRTENStaVy a town 13 miles east-north-east of Ingelfingen, has 1,100 inhab- 
itants, and a stately palace of the prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein. Jaxt- 
BEac, a town on the Jaxt, with 1,400 inhabitants, belongs to the prince of 
Hohenlohe-Jaxtberg. The town of WALDXNBuaa (with 1,100 inhabitants), 
and the market-towns of Kupferzell (with 1,100 inhabitants), and Adolrfarth 
(with 600 inhabitants), belong to the prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingf&rst (see 
page 822). Other more or less remarkable towns of these principalities are : 
Neuenttein (with 1,600 inhabitants), Forehtenberg (with 1,600 inhabitants), 
KunvzeUau (with 2,650 inhabitants), Niedertihall (with 1,700 inhabitants), 
Weikertheitn (with 2,000 mhabitants), Sindringen (with 1,000 inhabitants), 
and Niederftetten (with 1,700 inhabitants). 6. The ancient duchy of Wir- 
tembergt within the limits of this circle, contains: ScHoaNDoaF, a town on tho 
Rema, 14 miles east-north-east of Stuttgart, with various manufactures, and 
8,700 inhabitants. BeuteUbach, a market-town in the neighborhood of Schom* 
dorf, has 1,900 inhabitants, and is remarkable as the burial-place of some of 
the ancient earls of Wirtemberg. Hxxoehhxih, a town on the Brenz, south- 
ward and 18 miles distant from Ellwangen, has 2,800 inhabitants, and is noted 
for its linen trade and numerous manufactures of linen, cotton goods and 
hardware. Welzheim^ a town north-eastward and 7 miles distant from 
Schomdor^ with 1,800 inhabitants, and considerable trade in flax and timber. 
Loreh (with 1,800 inhabitants), and K(inig9br<mn (with oooaiderable iron- 
works)^ market-towns. 



v.— THE GRANI>-DUOHY OF BADEN. 

Aeka : 6,982 square miles. 
Population: 1,879,000 inhabitants. 

It is situated along the right bank of the Rhine (by which 
river it is separated from France), on the south bound by Swit- 
zerland and the lake of Constance, and on the east bound by 
Wirtemberg. 

15 



i88 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germany. — Oiuiid-Dacfay of Baden. 



The population consists of about 804,000 Catholics (with an 
archbishop at Freiburg), 553,000 Protestants^ and 22,000 Jews, 

'rhe country in the neighborhood of the lake of Constaoce, and 
partly along the Rhine, is more or less level ; but in the interior 
Uie surface is mountainous. The chief mountain ranges are the 
Black Forest and the Odenwald (see page 7). The oountry is 
intersected by numerous branches of the Rhine (as for instance, 
the Aack^ Murg^ WiesCj Drej/sam^ Acker, PJinz, etc.), but its prin- 
cipal tributary here, is the Neckar. About the lakes^ see page 1 1. 
Otber remarkable lakes, in the Black Forest, are the Mumwui^ 
the Wilder^ and the NonTienmaitweiher lakes. There are about 60 
watering-places in the country, the most renowned of which are 
Baden and Ueberlingen. 

Borne parts of the country have a mostfertUe soil, especially the 
former margraviate of Baden ; others, as for instance some of the 
mountainous districts, are less fertile, and partly even sterile ; 
yet, upon the whole, the grand-duchy rivals Wirtemberg in the 
xtatural products. Thus, the chief staples are almost the same 
as in the just-named kingdom, perhaps with the exception of troji, 
which abounds in Baden more than in Wirtemberg. 

The manttfactures are various and mostly important. The prin* 
(vitli*\ftl articles of fabrication are clocks (nearly in all parts of the 
the Protestailiown by the name of Black Forest clocks), hardware 
Laogenburg, ILries, next to them lincTi, woollen, cotton goods and chemical 
Ingelfingeii), tocher inland trade is very considerable. 
tioQ of 114,000 the universities (see page 287) at Heidelberg (in 1846 
Dorth-eiwtwiupd i^y 854 gt^dents), and Freiburg (in 1845 frequented 
prince of Hohenl . v . . /, , ^ • / i. * *!. - 

has 8,800 inhaUti?^*®)' ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^°®*> ^ gymnasia (about the sig- 
itanta Lanoembui*^®®® terms, see page 65), 1,916 common, and 65 
of the prinoe of hof various distinction. 

ated town on the Joent is a limited monarchy like that of Wirtem- 
1^00 inhaWtanta. and^nly difTerence that the sovereign of Baden bears 



GERBftANY. 8S9 



Gruid-Ducby of Baden— its Finances and History. 



tbe title of grand duke. The public reveTiue in the two years 
1844 and 1845 amounted to 32,847,690 florins, and the total ez- 
penditure in these two years to 30,950,034 florins. In 1845 the 
public debt was 41,271,434 florins (inclusive of a loan of 14 mil- 
lions which had been contracted for constructing the rail-roads of 
' the country). The regular army consists respectively of 4,595 
and 10,423 men. The troops to the confederacy (see under the 
head of Bavaria and Wirtemberg) : 10,000 men. 

There are the following orders of honor: 1. The order of loyalty 
(Orden der Treue), in 2 classes, instituted in 1715, and renew- 
ed in 1803. 2. The military order cf merit, instituted by Charles 
Frederic in 1807, in 3 classes. 3. The order of the lion of Zah- 
ringeTij instituted in 1812, in 3 classes. 

Hiftory. — The present grand-ducby of Baden which, in respect to extent 
and population, rivals German kingdoms, was until the year 1808 a ftiar- 
graviate with an area of only 1,884 square miles, and a population of no 
more than 220,000 inhabitants. All the remainder has since been annexed to 
this primitive country, which was first under the sway of the Bertilons, but 
already in the 10th century under that of the Zdhringians^ whose ancestral 
seat was the casUe of the same name (now in ruins) near Freiburg. Berthold 
of Zabringen, proprietor of wealthy estates both in Swabia and Alsace, was 
in 1060 nominated duke of Carinthia and margrave of Verona, and since 
that period the title of margrave rested with the members of this dynasty. 
Berthold's son Hermann acquired Baden by marriage ; and his son of the 
same name was ihejirtt margrave of Bade^i, by the name of Hermann L He 
died in 1 180, and was succeeded by his son Hermann IL When in 1 190 his son 
Hermann HI. died, he left behind two sons, the younger of whom became the 
author of the collateral line of Hochberg. Margrave Christoph of Baden re- 
united the territories of both lines, but his sons Bernhard and Emesd divided 
them again, and there were two reigning lines of Bctdni-Baden, and Baderi' 
Dwrlaehy until they were once more and permanently reunited in 1771 1>y 
the margrave Charles Frederic of Baden-Durlach. The long reign of this 
sovereign (from respectively 1738 and 1746 to 1811) proved in every respect 
beaefidal to the country. By the treaty of LuneviUe m 1801 he lost some 



S40 EUROPE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gennaoy.— Grand-Dadiy of BadoD. 

territories on the left beak of the Rbinei but was amply indemnified in 180S 
by the Lower Palatinate, the territories of several prelates, imperial cities, etc, 
together at the extent of 1,949 square miles, with 216,000 inhabitants. At 
the same time he was raised to the dignity of an dectar^ and in 1806 to that 
of a grand duke^ and made fresh acquisitions in the years 1806, 1809 and 10. 
He died in 1811, and was succeeded by his grandson, Charles Louis Frederic, 
who died in 1818, and was succeeded by his uncle Louis, who died in 1890, 
and was succeeded by his step-brother, the still reigning grand duke Leopold^ 
bom in 1790. About the revolution in 1849 see above, page S05. 

The grand-duohy is, since 1832, divided into 4 provinces, styled 
circles, which are subdivided into 79 bailiwicks. The capitals 
of the circles are in the following topography marked with a 
cross (+). 

L The Middle Rhine Oikole, comprising chiefly the territories of the an- 
cient margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden, and besides them 
some former imperial cities, etc. 1. The ancient margraviate of Baden-Ihir- 
Icbch (formerly also styled the Lcnoer Margraviate of Baden), contains : Caels- 
EUHE, the capital of the whole country, and residence of the grand duke^ at 
3i Qiiles distance from the Rhine, north-westward and 40 miles distant from 
Stuttgart, has 24,800 inhabitants, is very regularly laid out and lan-efaaped, 
has many stately palaces, of which that where the grand duke resides is 
very extensive, and other remarkable public edifices, and is noted for its lite- 
rary institutions and manu&ctures. The foundation of the dty was laid in 
1716 by the margrave Charles of Baden-Durlach. On the Rhine is the vil- 
lage of 8chr6ckt with 700 inhabitants, and a landing at present called LeopMt- 
hafen, Ddelaoh, formerly the capital and residence of the margrave of 
Baden-Purlach, on the Pfinz, eastward and 2 miles distant fitHU Carlsnihe, 
with some manufactures and 5,000 inhabitanta. Grdtzingen, a village widi 
2,000 inhabitants, is noted for its madder and wines. Pfoezhedi, the mont 
important mannfarturing town in the country, on the Ens, south-eastward and 
14 miles distant from Carlsruhe, has 8,400 inhabitants, and its principal man- 
ufiactures are those of jewelleries and similar other articles. Kumhadk^ a 
market-town, one half of which belongs to Baden, and the other to Hesse- 
Darmstadt The former half has 560 inliabitants. 2. The ancient fM^ir^ra- 
viaie of Bad^n Baden (formerly also known by the name of the Hpper 



GERMAinr. Ml 



Hie Grand-I>i]fifa7 of Badon— Ito GoogrmphiMl D^rlrtoui. 



margrefnaU of Bade&)» coDtains : Badsn, formerly^ the capital of this nuurgra- 
viate, at present one of the most frequented watering-places in Germanj, is 
romantically situated in a yalley, about half-way between Strasburg and 
Carlsruhe, and has 6,800 inhabitants. -f-RASTADT, formerly the residence of 
the margrave of Baden-Baden, at present the capital of the Bfiddle Rhine 
Circle, on the Murg, about 8 miles from its junction with the Rhine, and north- 
ward and 7 miles distant from Baden, is strongly fortified, and has 8,800 in> 
habitants. The foundation of Rastadt was laid by the margrave Louis Wil- 
liam of Baden-Baden, who reigned in the period of 1691-1707. The little 
▼iUage of AffenlhaJ is noted for its wines. Steinbachj a town in the vicinity 
of Baden, with 2,800 inhabitants, is remarkable as the birth-place of the cele- 
brated architect Erwin of Steinbach (-fl818X who was the chief architect 
for that fine structure, the cathedral of Strasburg. The town of Kekl, on the 
Rhine, opposite to Strasburg, has 1,400 inhabitants, and was formerly noted for 
its strong fortifications, which in 1815 were razed. Qerhbbach, a town on the 
Murg, at about 9 miles distance from Rastadt^ with considerable trade in tim- 
ber, and 2,400 inhabitants. Aohebn, a town on the Acher, eastward and 
16 miles distant frx>m Strasburg, has 2,000 inhabitants, and is situated in a 
district called the Ortenctu, of which the duke Ferdinand of Modena was pos- 
sessed in the short period frx>m 1808 to 1805. EirLiNoxsr, a town on the lit- 
tle Alb river, with powder rniUs, paper manu&cturcs, and 4,500 inhabitants. 
Buhlf a town southward and 12 miles distant from Rastadt, has 2,800 inhab- 
itants, and is noted for its cattle-fairs. 8. The following imperial cities came 
in 1808 under the sway of Baden: Offbnburg, formerly an imperial city, 
on the Kinzig, 12 miles south-east of Strasburg, with 4,200 inhabitanta Oxn- 
oenbach, formerly an imperial city, in the vicinity of Offenburg, with 2,700 
inhabitantsw Zell^ sumamed am HammerAaeh^ an imperial city until 1808, 
on a little river called Hammersbach, and in the neighborhood of Gergenbach, 
with 1,400 inhabitants. 4. The former territory of the ancient buhoprie of 
Spire (see page 827), which in 1808 was annexed to Baden, contains: 
BR0O&8AL, formerly the residence of the bLshop, whose magnificent palace is 
still extant, is situated north-eastward and 14 miles distant from Carlsruhe, 
and has 7,800 inhabitants. 5. To the former independent hUhoprie of Strata 
hurg (see page 197), belonged the towns of Obkrkibch (has 2,000 inhabi- 
tants, and is noted for its wines and fruits), Offknau (with 2,100 inhabttanta), 
and RxNOHKK (with 2,700 inhabitants, and is noted for its hemp), and the vil- 
lage of Saibach (with 1,400 inhabitants), eastward and 14 miles distant from 



Ut EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Germany.— Grand-Dtidiy of Baden. 

Strasborg, is remarkable for that the FrenciL marRhal, Turemie, was siniek 
dead here by a cannoa-ball, on the 27th July, 1675. 6. Tlie towns of Bisei> 
ofSHEix, or Bhein-Bithofsheim (near the Rhine, north-eaatward and 10 w3m 
distant from Strasbuig, is noted for its hemp, and has 1,800 inhabitants), and 
LiCHTENAU (likewise noted for its hemp, and with 1,600 inhabitants), imlil 
1808 belonged to the ancient lordship of Hanau-IAehtenberg (see page S28). 
The town of Lahe (18 miles south-south-east of Strasborg, with importsni 
mannfiftctm^s, considerable inland trade, and 7,600 inhabitants), did forraerij 
belong to a collateral line of the house of Nassau. To Eleetorid PtUeimatt 
(see below) belonged : BacrraN, a town on the Sukbach, eastward and 1ft 
miles distant from OarlBruhe, has 8,100 inhabitants, and is noted as the birtfa- 
plaoe of Melanchthon. Hie house where he was bom is still extant Ephif- 
OSN, a town on the Elsenz, north-eastward and 28 miles distant from Garla- 
rube, with a remarkable Gothic church, and 8,100 inhabitants. JSeideltheim, 
a town with 2,300 inhabitanta 7. To the dependent prineipalUy of jPSinfM- 
herg (see below, under the head of Donaueschingen and TVochielfingen), 
belong the towns of Hausen, or Hamaeh (with 1,800 inhabitants), Woltach 
(with copper and other mines, and 1,700 inhabitants), and Haslagh (with 
1,760 inhabitants). 

IL Ihe Lowxa Rhine Cibcle, comprising chiefly the principal temtorf 
fA ancient Electoral or Lower Palatinate^ which had the following origin. 
Emperor Otto L (986-972) appointed Palatines in several parts of the em- 
pire, who had to pronounce sentences in the name of the king or emperor, and 
to watch over the royal rights and prerogatives. Their title was derived 
from the Latin palatium (palace), because they commonly had their seat in the 
immediate vicinity of the royal or imperial palaces, of which there was a 
considerable number throughout Germany, but especially along the Rhbe. 
In the course of time the Palatine on the Rhine became the most noted and 
powerful among these representatives of the emperor ; and so early as in the 
be^vmin** ^^^ the 13th century, he belonged to those powerful princes, wIkk 
some n.^ ^^ eleetora (see page 298), ezerdaed the eaedusive right of 

. * leror. His dominions consisted of the territories in the north, 

^ ^*esent grand-duchy of Baden, and in the present Bavarian 

-e 827), and were frequently called Lower P al atin ate^ to 

^^^ ^ m Upper Palatinate (see page 817). Since the middle 

market-town, one hn ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ reigning Bavarian house of Wit- 

Darmstadt The for ^ ^ 



viate Oj 



^ ^ _ , of the Palatinate, but was,in 1688 (becaose the F^ala- 
}/ BadinSaaen 



OERMAinr. M$ 



The Grand-Duchy of BadeiH-its Goographical DiviBions. 



tine and Elector, Frederic Y., had, as it were, committed felony by accepting 
the crown of Bohemia, and led his troope against the emperor) deprived both 
of the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity, which was conferred on the 
duke of Bavaria. However by the Westphalian treaty of peace in 1648, an 
eighth electoral dignity was created in fiivor of Frederic V.'s son and succes- 
sor. In 1777 the principal line of the reigning house of Bavaria became ex- 
tinct, and now the elector Charles Theodore of the Palatinate inherited the 
whole electorate of Bavaria. He died in 1799, and was succeeded by Max- 
imilian Joseph (see page 814), who in 1808 ceded that part of the Lower 
Palatinate situated on the right bank of the Rhine, to Baden ; while the other 
part, on the left bank, is retained by Bavaria. We have thus to describe 
here only the former, containing : ~|-MAinrH]Enc, at present the capital of the 
Lower Rhine Circle, formerly the second capital of the Palatinate, and, in 
the period from 1720 to 1799, the residence of the Palatine elector, on the 
Neckar, at its junction with the Rhine, has 23,800 inhabitants^ is very regu- 
larly laid out, and noted for its extensive former electoral palace (with 
1,500 windows for instance), considerable trade and numerous manufactures. 
BLeidelbero, once the capital of the whole Palatinate, and, since 1886, also 
noted for its university (see above and page 287), on the Neckar, not fur from 
Mannheim, has 15,000 inhabitants. The renuurkable castle, where the palar 
tines and electors resided, was in 1689 laid waste by the French, and in 1764 
struck by lightning. Its cellar contains the noted wine-cask, holding 2,100 
tierces, though it may never have actually been filled with such an immense 
quantity of wine. The neighboring village of Hanitchuchahevnif with 2,100 in- 
habitants, is noted for its fruity especially cherries. Nudoehj a market-town, 
noted for its iron-mines and wines, has 2,000 inhabitants. Still noted for its 
wines, is the town of Weinbeih, with 5,900 inhabitants. Ladenbdbg, a town 
already existing in the days of the Romans, by whom it was called Lupodum 
or Lupodanum, is noted for its madder, and has 2,500 inhabitants. Sckonant^ 
a town on the Odenwald, with iron-works, bleacheriea, and 1,700 inhabitants. 
Leimefif a market-town, noted for its wines, has 1,500 inhabitants. Louden- 
bach, a village with 1,750 inhabitants, cultivates the best sort of the so-called 
BcTgstrasaer wines. Nechargemundy a town on the Neckar at its junction 
with the Elaenz, is noted for its potteries, and has 2,700 inhabitants. Schwet- 
ciNOEN, a town on the Leimbach river, westward and 7 miles distant from 
Heidelberg, has 2,900 inhabitants, and is noted for its grand-ducal palace, and 
highly-renowned gardens. Other more or less remarkable towns are : WieH- 



844 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germany.— Grand-Ducby of Baden. 

loeh (with 2,800 inhabitants), Bazberg (with 800 inhabitants), JifoAach (ynOx 
2,100 inhabitants), Eberhaeh (with 8,800 inhabitants), aifuheim (with 2,800 
inlmbitants), and HUtbaeh (with 1,850 inhabitants). 2. To the former tetri- 
toiy of the ancient ardibiahopric and electorate of Mentz belonged : Bisch- 
oFSHEiM, or Tauber-BUehefsheimj a town on the Tauber river, north-eastward 
and 63 miles distant from Heidelbei^, with 2,500 inhabitants. Konigheim, a 
market-town noted for its wines, has 2,100 inhabitants. Other more or less 
remarkable towns are : KvUhevm (with 2,200 inhabitants), WaUdwm (with 
8,200 inhabitants), Buchen (with 2,400 inhabitants), Burken or Owterlmrhtn, 
(with 1,200 inhabitants), Konigkhofen (with 1,500 inhabitants), Krauiheim 
(with 900 inhabitants), Neudenent, or Neidtnau (wilh 1,800 inhabitants), and 
Bcdlenbergy which latter has only 600 inhabitants, but is remarkable as the 
birth-place of George Metzler, chief leader in the war of peasantry- in 1625 
8. The former immediate earldom, at present dependent lordship of Wertheim, 
belonging to the prince of Lowenatein (see page 882), contains : WBaTRmi, 
formerly its capital, on the Mayne, at its junction with the Tanber, is noted 
for its wines, and has 5,000 inhabitants. Freudenherg, a town on the Mayne, 
with 1,700 inhabitants. 4. To the former soyereign or independent bishopries 
of Spire and Wurzburg (pp. 822, 827), and to the Swabian and Franoooian 
knighthood of the empire, did respectively belong : Phixjppsburo, formerly a 
fortress of the empire, on the Rhine, northward and 16 mQes distant firom 
Carlsruhe, with 1,700 inhabitants. Wailttadtt likewise once a fortress of the 
empire, with linen and leather manufactures, and 1,900 inhabitants. Osa- 
LACHSHEiM, a markct-town on the Tauber, is noted for its wines, and has 1,150 
inhabitants. Oruwtfeid and Lamda, towns with respectively 1,800 and 1,100 
inhabitants. Neckaa-Bischofsheiu, a town near the Neckar, is noted for its 
linen, and has 2,100 inhabitants. Adrlshkix, a town on the Odenwald, ea&t- 
ward and 82 miles distant from Heidelberg, with 8 ancient castles, and 1,600 
inhabitants. 

III. The TTppek Rhine Cibolb, comprising chiefly the andent Breifgaa 
and former margraviate of Hochberg. 1. The Breiagau^ a name still much 
used in common life, is a considerable district in the Black Forest, wbidi in 
the middle ages had its distinct political boundaries, primitively belonging to 
the dukes of Zahringen, and subsequently inherited by the collateral line of 
Hochberg (see above page 839). In 1367 it was sold to Aiistria that retained 
it imtil 1808, when it was ceded to the duke of Modena (see page 118), wiiile 
in 1805 it was annexed to Badea Tbo Brei<^au contains : +PKn><^o 



GEBKAKY. MS 



The Grand-Dueby of Baden-^to Geographical DiTisiooa. 

(oummonly surnamed ttn Breisgau, vhoee capital it was), at preeeiit the capi- 
tal of the Upper Rhine Otrdle, on the Dreiaam river, 74 miles Bouth-Bonth- 
west of Oarlsruhe, and 82 miles north-north-east of Basle, has yarious manu- 
fiictnres and 14,500. inhabitants, and is noted for its universitj (see above and 
page 287), and especially also for its minster, whose foundation was laid in 
the 12th century, and which belongs to the finest specimens of Gothic archi- 
tecture. Its steeple is 856 feet in height Not fiur from Freiburg are the 
ruins of the ancestral castle of Z&hringen (see above, page 889). Brkisagb 
(or Ali'Breitack, to distinguish it from Neu-Breisach, on the opposite side and 
beloDging to France), a town on the Rhine, westward and 14 miles distant 
from Freibui^, with a remarkable Qothic church, and 8,400 inhabitants. Tet- 
BBEo, or 7Hber<jit a Uswn in the Black Forest, north-eastward and 18 miles 
distant from Freiburg, has 1,200 inhabitants, and is noted for its wooden 
docks, of which immense quantities are exported every week. Other more 
or less remarkable towns are : 8iauf«i% (with 1,800 inhabitants), BurkJieim 
(with 750 inhabitants). Sehdnau (with 1,100 inhabitants), 7<Nfinai«(with 1,500 
inhabitants), ZeU (with 1,400 inhabitants), Wcddkireh (with 2,600 inhabitants), 
Ehaeh (with 1,050 inhabitants), Kenzingen (with 2,600 inhabitants), SierboU- 
heim (with 2,100 inhabitants), JSruUngen (with 8,800 inhabitants), Waldthui 
(with 1,400 inhabitants), and Sdekingen (with 1,500 inhabitants). Formerly 
renowned Benedictine abbeys, instituted in the 8th century, were BL BlaaUn 
and SUenheimmufuUr. In the town of Neubnbukg (on the Rhine, with 1,200 
inhabitants), it was where the Diike Bemhard of Weimar, so renowned as 
genera] in the thirty years' war, died on the 16th July, 1689, probably poi- 
soned. 2. The former margraviate of Hoehherg (during a long period pos- 
sessed by a collateral line of the house of Zahringen see page 889), contains : 
Badbstweilbe, a market-town, with 1,800 inhabitants, is noted as a watering- 
place much resorted ta Emkendingbk, a town on the £Li, northward and 9 
miles distant from Freiburg, with 2,000 inhabitants, and the ruins of the an- 
cestral castle of Hochberg, which was reared in the 9th century. Mubllheiic, 
a town in the Black Forest, 6outh*westward and 18 miles distant from Frei- 
burg, is noted for its wines, and has 2,600 inhabitant?. Losbeaoh, a town on 
the Wiese river, with varbus manufiictures and 2,600 inhabitants. In the 
vicinity of Kaxdken ( a town with various manufaetures and 1,400 inhabi- 
tants), are theruias of the once renowned castle of 8ausenberg, The village 
of Mauaen (with 600 inhabitants) is notud for its iron-works. Schop/heim, a 
manuiiMtturing town on the Wiese river, with 1,700 inhab^tiuit\ 8. To the 

15* 



84(6 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Cei m any ."•CrMnd-Paohy of Baden. 



fcrmer bisliopric of Strasburg (see page 197), belonged the town of 
ErnENHUK, on the Ettenbach, 23 miles soaUHSoath-east of Strasbug, witii 
considerable trade in Imen, hemp, Aa^ and 8,800 inhabitants In the n^ht 
of the 14th March, 1804, the duko of Engfaien was seiaed here by Fraach 
troops, whence he was conrejed to Paris, and shot on the 20th March, at 
Yinoennes. 4. The town of Hsrsbshkim, south-westward and IS miles dis- 
tant from Preiburg, with beaatiful gardens and 1,600 inhabitants, did nutfl 
1805 belong to the KnigkU of 8t John (see page 46). MmiLBxao, a town 
near Ettenheim, with 1,160 inhabitants, was anciently the capital of the lord- 
ship of Mahlberg, of which Baden-Baden became possessed in 1629. The 
towns of Homberg (with 1,200 inhabitants), and SchUtach (with 1,600 inhab- 
itants), formerly belonged to Wirtemberg. The town of Thusnokn (on the 
Wutach, with 1,200 inhabitants) was formerly the* capital of a landgraTiato 
of KlettgaUf and belongs to a line of the princely house of Schwarzenbeiqg. 

IV . The Lakk Ciegle (whose name has reference to the lake of Constance^ 
akog which it is chiefly situated), comprising yarious territories annexed to 
Baden, since the year 1808. 1. To the 80<called Swalnan Austria (see page 
884) did formerly belong : -fOoirsTAifOE, capital of the circle, on the left bank 
of the Rhine, that issues here from the lake of Coostance, south-eastward 
and 70 miles distant from Freiburg, with various manufiustures, considerable 
trade, and 7,000 inhabitants. Its most remarkable public edifices are the 
cathedral, the ancient monastery of Dominican friars (where John Hoss was 
kept prisoner before he was burnt in 1416), the town-hall, and the building 
where the principal sessions of the council in the years 1414-1418 were hM, 
In this last-named period there were once not less than 160,000 foreigners in 
the dty. Radolphxdl (with 1,250 inhabitants), and Sioekaeh (with 1,800 
inhabitants), towns. 2. To the former independent biMhopric of ConUance 
(which was instituted in 570, had its cathedral in Constance, but in other re- 
spects nothing in common with this city, and was in 1808 incorporated witli 
Baden) belonged : MEsasBtrEG, or M&rAurgy formerly the residence of the 
bishop, has 1,400 inhabitants, and is noted for its wines. Markdorf^ a town 
with 1,800 inhabitants, is noted for its cattle-fiurs. Reichen/ou is a beautifal 
and highly fertile isle in the Lower Lake or Untersee, formerly with a re- 
nowned Benedictine abbey, has 1,600 inhabitants. 8. pFuixEMDoar (north- 
ward and 22 miles distant from Constance, with a remarkable church, and l,8O0 
inhabitants), and IJxBXELmaBN (noted for ite wines, has 2,800 inhabitanta), 
were until 1808 imperial eitie*. 4. Hie dependent territories of the pfineet ^ 



GERMANY. U1 



The Grand-Duchy of Badeo— its Geographical DivMons. 



FuEBSTBMitmo (whose poesesdons in Baden, Wirtemberg, and Bohemia, hare 
a total area of almost 800 square miles, and a population of 114,000 inhabl. 
tants, yielding revenues to the amount of about 600,000 florins annually) 
contain tiie following towns : Donauesohingen, town and residence of the 
prince of Furstenberg, near the head of the Danube, eastward and 82 mfles 
distant from Freibuig, with a noble princely palace, and 8,800 inhabitants. 
Bujmffen, a town on the Brege, with 1,600 inhabitants. The town of Fursten- 
berg has only 400 inhabitants, but is remarkable for the ruins of the ancestral 
castle of the princes of Furstenberg. MdHaiNOKN, a town on the Danube, 
with 1,200 inhabitants), is noted for its cattle- and sheep-markets. Other 
more or less remarkable towns are : Oeiaingen (with 1,200 inhabitants), LSf- 
Jingen (with 1,200 inhabitants), VdhretOxwh (with 1,100 inhalHtants), Stukl- 
ingen (with 1,200 inhabitants), Engen (with 1,400 inhabitants), HeUigenherg 
{yriih 600 inhabitants), and Moskirek (with 1,700 inhabitants). Kear Engen 
ar« the ruins of the anciently fiunous feudal castles of Hohenheben, Hohetir 
krahen^ and Hohenstoffeln. 5. The towns of Vilunoen (noted for its brew- 
eries, iron-works, and corn trade, has 3,900 inhabitants), and Braeununqkn 
(with 1,650 inhabitants), did formerly belong to the Austrian Breisgau (see 
above). The town of Blum/eld (north-westward and 27 miles distant from 
Constance, with 450 inhabitants), and the romantical and fertile isle of Meinau 
(in the lake of Ueberlingen), did formerly belong to the Teutonic order. 



VL-VH— THE PRINOIPALITIES OF HOHENZOLLERN. 

AaxA: 458 square miles. 
Population : 66,000 inhabitants. 

Thesb two prinoipftlities of Hdhenzollem'Sigmari7igen (the 
largest) and HohenzoUern-Hechingen (the smallest), in Southern 
Germany, are entirely surrounded by territories of Baden and 
Wirtemberg, and are situated about half-way between Ulm and 



348 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gennaoy.— PiindpaliUes of HohenzoQern. 

Freiburg, not very far from the lake of ConstaDce. The inhabi- 
tants are Catholics^ and depend for subsistence chiefly on hus- 
bandry. The natural products are in general the same as in Ba- 
den and Wirtemberg. The government is monarchical, but less 
limited than in Baden or Wirtemberg. The public charges are 
at a very low standard, especially in Sigmaringen, whose sove- 
reign is possessed of large private estates (for instance, in Gelder- 
land), which, together with his dominions in the country itself, 
yield an annual revenue of more than 300,000 florins, covering 
by far the greatest part of the public expenditure. The revenues 
of the prince of Hechingen (who, among other private estates, has 
some even in Spain) amount to 160,000 florins per annum. To 
the army of the Confederation are to be furnished respectively 
356 and 145 men. 

History. — ^The ancestor of the houae of Hohenzollem is Thassilo, a powerful 
baroD, who lived in the days of Charlemagne, or about the year 800. One 
of bis descendants, Earl Frederic, reared in 980 tlic castle near the present 
city of Hechingen, and called it HoJiemoHem^ which has since become the 
family name of this dynasty. Earl Rodolph IL of Hohenxollem, who lived 
about the year 1166, had two sons: the eldest, Frederic IV., inherited the 
patrimonial estates, comprising in substance the present principalities of Ho- 
henzollem ; while the younger son, Conrad, was appointed burgrare of Nu> 
remberg, and became the ancestor of the house of Brandenburg. (See page 
318). Here, however, we have only to do with Frederic IV. and his de- 
scendants, the moitt remarkable of whom were Earl Eitel Frederic IV. (who 
in 1496 was appointed president of the then instituted Supreme Court of the 
empire), and Earl Charles I. (who was highly estimated and honored by Em- 
peror Charles V.). When the latter, or Charles L died, in 1676, he left behind 
two sons, who divided the patrimonial dominions in such manner ; the one, 
Eitel Frederic VL, became possessed of the smaller portion, and assumed the 
title of Hohenzollem- ffeehififfen, while the other, Charles IL, obtaiined the 
larger portion, and called himself earl of HohemoUern'Sifftnaringm. B«Kh 
lines are still extant, and respectively in 1623 and 1696 (he princely tide wa» 
conferred npon them by the emperor. 



GERMANY. 849 



The Prindpalities of HoheiuEoIIera-Slgnuuliigmi and HohenzoIlern-HeehiiigeiL. 



We shall now describe the two principalities separately : 

I. HOHENZOLLERK-SIGMARINGEN. 

This principality has an area of 341 square miles, and a popu- 
lation of 45,100 inhabitants; is on the north bound by Hechin- 
gen, on the east by the Danube Circle of Wirtemberg, and on 
the south and west by the Lake Circle of Baden. The reigning 
prince since 1848, is Charles Anton^ born in 181 1. 

SioMARiNQBN, the Capital of the principalitj and princely residence, on the 
Danube, south-eastward and 40 miles distant from Ulm, and southward and 
46 miles distant from Stuttgart^ with an extensive and stately princely palace, 
and 2,100 inhabitants. VoHaiNGEN, a town on the Lauchart river, with the 
ruins of a once remarkable feudal castle, and 800 inhabitants. Other towns 
are : OamerHngen (with 1,000 inhabitants), Hettingen (with 600 inhabitants), 
and ^ai^«r/ocA (with 1,400 inhabitants). The market-towns of Ostkach (with 
1,100 inhabitants), and STaASSBSRo (with 800 inhabitants), belong at present 
to the prince of Thurn and Taxis (see page 317), while the town of Trooh- 
TKLFiKGEN (with 1,200 inhabitants) belongs to the prince of Furstenberg (see 
above, under the head of Lake Circle of Baden), of course without prejudice 
to the sovereignty of the prince of Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen. 

II. HOHENZOLLERN-HEOHINGEN. 

This principality has an area of 117 square miles, and a popu- 
lation of 21,000 inhabitants, and is on the south, and partly on 
the west, bound by the former principality. The reigning 
prince is, since 1838, Frederic^ born in 1801. 

£[xcHiNOEy, the capital of this principality, and residence of the prince, on 
the Starzel river, north-westward and 20 miles distant from Sigmaringen, 
-with a stately princely palace, and 8,500 inhabitants. Not for from here is 
situated, on a steep hill, the ancient, and in 1826, entirely restored castle of 
HoHENzoLLEEN, once the renowned seat of the ancestors of both the princes 
of HohenzoUem and kings of Prussia, reared in the year 980. StetUn, a 
DUirket-town in the neighborhood of Hechingen, has 600 inhabitants, and a 



V 



880 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Oemany.— PrineipaUtjr of Ueehteuiteiii. 



remarkable duirch, where sereral earls of HohenaoUern are boned. Hie 
market-town of Bwrladingen^ with 1,400 inhabitanta, is likewise noted for its 
chorch. The market-town of Orosadfingen, with 1,600 inhabitants^ ia noted 
for its potteries. 



Vm— THE PRINCIPALITY OF LIECHTENSTEIN. 

Akea : 68 square miles. 
Population : 6,400 inhabitants. 

Tms smallest among the G-erman states, is situated about 18 
miles south of the lake of Constance, bordering upon Switzer- 
land on the west and south, and bound by Tyrol on the e&al 
The inhabitants are Caiholics, and depend for subsistence chiefly 
on rearing of cattle, agriculture, and some wine culture. The 
monarchical government is somewhat limited by a chambier of 
deputies. The military contingent which is to be furnished to 
the army of the G-erman Confederation, consists of 55 men. 
The public expenditure is at a very low rate, and covered by the 
revenue^ amounting to 22,000 florins, and consisting chiefly of 
revenues from the princely domains in the country. The priaoe 
has, however, far more considerable dominions in Austria, among 
which are the dependentprincipalities of Troppau and J&gerndorf, 
and which altogether have an area of 2,215 square miles, and a 
population of 600,000 inhabitants, and yield an annual revenue 
of at least 1,500,000 florins. 

Ettlory. The ancestor of the house of Liechtenstein, mentioned in doca> 
ments from the year 942, descended from the house of Este (see page 118). 
His dominions had, however, nothing in common with the present principal- 
ity, bat were situated in the subsequent Austrian provinces. Amo^g hb 
desee n d a a t s are to he noticed tlie carls XJlric and Henry of LieGhtenstdi^ 



GSBMAKY. 851 



The PrindpaUtj of LteofataDitolii^— TIm OnuMl-Diioby of E 



vho acted an importaDt part in the quarrd between Rodolph of HJapsbnrg 
and King Ottocar of Bohemia\(8ee page 801). Earl Hartmann IV., who 
died in 1586, left behind two sons, Charles and Gundakar, who res|)ectively 
in 1618 and 1628, were promoted to princes by the emperors Matthias and 
Ferdinand IL, while at the same time Charles was invested with the Silesian 
principalities of Troppaa and Jagemdor£ His grandson, Prince John Adam 
Andrew, porchased in 1699 from the earl of Hohenembs the immediate 
lordships of Vaduis and Sehtllmberg, and these are the constitiient parts of 
the present principalis of Liechtenstein. The reigning prince since 1886, is 
Aloys, bom in 1796. 

Thus the prinoipality of Lieohtenstein conBista of the former 
domiDion or lordship of Vddutz, forming its southern part, and of 
the former earldom of Schellenberg, forming its northern part 

Vadctz, its capital, has in recent times received the name of Zjeehtentteint is 
sitnated near the Rhine, 50 miles east-south-east of Zurich, and 100 miles west- 
■oath-west of Innspmck, and has 1,000 inhabitants. The princely palace or 
castle towers on a rock, but the usual residence of the prince is Vienna Be- 
sides YadntZ) deserve only to be mentioned the caitle of SoHXLLZNBBao, north 
of y aduts, and the villages ef Bakers, Triesen or IVsistn, and Benderen, 



IX.— THE GRAND-DUCHT OF HESSE. 

Akxa : 8,259 square miles. 
Population : 846,000 inhabitants. 

This grand-duohy, officially styled Hesse and at Rhine (Hessen 
mid bei Rhein), and more commonly known by the name of Hesse- 
Darmstadt^ is situated towards the centre of Oermany. half-way 
between Bohemia and the Netherlands, along the Rhine and 
Mayne. 



SS2 EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Germmy.~6raiid-I>iichr of B< 



Nearly one half of the popohuion consists of JJiUkerans, and 
the remainder of about 150,000 Evangelicals (see page 291), 
40,000 Calvinisis, 209,500 Roman Catholics, 1,450 MennonUes^ 
and 28,300 Jews. 

The chief staples are fruits of varioas kinds (even ohestnuta 
and almonds in the so-called Bergstrasse and in Rhenish Hesse), 
v)ines (some sorts in Rhenish Hesse rank among the choicest 
Rhenish wines), grain and timber. The rearing of cattle is very 
considerable in the provinces of Starkenbnrg and Upper Hesse. 
The chief products from the mineral kingdom are iron and peat 
The manufactures consist chiefly of linen and tcoolUn goods. The 
principal manufacturing place is Offenbach. Mentz carries on a 
considerable trade. 

Besides the university at Oiessen (see page 288), which in 
1846 was frequented by 535 students, there are 7 lycea and 
gymnasia, 5 seminaries (see page 65, about the signification of 
these terms), etc., and 1,600 common schools. The government 
is similar to that of the grand-duchy of Baden. According to 
the budget of the period 1839-1841, the public ret:enue was esti- 
mated at 7,087,181, and the expenditure at 7,078,462 florins annu- 
ally. The fvJbUc debt was in 1842 reduced to about 3-}- million 
florins. The regular army consists of 6,662 men on the peace, 
and of 9,54 1 on the war footing ; the contingent to the confed- 
crated army was fixed at 6,195 men. 

There are the following two orders of honor: I. The Louis 
order, in 5 classes, and instituted in 1807. 2. The order of Philip 
the Generous, in 4 classes, and instituted in 1840. 

History. — ^The first historically known inhabitants of Hesse in general 
were the ChatU (see page 297) ; and einoe the 8th century, when Ohiisttauty 
wfljs permanently founded here by Bonifacius, the name of Hesse seems to 
have orig:inated. In the days of the Carloyingians the country was nded by 
native earls. About the middle of the 1 1th century, LooU, sumamed tlie 



GERMANY. S6S 



Hie Grand-Dochy of Heaee— its Hlsloiy. 



Bearded, a descendant of the princes of Lorraine, was invested with 
Thuring^ (see its history, under the head Saxe- Weimar) ; while his descend- 
fuits 8ub!)equentl7 became the sovereigns of Hesse ; first by acquiring con- 
siderable estates in the way of marriage, and then by inheriting other exten- 
sive territories there. In 1247 the male line of the landgraves of Thuriogia 
became extinct, and now, while the landgraviate itself was inherited by the 
margraves of Meissen, the niece of the last landgrave, the duchess Sophia of 
Brabant, became possessed of the Hessian dominions, which she bequeathed 
to her son Henry, who thus became the first independent ruler of Hesse, in 
1268. This Henry /., sumamed the Child, was in 1292 by Emperor Adol- 
phos promoted to the dignity of a landgrave, and made Cassel his residence. 
He died in 1808, and by his successors and descendants frequently partitions 
of the country were agreed upon, though also fresh acquisitions were 
made, as, for instance, Hersfeld, Ziegenhain, Nidda, Katzenellnbogen (m 1479), 
Homburg (in 1504), etc Finally all constituent parts of the landgraviate of 
Hesse were reunited in 1504 by William II., who died in 1509, and bequeathed 
the whole to his son Philip, surnamed the Oener<ms, well known in the his- 
tory of the Reformation. Philip died in 1567 at Cassel, after having divided 
the country among his four sons, of whom the youngest, George, obtained the 
so-called upper earldom of Katzenellnbogcn, comprising the city of Dann- 
Uadt, etc Landgrave George I. of Hesse-Darmstadt died in 1596, and was 
succeeded by his son Louis V. (for it was counted here according to the gen- 
eral rule for all Hesse), who mheritcd the present province of Upper Hesse, 
and died in 1626. He was succeeded by his descendants in the following 
order of succession: George II. (1626-1661), Louis VL (until 1678), Ernest 
Louis (4-1786), Louis VIIL (-fl769), Louis IX. (-f 1790), and Louie X^ 
who, by the terms of the treaty of Luneville in 1801, was deprived of his do- 
minions on the left bank of the Rhine, but amply indemnified in 1803, by the 
annexation of the ancient duchy of Westphalia (see under the head of the 
Prussian province of Westphalia), some imperial cities, etc In 1806 the 
landgrave became a member of the Rhenish Confederation (see page 294) as 
Orand Duke Louis I. In 1816 he ceded the duchy of Westphalia to Pru$»sia, 
and made several other cessions, instead of which he became possessed of the 
present Rhenish Hesse. He died in 1880, and was succeeded by his son Lotiis 
XL, who abdicated on the 16th June, 1848, in favor of his son, Louis IIL, the 
reigning grand duke, bom in 1806. 



SM EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

Germany.— Grtnd-Dochy of Berne. 

The grand-duohy is divided into 3 provinces, the northernmoet 
of which is surrounded by territories of Hesse-Cassel, and by them 
separated from the two other provinces that are separated from 
each other by the Rhine. The provinces are subdivided into circles. 

L The province of SrAaKSNBUBQ, mtaated on the right bank of the BhiiM;, 
and OD the left bank of the Mayne. It has derired ita name from an andeot 
casUe, formerly belonging to the electorate of Ments, yet now in nuns, and 
comprises both ancient Hessian dominions and recently (since 1803) acquired 
territories. 1. The principal of those dominions is the so-called Hipper Earl- 
dom of KatgenellnbogeH, whose native earls became extinct in 14*79, when it 
was inherited by the house of Hesse. Witty remarks about it will be Ibund 
in Washington Irving's interesting tale entitled " The Spectre Bridegroom." 
It contains : -f-DAEMSTAixr, the capital of the grand-duchy, and grand-ducal 
residence, on the little Darm river, southward and 14 miles distant from 
Frankfort, with 81,000 inhabitants, and various manufsictures. The moat re- 
markable of its public edifices are the extensive g^rand-ducal palace (whose 
foundation was laid by George L), the Catholic church, and the so-called driU- 
hoose, at present used as an arsenal The neighboring castle of KratUehttcin 
is noted as a grand-ducal hunting-seat The village of Obemmutadt (in the 
vicinity of Darmstadt, with 2,000 inhabitants), is noted as the Urth-plaeo of 
Lichtenberg, the celebrated Oerman author of the interesting commentary to 
Hogarth's engravings. Orossqkrau, a town with 2,000 inhabitants, is noted 
for its greens. Tbebos, a market-town near the Rhine, 14 miles west-north- 
west of Darmstadt, has at present only 1,500 inhabitants, but was in the mid- 
dle ages noted for several councils and diets held here, and for a palace where 
Charlemagne frequently resided. Zfrnngenherg^ a town on the Bergatrasee, 
with 1,600 inhabitants, was anciently a strong fortress. ReinKehn, a town on 
the Odenwald, with 1,800 inhabitants. Babenkauten^ a town on the Gersprens 
river, with 1,600 inhabitants. 2. To the electorate of Mentz formerly belonged : 
Heppknhbim, a town on the Bergstrasse, with 4,200 inhabitants, is noted 
for its fruits and wines. Not far from here are the ruins of the above-men- 
tioned ancient castle of Starilknbubo, reared in 1064 by the abbot of the once 
highly renowned monastery of Lorbch (instituted in 764), whose seat 
the present market-town of this name (with 2,600 inhabitants), 
a town on the Rhine, with considerable corn-trade, and 8,000 inhafaitaota. 



GXBUAKY. 8M 



The Grand-DiiDhy of He we i to GeognpUad DirisloiM. 



Other more or lees remarkable towns are : SdigeMtadt (with 8,800 mhafaitantsX 
Steinheim (with 1,160 inhabitants), JHOmrg (with 8,200 inhabitaatsX and 
JRnehkwm (with 1,860 inhabitants). 8. To the Electoral PaUtinate (see 
page 842) and other formerly independent territories belonged : UiisrADT, a 
town at the foot of the Odenwald Moimtaina, eastward and 12 miles distant 
firom Darmstadt, with 8,100 inhabitants, JAndsnfeU and Hering^ towns with 
respeetiyely 000 and 600 inhabitants, NBOKABflraiNACH, a town on the Neckar, 
with 1,800 inhabitants, ^dnitueA-irnim6acA, a Tillage with 1,200 inhabitants, 
and the nuns of the ancient castles of RodentUin and SehneUaia, notori- 
ona for a strange ncMse heard here sometimes, the natural cause of which 
has never yet been discovered. About the market-town of KHmbaeht see 
page 840. Its Hessian half has 600 inhabitants. Wimffkn, until 1808 an 
imperial dty, on the Neckar, has considerable salt-works, and 2,800 inhabi- 
tants, and is noted in history for a battle on the 6th May, 1622. 4. The for- 
merly sovereign or independent, but since 1806 cUipendetU earldom of £aa&OB, 
belonging to the earls of this name (descendants of Eginhard, son-in-law to 
Oharlemagne), who at present are divided into three chief branches, and hav- 
ing, together with dominions in Bavaria, an area of 266 square miles, and a 
population of 84,000 inhabitants, contains : EasAOH, its capital, on the Mtun- 
ling river, with a very remarkable palace of the earls, and 2,100 inhabitants. 
MteheUtadi (with 8,000 inhabitants), and Neustadt^ sumamed in dsr Rounan 
(with 1,000 inhabitants), towns. 6. The formerly likewise independent, but 
since 1816 dependent prifwipcUity of IsBNBuao (properly styled Upper Isen> 
burg), belonging to a branch of the princes and earls of this name, and of an- 
cient origin, and having an area of 160 square miles, with 17,600 inhabitants, 
and yielding an annual revenue of more than 104,000 florins, contains: Of- 
rKNBACH, its capital and usual princely residence, on the Mayne, at about 2 
miles distance from Frankfort, has 11,260 inhabitants, and is noted for its 
various manuftustores and considerable inland trada Dreieiekerhainf a town 
southward and 9 miles distant from Frankfort, has 1,000 inhabitants, and is 
in various respects remarkable in history. PhUippeeieh, a village with 400 
inhabitants, and a palace remarkable as the residence of the earl of Isenburg- 
Philippseich, belonging to a coUatoral line of that named housa 

IL The pnmnce of Rhknish Hbbse, situated on the left bank of the Bhine, 
and comprising chiefly territories, vhidi formerly belonged to the electorate 
of Ments and to the Electoral Palatinate. 1. The former Electorate of MentM 
embraced, beside the territories within the limits of this province, already 



S56 EUROPE; PAST ASD PBSSENT. 

Gannuiy.— GruMl'Dadiy of Hi 



described above under the head of Bararia (page 827), and Baden (page 
848), the towns of RUdesheim, Hochbehn, etti, in the present dndiy of Naa- 
sau, the towns of Fritclar and Am5nebarg at present belonging to Hesse-Oas- 
sel, the town of Erfurt (at present belonging to Prmaia), and the so-called 
Eichsfeld, which at present is divided between Pmssia and Hanover. That 
paii within the limits of this province contains: -f-^^'''''* <v Mayenee (in 
Qerman Maifu\ at present the capital of this province, was formerly that of 
the electorate and the residence of the archbishop elector, is sitoated on the 
left bank of the Rhine, opposite the month of the Mayne, has the strongest 
lortress in Qermany, and 84,000 inhabitants (exclusive of 8,000 men of Aus- 
trian and Prussian troops). Its principal public edifices are the cathedral, 
the grand-ducal palace (formerly belonging to the 1*eutanic QrderX the tur- 
mer electoral palace, eta The house where Guttenbeig, the inventor of the 
art of printing, was bom, is still shown. Mentz was founded by the ancient 
Romans shortly before the Christian era, and the first archbishop here 'wbs 
the holy Boni&dus, appointed in 746. The city is connected, by means of a 
bridge of boats 1,666 feet long, with the likewise strongly fortified town of 
Kastd (with 2,260 inhabitants), situated on the right bank of the Rhine. Boc- 
GEN, a town on the left bank of the Rhioe, at its junction with the Nahe, with 
considerable trade and 6,000 inhabitants. ALaasHanc or Gmudg^thntn, % 
town noted for its wines, has 2,000 inhabitants. The village of Budfkeim 
(with 1,600 inhabitants) is likewise noted for its wines. 2. To Electoral PaUu- 
inaie (see page 842) did belong : Ikgblhsim ( Upp&r and Lower), two mar- 
ket-towns about half-way between Bingen and Ment2,are noted for their 
wioes, and have respectively 2,400 and 2,200 inhabitants. Gharlemagne re- 
sided frequently at Lower Ingelheim. Oppbithkim, a town on the Rhine, 
with a remarkably ancient church and 2,600 inhabitants. The neighborii^ 
village of Nteratein (with 2,800 inhabitants), is renowned for its wines. 
Alzbt, a town on the Selz river, with 4,600 inhabitants. P/Mertheim (viitfa 
2,000 inhabitants), and Odemheim (with 1,600 inhabitants), towns noted for 
their wines. AUheim (with 1,600 inhabitants), Westho/en (with 1,900 in- 
habitants), and Oathqfen (with 8,800 inhabitants), market-towns. 8. Tlie 
city of Woaics, near the Rhine, 12 miles north-north-west of Mannheini, and 
northward and 28 miles distant from Spire, noted for its wines (known by 
the name of " liebfrauenmilch"), and with 9,000 bhabitants, was formerlj an 
imperial eity, and highly renowned in hisitory, especially for the diet hdd 
here in 1621. At that period it was flourishing by its considerable trade^aad 



GERMANY. Ul 



The Orand-Dodiy of Heflse—ita Geographical DItMods. 



had 40,000 inhabitants. The former earldom of Leimngen (see page 828) 
contains within the limiia of this province the market-towns of QuNTEBSBLini 
(with 2,600 inhabitants), Boehth&im (with 1,600 inhabitants), and Monthmm 
(with 900 inhabitants). 

m The province of Uppxa Hxass, situated north of the province of 
Starkenburg, and comprising chiefly Hessian and mediated territoriea 1. The 
ancient Hesnan territory contains : -f-GisasKN, the capital of the province, at 
the high-road between Cassel and Frankfort, has 7,500 inhabitants, and is 
noted for its university (see above). Nidda, a town on the river of the same 
name, with some linen and woollen manufactures, and 1,900 inhabitants. 
BiED]QVKOPF,a town on the Upper Lahn, 27 miles north-north-west of Giessen, 
with doth manu&ctures, iron-works, and 8,600 inhabitants. Other more or 
less remarkable towns are : Allbndorf, snmamed an der lAtrnda (with 1,100 
inhabitants), Oroes-IAnden (with 950 inhabitants), Staufenberg (with 600 
inhabitants), Orunberg (with 2,500 inhabitants), Homherg an der Ohm (with 
1,800 inhabitants), AUfeld (with 8,800 inhabitants), Kirdorf (with 1,400* 
inhabitants), Lattierhach (with 8,550 inhabitants), Ulrichstein (with 950 
inhabitants), ScfioUen (with 2,100 inhabitants), Oher-Rosthach (with 1,200 
inhabitants), Bittzbach (with 2,200 inhabitants), HaUfeld (with 1,000 inhabi- 
tants), and Battenberg (with l,00a inhabitants). The viUage of ThaliUer 
(with 500 inhalMtants) is noted for its copper mines. Itter, a village, with the 
ruins of an ancient castle of the same name. 2. To the dominions of the at 
jNresent mediatized princes and earls of Solvs (a very ancient dynasty and 
descendants of the emperor Conrad L, divided into two chief branches, with 
several collateral lines), belonged : RdnsLHiUM, a market-town on the Nidda 
and in the neighborhood of Frankfort, with a formerly fortified castle, and 
2,100 inhabitants. Laubaoh, a town on the Wetter river, with iron-works 
and 2,100 mhabitanta. Lich, a town on the Wetter river, with 2,200 inhabi- 
toots, and a palace of the prince of Solms-Iich. AMeriheimt Eungen and 
Mknaenherg, towns, with respectively 800, 1,100, and 900 inhabitants. 8. The 
town of BuEDiNOEN (with 2,900 inhabitants and various manu&ctures) belongs 
to the prince of Isenburg-BUdingen (see above), who resides here. The town 
of Weninge (with 1,000 inhabitants) belongs to another line of this house. 
4. The town of OaTENBSiiG (on the Nidder, 18 miles north-north-east of 
Hanau, with 1,100 inhabitants), and the market-towns of Gkdben (with 1,900 
inhabitants) and Banttadi (with 800 inhabitants), belong to the earls of Stol- 
h^g (see under the head of Prussia). 5. The town of Sohlrz (near the 



M8 BUBOPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gemaay.— 43rUMl-Diieby and Landgrsviale of 

Palda river, with oonaidfirabLe breweries and 8,800 iDhabitantB) beikngs to 
the ooont of Schlitc, surnamed of OiMt. 6. The dty of FwsMDmaa waa 
vntiL 1808 an imperial etty, ia aitaated in the so-called Wetterao, northward 
and 14 miles distant from Frankfort, and has Tarious manu&ctnree, a remark- 
able Gk>thic cfaorcfa, and 2,800 inhabitants. fViedberg is moreover noted for 
Ha ancient castle of the same name, farmerly the seal of a k^ghthood en- 
dowed with sabetantial pririlegc 



X^THE LANDGRAYIATE OF HESSE. 

Arxa : 128 square miles. 
Population: 26,000 inhabitants. 

This little state, commonly known by the name of Hesse-Ham- 
hurg^ consists of two distinct territories, situated about 55 miles 
apart, and separated from each other by Nassau and Hesse- 
Darmstadt. The smaller territory (43 square miles and 1 1,500 
inhabitants), situated northward and 10 miles distant from 
Frankfort on the Mayne, comprises the old landgraviate of Horn- 
bwrg^ while the larger territory (85 square miles and 14,500 
inhabitants), is situated on the left bank of the Rhine, at the 
north-western frontier of the Bavarian palatinate, and comprisefi 
chiefly the ancient dominion of Mnsenhetnty formerly belonging 
to the palatine principality of ZweibrOcken (see page 327). 

The majority of the population consists of Luiheraiis^ and the 
remainder of about 6,000 Calvinists, and 3,000 Catholics. The 
soil is fertile and well cultivated. Manufactures are not lacking, 
but in general of no great importance. The government is at 
present a limited monarchy. The jnMie revenue amounts to 
about 150,000 florins annually (exclusive of 33,000 florins whiek 



GERMANY. 860 



The Laodgnviate of Heaee— Its History and Geographical DiTlalona. 



the private estates of the laDdgraye yield). To the confederal 
army are to be furnished 229 men. 

History. — When Philip the Geoeroiu divided the whole hindgraviate of 
Hesse among his four sons (see History of Hesse-Darmstadt), George obtained 
the dominion of Homburg, together with that of Darmstadt His Ron and 
successor, Louis V. (1596-1626), who had to pay 20,000 florins annually as 
appanage to his brother Frederict found it more convenient to cede to him (in 
1622) in place of the ready money, the dominion of Homburg, yet reserving 
to Hesse-Darmstadt the seignory over it Frederic L died in 1688, and was 
Bucceeded first by his son William Christoph (1688-1669), then George Chris- 
tian (1669-1677), <&c Frederic Y. was, when his father died in 1751, still 
minor, and therefore his actual reign did not commence before the year 1768 
while it lasted until 1820. In 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt renewed its ancient 
claims upon the seignory over Homburg (see above), and indeed realised 
them in so far as this landgraviate was deprived of its political independence. 
However, in 1817 it was restored to it, and Hesse-Homburg became an 
actual member of the German oonfederatioa Frederic Y. died in 1820, and 
-was succeeded by his son Frederic YL Joseph, who was married to the Eng- 
lish princess Elizabeth, daughter of George HL The reigning landgrave 
einoe the 7th Sept 1848, is Ferdinand (the youngest brother of Frederic YL), 
bom in 1788. 

The landgraviate of Hesse contains : 

1. In the old landgraviate of Homburg (see above) : Homburo, sumamed 
vor der Hbhe (I e. at the foot of the Taunus), the capital of the whole land- 
graviate and residence of its sovereign (who resides in a stately and extensire 
castle or palace), north-westward and 9 miles distant from Frankfort, has 
4,600 inhabitants, and is noted as a watering-place much resorted to. The 
vtllagee of Friedrich$hof and DomhoUthauten^ whose inhabitants are desoen- 
dimts of Waldenses (see page 101), who settled here respectively in 1687 
and 1699, are noted for their flannel manufactures and hosieries. 

2. In the ancient dominion of Meisenheim (see above): Meihbnujcdc, a 
town on the Glan river, south-westward and 86 miles distant from Mentz, 
wHh a remarkahla Gkntiiic church, considerable trade in natural products, and 



UO EUROPE, PAST AJSD PRESENT. 

Gennuy— Doehy of Nmhb. 



2,000 inhahitantoL Men^eiwi, a viUage with Tine cuHure and 1,400 iDfaals- 
taotai OnrwBixB, a (own with 1,600 inhahitairta, fonneriy bdoDged to a 
ooUateral line of the boose of Ni 



XL-^THE DUCHT OP NASSAU. 

AaxA : 1,Y08 square miles. 
PoFULATioir : 420,000 iDfaabitants. 

It is situated on the right bank of the Rhin^, in the neighbor- 
hood of its junction with the Mayne^ is surrounded by parts of 
the two Prussian western provinces, and is crossed bj a branch 
of the Rhine, viz., the LahfL, with its little tributaries. It com- 
prises the chief part of the Taunus and Weslerwald mountains 
(see page 8), for which reason its surface is mostly mountain- 
ous and hilly. Nevertheless the soil is generally fertile ; and if 
Nassau not exactly abounds in grain, it can at least boast of its 
vine-cuUure and valuable forests. Moreover the rearing of o&tde 
is very considerable, and there are mines yielding iron (more than 
100,000 quintals per annum), lead (about 8,500 quintals), copper 
(400 quintals), and sUver (about 3,800 marks). The mineral 
springs of Nassau are from old renowned, and its watering-plaoes 
(as, for iostanoe, Wiesbaden, Ems, Sohwalbaoh, &o.) very muoh 
resorted to ; while the waters of Selters and other springs are 
largely exported to foreign countries, and even to India. Man- 
ufaotures are various, but not very considerable ; the trade is 
carried on at a rather great extent. 

One half of the population consists of Evangelicals (see page 
291), and the other for the most part of Catholics, The number 



GERMANT. 861 



The Daohy of Nanfto— Its HMory. 



of Jews amounts to about 7,000. With regard to the means of 
education, there are 3 seminaries, 4 gymnasia, 658 common 
schools, etc. (see the note, page 65). The government is a lim- 
ited monarchy, the sovereign power being vested in a duke and 
two legislative chambers. The amount of the public reventbt and 
of the expenditure, for several years has been about 1,810,000 
florins. The public debt amounts to nearly 2,000,000 florins. 
To the confederal army are to be furnished 4,039 men. 

HUtory. — Emperor Conrad L's (see page 299) brother Otto, baron of 
Laurenhurg^ is to be considered as the ancestor of the house of Nassau. His 
castle was situated on the Lahn, in the neighborhood of Dietz. His descen- 
dants, the earls Rupert and Arnold, who liyed in the first half of the 12th 
century, still retained the name of Laurenburg ; but their sons assumed in 
1168 the names of earU of Jiasaau, with reference to a castle of Nassau 
which their jGeithers had reared in 1101, not fiu* from the other. The great- 
great-grandsons of one of them, the earls Walram and OttOf divided in 1266 
lite inherited dominions in such manner, that Walram obtained the southern 
part (containing, among other places, Wiesbaden, Weilburg, and Idstein), and 
Otto the northern part (with Dillenburg, Herborn, Hadamar, £m8, Ac). 
Otto became tlius the ancestor of the house of Nassau-Orange (see page 228) ; 
while the at present reigning house of Nassau descends from Walram (whose 
son, as may be remarked here by the way, was the emperor Adolphus, 
elected in 1291). It would lead us too fiir to enter into any particulars about 
the acquisitions made in the course of time, and about the many collateral 
lines of both houses, which lines, moreover, have long since become extinct; 
and we will only mention, that the descendants of Walram wore in 1688 pro- 
moted to the rank of princes, and that in 1806 Nassau assumed the title of a 
duchy, while in 1803 it had been indemnified for its losses on the left bank of 
the Bhine, by the annexation of various other territoriea The reigning duke 
ainoe 1889, is Adolphu$, born in 1817. 

The present duchy of Nassau is divided into 28 bailiwicks, 

and comprises, beside its primitive dominions, chiefly territories 

vrhich formerly belonged to the electorates of Treves and Ments, 

and were in 1803 annexed. 

16 



862 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germany. — Dachy of Naaraa. 



1. The primitive dominioru of Naasau contain : Wiebbadkn, the capital of 
the duchy and (since the death of the Ute Duke William) the ducal residence, 
at the foot of the Taunus, and in the neighborhood of Mentz, has seTeral 
splendid public edifices and 13,100 inhabitants, and is highly renowned and 
very much resorted to as a watering-place. Not far from here, on the Rhine, 
is situated the market-town of Biebrich, with 3,100 inhabitants, and a stately 
palace, where the late Duke William, father of Adolphus, oommonly readed. 
XJsiNQBN, a town on the Usbach river, north-eastward and 20 miles distant 
from Wiesbaden, was formerly the residence of the princes of Nassau-Usin- 
gen, and has 2,000 inhabitants. Weilnau^ a market-town, with iroD< works, 
and 700 inhabitants. Idstein, a town northward and 9 miles distant finom 
Wiesbaden, has 2,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its extensive ancient castle 
and white tanneries. The once highly remarkable castle of Adoipfueck was 
reared by Emperor Adolphus of Nassau. Weilburo, a town on the Lahn, 
and in the neighborhood of Wetzlar, has 2,600 inhabitants, a palace, formeriy 
the residence of the princes of Nassau- Weilburg. WeilmUnaUr, a market- 
town with 1,400 inhabitants, is noted for its iron-works and winesi DuLuar- 
BURO, a town on the Dill and on the Westerwald, northward and 46 miles 
distant from Wiesbaden, has 2,900 inhabitants, and a remarkable castle, oooe 
the residence of the princes of Nassau-Dillenburg and Nassau^Orange. la 
1667 the prince William of Orange (see page 267) resided here for a whila 
Haiger^ a town on the Dill, is noted for its iron- works, and has 1,200 inhabi- 
tants. HsRBORN, a town in the neighborhood of Dillenburg, with Tanons 
manufiuitures and 2,860 inhabitants. Hadamab, a town on a branch of the 
Lahn, northward and 28 miles distant from Wiesbaden, with 2,250 inhabi- 
tants, iron-works and an ancient castle, once the seat of a collateral line of the 
house of Nassau. Nassau, a town on the Lahu, north-westward and 26 rnfles 
distant from Wiesbaden, is noted for the ruins of the ancestral castle of the 
house of Nassau (see above), and has 1,200 inhabitants. Duns, a town on the 
Lahn, 28 miles north-north-west of Wiesbaden, has 2,500 inhabitants, was 
once the residence of the princes of Nassau-Diets, and is noted for itsaonery- 
garden. The village of Fachinobn (with iron-mines, and 800 inhabitantB) is 
noted for its chalybeate springs, whose waters are largely exported. H aobxx- 
BDRO, a town OQ the Westerwald, 26 miles north-north-east of Coblena, with 
rarious manufh&ctures and 1,600 inhabitants. Maxwyn^ a village with iron- 



works, and 800 Ipnhabitants. 2. To the former Electorate of Trt^e* (see its 
l^articulars under >^e head of Coblena) did belong : LiMBoao, a town on Ite 



GBRMAKY. 86« 



Hie Daehy of Naasan— ite Geographieal DiTisioiis. 



LbIid, at present the teat of a Catholic bishop, with oonaideraUe trade and 
3,800 inhabitants, is noted for its Gothic church. The village of Skltebs 
(properly styled Nieder-SeHern or Lower-Selters), northward and 18 miles dis- 
tant from Wiesbaden, with 1,260 inhabitants, has long been renowned for its 
mineral waters, of which about 2 million bottles are annually exported. 
MoHTABAUR (derived from the Latin Mons Thabor), a town on the Wester* 
wald, 12 miles easi'north-east of Coblenz, has 2,800 inhabitants, and was in 
the middle ages frequently the residence of the electors of Treves. The vil- 
lages of HUUcheid and Hdkr (with respectively 1,160 and 1,800 inhabitants) 
are noted for their potteries. 8. To the former EleetoraU of Mentt (see un- 
der the head of Mentz) did belong : Hoohst, a town on the Mayne, between 
Frankfort and Ments, has 2,800 inhabitants, and is noted for its manufiictures 
of snuff In its neighborhood are situated the more or less remarkable mar- 
ket-towns of Battertheim (with 1,000 inhabitants), Heddemheim (with 1,960 
inhabitants), and Hofheim (with 1,900 inhabitants). The market-town of Hat. 
TCMHSQC, on the Rhine, with 1,060 inhabitants, is noted for its excellent wines. 
EX.TVILLE or Ml/eld, a town on the Rhine, has 2,800 inhabitants, and was for- 
merly considered as the capital of a district along the Rhine, which is still 
generally known by the name of Rheingau, The ancient castle of Eltville^ 
at present in ruins, was for a while inhabited by Emperor Adolf^us of Nas- 
sau, and in the 14th and 16th centuries frequently the residence of the electors 
of Mentz. The neighboring market-town of RauerUhal (with 1,000 inhabi- 
tants), is noted for its wines. Loboh, a market-town on the Rhine, with vino 
culture, mineral waters, and 1,960 inhabitants. Lorch, mentioned already in 
documents from the year 882, is, besides the ruins of remarkable ancient 
castles, noted for a steep rock known by the names of Kedrieh and DeviTt 
Ladder, to which several interesting common reports or tales have reference. 
The market-town of Obisbnhxim (on the Rhine, with 2,660 inhabitants), and 
the viUage of AtmannshaMen (with 600 inhabitants), are noted for their 
wines. Still more noted for their excellent wines is the town of RuBDasHxiu 
(romantically situated on the Rhine, opposite Bingen, has 2,660 inhabitants), 
and the magnificent castle of Johannisbxro (in the neighborhood of Riidee- 
betm), which in 1816 became the property of the prince of Mettemich. like- 
wise renowned for its wines is the town of Hochhxim, near the Mayne and 
the city of Mentz, with 2,160 inhabitants. WeUhach, a village with mineral 
iprings and 860 inhabitants. Obeblahnstein or XoAntttftn, a town on the 
Bhine, near its junction with the Lahn, with iron-works, mineral waters and 



M4 EUROPE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 



Germany,— DMbj of Ni 



1,860 iohabitants, is noted for the rains of the ancient caatle of Lakneck, reared 
m the beginning of the 18th century bj the electors of Mentis KMtiffatein, 
a town on the Taunus, north-eastward and 14 miles distant from Wiesbaden, 
with leather manuiiBictures and 1,860 inhabitants. Efstehv, a mai^t-town 
between Koningstein and Wiesbaden, with 860 inhabitants^ is noted for an 
ancient castle of the same name. Kronbkeo, a town romanticaUy situited 
on the Taunus, has 2,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its nursery-gardens and 
fruits, and much rescnrted to as a watering-place. 4. The formerly so-called 
Lower Earldom of Kaizenellnbogen (see page 854), which until 1813 did 
mostly belong to Hesse-Cassel, contains : St. Goabbhacskk, a town on the 
Rhine, opposite the at present Prussian town of St Goar. 27 miles west-north- 
west of Wiesbaden, with considerable trade and 960 inhabitants, dose by 
lies on a steep hill the ancient castle of JTote, which in 1893 was reared by 
the earl John IIL of KatieneUnbogen, and subsequently called Neu- (i e. New) 
KcUzenellnbogen, to distinguish it from Alt- (L e. Old) KatzenellnboffeHt the 
ancestral castle of the earb of this name, who became extinct in 1479. Hie 
latter is situated dose by the market-town of KaUenellnbogetit with iron- 
works, and 960 inhabitants. Not bur from St Gkiarshausen is in the Rhine the 
remarkable rock of Lwrley. The ancient castle of Reieksnbergy reared about 
the year 1284 by the earl William I. of KatieneUnbogen, was in the nuddle 
ages one of the strongest and most remarkable castles in Germany. Scswal- 
BAOH, a town situated in a deep valley, north-westward and 7 miles distant 
from Wiesbaden, with a remarkable Gothic church, iron-works, and 2,160 in- 
habitants, is renowned for its mineral springs, and much resorted to as a 
watering-place. Not less noted and resorted to as a watering-plaoe is the 
neighboring village of Schlangknbad, with 250 inhabitanta The town of 
BraubcbeK on the Rhine, with 1,550 inhabitants, is noted for its strong eastle 
of Mabxbubo, reared at an early period of the middle ages. The market- 
town of Ems, in the neighborhood of Coblenz, with 2,600 inhabitants, is re- 
nowned and very much resorted to as a watering-place. Caub or KmAy on the 
Rhine, opposite the Prussian town of Bacharach, with 1,500 inhabitanta, did 
formerly belong to the Electoral Palatinate (see psge 842), and is noted for a 
little castle on a rock in the Rhine, called dU PfaJU (literally, the Palatinate), 
and reared at an early period of the middle ages. 6. The dependent mw»L«^ 
earldom of HoUappel (with which in 1641 an Austrian general, named Peior 
Eppehnann, was invested, and which at present belongs to the Austrian ardi- 
duke Stephen), contains : Holzapfkl, its capital, near the Lahn, eastward and 



GERMANY. S66 



The Grand-Dachy of Luxembm^ and Limbiirg. 



14 miles distaiit fk-om Coblenz, with lead miDes, and 950 inhabitanta. In its 
neighborhood are the ruins of the above mentioned ancient castle of Lauren^ 
burg (see History of Nassau). The yiUage of Geilnau (with 800 inhabitants) 
is noted for its mineral waters. 6. The dependent dominion of Bttnkel (63 
square miles, and 9,500 inhabitants), belonging to the princely house of Neu- 
wied, contains the town of Runksl, on the Lahn, with 1,100 inhabitants, and 
Beyeral more or less noted villages. 



Xn—THE GRAND-DUOHT OF LUXEMBURG, TOGETHER WITH 

THE DUCHY OP LIMBURG. 

AjaxA : 1,895 square miles. 
Population : 282,000 inhabitant& 

The grand-duchy of Luxemburg was anciently a German earlr 
domj named after the cafitle of Luzelinburhut {lAUzelburg, Luz- 
emburg), of which a neighboring wealthy earl, Siegfried, became 
possessed in the 10th century. The male line of his descen- 
dants became extinct in 1136, when the dukes of Limburg 
inherited the earldom, which in 1354 was promoted to the rank 
of a duchy by Emperor Henry YII., who had sprung from this 
house (see page 301). In 1444, the duchy was purchased 
by Philip the Good, duke of Bv/rgundy^ and since that period it 
formed a constituent part both of Burgundy and the Catholic 
Netherlands (see page 264). In 1797, Austria ceded it, together 
with the other Catholic provinces of Netherlands, to France ; and 
in 1815 the house of Orange (see page 267) was invested with it 
as an indemnification for domestic dominions in Nassau, which 
liad been ceded partly to Prussia, partly to the reigning house of 
Kassau. At the same time the title of a grandrduehy was oon- 



see EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germany. — Grand-Ihichy of Lazembarg and Umburc. 



ferred upon Luxemburg. Since the revolution of Belgium in 
1830, the latter made claim to the whole grand-duchj, which 
however was divided into two parts, the western of which was an- 
nexed to Belgium (see page 277) ; while the eastern part (1,012 
square miles, and 188,000 inhabitants) remained with the houae 
of Orange-Nassau. But as the grand-duchy of Luxemburg had 
since 1815 been an actual member of the German confederation, 
it was in 1839 agreed upon that the greatest part of the former 
Netherlandish province of Limbui^, should (with the title of a 
diichff of Limburg) supply the ceded half of Luxemburg, in its 
political relations to Germany. 

Thus the grandrduchy of Lvacemhwrg has in its present extent 
only an area of 1,012 square miles, and a population of 188,000 
inhabitants, who are Roman Catholics. It forms the south-west- 
ern extremity of Germany, on the north-east and east bordering 
upon the Prussian Rhenish province, and on the west and south 
bound by Belgium and France. Its chief natural products are 
timber, iron, hemp, and flax ; the rearing of cattle is rather con- 
siderable ; the manufactures consist of linen, leather, paper, &G. 
The amount of the revenue and of the expenditure (in Luxemburg 
and Limburg) for several years, has been about 1,800,000 florina 
The troops to be furnished to the confederal army consist of 
2,556 men. In 1841 an order of honor (*'of the oak-crown"), in 
4 classes, hlDiK^ been instituted by the grand duke. The grand* 
duchy contains^ 

LuzxMBu&o (anciently in'^rman called JAUmiburg\ capital of the grand- 
duchy, and Gkrman Gonfederar^rtreBS, on the Elz riyer, 26 miles west-aoatb- 
west of Treves, is noted for the»trength of its fortifications, and has 12,000 
inhabitants (exclusive the gikxrison). Vianden, a town on the Our, with a 
remarkable ancient castle, leather manufactures, and 1,650 inhabitants. 
Wna, a town on the river of the same name, with manufactores of doHi, 
leather, and paper, and 2,'700 inhabitants. GazvniAoinBair, a town oil the 



GERMANY. 867 



The Grand-Duchy of Luzembarg, and the Dochy of Limburg. 



Moselle, has 2,400 inhabitants, and is noted for its wines. Other more or less 
remarkable towns are : Ecbternach (with 4,000 inhabitants), Diekirch (witli 
2,200 inhabitants), Meerteh (with 2,000 inhabitants), JRemich (with 2,250 
inhabitants), E9ch (with 1,200 inhabitants), and Clairvaux (with 700 inhabi- 
tants). 

The DUCHY OF Limburg, which, considered as a NetherlandiBh 
province^ has an area of 852 square miles, with 198,000 inhabi- 
tants (although only its district of Roeretnande, having an area of 
SS3i square miles, and a population of 94,000 inhabitants, actually 
belongs to the German Confederation), was primitively an earl- 
dom, originated about the middle of the 10th century. Henry 
I., earl of Limburg, who lived in the latter half of the 1 1th centu- 
ry, was married to Judith, the only daughter and heiress of Fred- 
eric of Luxemburg, duke of Lower Lorraine (as the Netherlands 
were styled prior to their annexation to the duchy of Burgundy), 
and his son, Henry XL, being elected duke of Lower Lorraine, 
the ducal title was conferred to the earldom of Limburg also. 
In 1280 the male line of the dukes of Limburg became extinct, 
and now the duchy was inherited by the duke, John I , of Bra- 
bant. Together with Brabant, Limburg was annexed to the 
duchy of Burgundy, and came subsequently under the sway of 
Spain, then under that of Austria. By the terms of the West- 
phalian treaty of peace in 1648, one part of the duchy was ceded 
to the republic of the united provinces of the Netherlands ; it be- 
longs at present to the district of Roeremonde. while the remain- 
der of the latter consists of a territory which continued to be 
annexed to the ancient duchy of Limburg. The named district 
(whose inhabitants are for the most part Roman Catholics) con- 
tains: 

RoEAXMONDE, its Capital, on the Mouse at its junction with the Roer, west- 
ward and 8S miles distant from Dusseldorf, has 5,700 inhabitants, and is noted 
Ibr its doth manufiictares. WsKaDT, a town situated amidst bogs and heaths, 



868 burope; past akd present. 

Genn8n7.^El0otorate of Hi 



northward and 84 miles distant from Mastridit, has 6,600 inhabitanis, and is 
noted in history as the birth-place of the famous Austrian general, in the 
thirty years* war, who named himself John of Weerdt SirriJiD, a town at 
the frontier of the Prussian Rhenish provinoe, with 4,000 inhabitanta. Other 
more or less remarkable towns are : Gefinep (with 1,100 inhabitants), SiuU- 
ren (with 1,800 inhabitants), Steveru-Waerd (with 1,000 inhabitants), Wnsem 
(with 1,200 inhabitants), and VcUkenburg (in French Fauqwnumt^ has 1,650 
inhabitants). The Tillage of Fa«/<, situated in the neigfaborfaood of Aix la 
Chapelle, has 2,600 inhabitants^ and is noted for its doth and needle mamh 
factures. 



XHL— THE ELECTORATE OF HESSE. 

A&XA : 4,462 square milesL 
PopuLAnoN : 750,000 inhabitants. 

This state, commonly called Electoral Hesse {Kurkessen in 
German), and formerly known by the name of Hesse-Gassel, is 
situated between the Weser and Mayne rivers, towards the centre 
of Germany, surrounded by Westphalia, the kingdom of Han- 
over, the Saxon duchies, and Hesse-Darmstadt. 

The majority of the population consists of Calvinists, and the 
remainder of Lutherans and about 100,000 Catholics. The num- 
ber of Jews amounts to about 8,500. 

The surface is generally more mountainous (see pages 7 and 8) or 
hilly than level, and the soil may even be called sterile in some 
districts. However, sufficient corn is raised for home consump- 
tion, and the rearing of cattle is considerable ; though the latter 
is not everywhere of fine breed. The chief natural pfodacts are 
timber, flax, iron. And freestone. 

The manufactures consist of linen, hardware, woollen goods, 



GERMANY. S69 



The Electorate of Hesse— tte History. 



etc. The inland trade is not inconsiderable. With regard to the 
means of education, there are, besides the nniyersity at Marburg* 
(see page 287), which in 1846 was frequented by 264 students, 6 
lycea, 6 gymnasia, 63 Latin schools (see the note, page 65), eto. 

The government is a limited monarchy, the soTereign power 
being vested in an elector and one legislative chamber. The 
public revenue was in the period 1843-45, estimated at 3,892,700, 
and the expenditure at 3,675,420 Prussian dollars per annum. 
The puUic debt amounted in 1840 to 1,642,566 Prussian dollars. 
The regular army consists of 8,657 men ; to the confederal army 
are to be furnished 5,679 men. 

There are the following orders of honor: 1. The order of the 
Golden Xion, in 4 classes, and instituted in 1 770. 2. The milir 
tary order ofMerit, instituted in 1769. 3. The order of the Iron 
Helmet, in 3 classes, and instituted in 1814. 

Hittory, — ^Hesse-Caeeel, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Hesse-Homburg, have one 
common origin, and thus we are already acquainted with the remoter part of 
Hessian history (see page 862). The eldest son of Philip the Generous, 
William /Fi, obtained the largest share in the partition, yic, the greatest 
part of the present proymoe of Lower Hesse (with Oassel), the ancient earl- 
dom of Ziegenhain, part of Schmalkalden, one half of the ready money, eta 
During his reign (1667-1692) he made fresh acquisitions of territories, mostly 
by inheritance. His son and successor, landgrave Maurice, inherited Mar- 
burg, etc, and other territories were annexed during the reign of his grand- 
eon, WiUiam YL The hitter's great-grandson, Frederic I (1730-1761), was 
married to Ulrica Eleanor of Sweden, and thus ascended the Swedish throne 
in 1720 ; while he, after his fifttheKs death (in 1780 ), succeeded also in Hesse- 
Cassel, though he continued to reside in Stockholm. He died in 1761, and 
was succeeded by his brother, landgrave WVliam VIIT.y whose successor 
(since 1760) was Frederic IL, who died in 1785, and was succeeded by his soni 
WUliam IX., who in 1 808 was indemnified for the cession of his d<Hniniona 
on the Rhme, by the annexation of the towns of Fritshur and Amdneburg, 
etc. (see page 866), while at the same time he was promoted to the dignity 
of an d$etOT. As such he was now styled William I. In the war Napoleoo 

10* 



870 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germuiy.— Electorate of B 



waged against Pnissia in 1806, the elector of Hesse endeayored to keep ueo- 
trali^, bat in vain ; for after the battle of Jena, Napoleon declared to him 
that he was thorooghly acquainted with his secret hostile dispoutioo against 
him, so that if he had lost the battle, the elector would forthwith liave at- 
tacked the French army. Thus, the only chance was left to William L, either 
to leave the country or to defend it against the French. As this hitter would 
have been entirely unsuccessful, he retired to Austria, while in the next year 
his state became a constituent part of the kingdom of Westphalia (see page 
296). In 181 S William L returned to his dominions, acquired the tenitoiy 
of the ancient independent bishopric of Fulda, and retained the electoral titk^ 
though it had since 1806 lost its actual significatioa He died in 1821, and 
was succeeded by his son William 11^ who in 1880 appointed his son Firml- 
erie William (bom in 1802, and reigning elector since 1847) oo-regent» and 
died on the 20th November, 1847. 

The electorate of Hesse is divided into 4 provinces^ which are 
subdivided into 21 circles, viz., the province of Lower Hesse 
into 10, that of Upper Hesse into 4, that of Fulda into 4, and 
the province of Hanau into 3 circles. The capitals of the prov- 
inces will be found marked by a cross (+)• 

L The province of Lower Hiuae contains : -f^^^sssL, the capital of the elec- 
torate, and residence of the elector, on the Fulda (see page 17), south-west- 
ward and 28 miles distant from Gottingen, with numerous manu&cturaa, con- 
siderable inland trade, and 82,600 inhabitants. Cassel is noted for its fine 
and solid public and private edifices, some of which are built of freestone ; 
as» for instance, the electoral palace, and the museum. At about 5 miles dis- 
tance is situated, at the foot of the Habichtswald (see page 8), the electoral 
palace of Wilhslmshohx (literally, William's Height), renowned for its gar- 
dens, fountains, colossal statue of Hercules, etc The town of Oron-Alme- 
rode^ eastward and 9 miles distant from Cassel, with 2,260 inhabitants, is noted 
for its crucibles. ALUNDoar, a town on the Werra, with 4,400 inhabitants, 
is already, since the 10th century, noted for its salt-springs andVorks. 
OAaLSHAFKN, a towu on the Weser, northward and 20 miles distant from Cas- 
sel, with rather important trade, and 1,700 inhabitants. The town of Hor- 
exniiAB, northward and 14 mOes distant from Cassel, with an electonU 



GERMANY. 871 



The Electorate of Hease— its Geographical DlviBioiis. 



palace and 8,600 inhabitantB, is noted and much resorted to as a watering- 
place. The village of Oeiamar (near Fritzlar, with mineral waters and 900 in- 
habitants) was in the days of Paganism noted for a millennial oak-tree kept holy, 
which in the 8th century was cut down by BonifJaciua. Hombbbo, sumamed 
in Heue, a town on the little Efise river, southward and 22 miles distant from 
Cassel, with 8,800 inhabitants, and manufactures of linen, leather, and wool- 
len goods. Other more or leas remarkable towns are : Melsungen (south- 
ward and 14 miles distant from Oassel, with 4,050 inhabitants), JAchtenau 
(with 1,600 inhabitants), Spangenberg (with 2,200 inhabitants), Waldkappel 
(with 1,800 inhabitants), Bfyrken (with 1,400 inhabitants), OrebenBtein (with 
2,500 inhabitants), ImmenhauaeH (with 1,600 inhabitants), Zierenherg (with 
1,600 inhabitants), Wolfkagen (with 8,200 inhabitants), Oudensherg (with 
2,100 inhabitants), Felsberg (with 1,300 inhabitants), and Niedenstein (with 
700 inhabitants). Rotenburg, a town on the Fulda, 28 miles south-south-east 
of Cassel, with 3,650 inhabitants, linen and other manufiactures, and a rather 
extensive castle or palace, until 1834 the residence of the landgraves of 
Hesse-Rotenburg. These landgraves were descendants of Maurice (see 
above), who having been married twice, bequeathed to his sons from the 
second matrimony, \he fourth part of his dominions His eldest son and suo- 
cessOT, William V., ceded for this purpose certain cities, towns, and estates, 
in Lower Hesse, to his step-brothers, yet reserving his supreme sovereignty. 
The last descendant of these step-brothers was Victor Amadeus, who died in 
1884, and with whom this collateral line became extinct Thus, the reigning 
house of Hesse-Cassel came again in full posssesion of the Roteriburgian 
Quarter, as this territory was styled. Other towns of it are the following 
Wanmfbisd (on the Werra, with considerable trade, and 2,060 inhabitants), 
EsotiWKGK (on the Werra, with various manufactures, and 6,050 inhabitants), 
WI3ZXNHAUBKN (ou tho Werra, eastward and 14 miles distant from Oassel 
with some vine culture and 8,250 inhabitants), and Sontra (with 1,800 inhab- 
itants). — ^The ancient earldom of Sehaumburg (which in 1647 was inherited 
by the house of HesserCassel and Lippe, its native earls having become ex- 
tinct in 1640), along the Weser, contains: Rimtkln, a town on the Weser, 
north-westward and 72 miles distant from Oassel, and south-westward and 
32 milee distant from Hanover, has 3,200 inhabitants, was since 1621 noted 
for its university, which was abolished by the transitory Westphalian govern- 
ment in 1809. Oldendorf a town on the Weser, with 1,400 inhabitants. Be- 
tween here and Rinteln are, on a steep hill on the Weser, the ruins of the 



872 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gennany.— Electorate of Umte, 

andeDt castle of Schaumburff^ where the ewrls of the same name resided. 
Obkemkirohen, a town with 1,900 inbabitants, ia noted for its qmuries and 
ooal mines. Rodtnberg and Sachtenhagmtt towns with respectivelj 1,360 and 
800 inhabitants. The Tillage of NEHNDoaF (with 750 mhabttants) is noted 
and mudi resorted to as a watering-plaoe. To the deetoraU of Memtz (see 
aboTe and page 865) did belong : FanxLAa, a town on the Eder lirer, 18 
miles south-south-west of Cassel, with some manu&ctures and 8,060 inhabi- 
tants. In the middle ages, Fritchur was by fiir more noted than at present 
NuuBuao, or Namnburg^ a town with 1,800 inhabitants. The town of Volk 
MAasxif, north-westward and 18 miles distant from Cassel, with 2,860 inhabi- 
taots, did formerlj belong to the duchy of Westphalia (see under the head 
of Prussia). 

IL The/>rovtne0 of Uppke Hxsea contains : -^Marbitrq, the capital of the 
proTince, on' the Lahn, half-way between Cassel and Frankfort» has 8,000 in- 
habitants, and is noted for its uniyersity (see above and page 287) and its 
highly remarkable Gothic St Elizabeth*s diurch, whose foondatioo was laid 
in the 18th century. Fbankenberg, a town on the Eder rirer, with some 
leather and cloth manufactures, and 8,250 inhabitants. Other towns are: 
Wttter (with 1,550 inhabitants), Frankenau (with 1,050 inliabitants), Rotn- 
thai (with 1,600 inhabitants), Oemunden (with 1,450 inhabitants), Kirekhaim 
(with 1,800 inhabitants), TEauaeAmW^ (with 1,550 inhabitants), and Sehwemt- 
berg (with 1,000 inhabitants). Zisgbnhain, a formerly fortified town, 23 
miles east-north-east of Marburg, and southward and 82 miles distant from 
Cassel, with 1,750 inhabitants and an ancient castle, once the residence of the 
earls of Ziegenhain, who became extinct in 1460, upon whidi Heeee-Oassel 
inherited the earldom. Tretba, a town in the neighborhood of Ziegenhain, 
with some manuiieu^ures and 2,660 inhabitants. Neukirghen, a town in the 
▼icinity of 21iegenhain, with rarious manufiustures and 2,150 inhabitants. 
Sehtoarxenbom, a very ancient town, with 1,000 inhabitants. The town of 
Amoneburo (on the Ohm, eastward and 9 miles distant from Marbuig, with 
1,200 inhabitants), and Neuttadt (between Amoneburg and Ziegenhain, with 
1,800 inhabitants), did formerly belong, together with Fritalar, etc, to the 
electorate of Ments (see page 855). ^ 

IIL The province of Fulda, comprising chiefly the ancient independent 
bishopric of Fulda, and the dominion of Schmalkalden. 1. The dtsAopnV €f 
Fulda took its origin from an abbey instituted in 744 by the holy Bouifncius, 
and which in the course of time was endowed with yarious privileges, and in 



OERMAinr. 378 



The Electonte of Hesae— Its 6eogrf4>hi€al DiviBioos. 



1752 raised to the raok of an iftdependent bishopric, which in the beginning 
of the present century had a territory to the extent of 788 square miles, with 
70,000 inhabitants. In 1808 it was secuhirized, and, by the title of a princi- 
pality, ceded to the prince of Orange (subsequently King William L of the 
Netherlands). But as this prince was in 1806 general in the Prussian ser- 
vice. Napoleon deprived him, after the battle of Jena, of the principality of 
Fulda, and annexed it in 1809 to the grand-duchy of Frankfort (see page 294). 
In 1815 Prussia became possessed of it, but soon ceded it to Heese-Oassel, 
with the exception of some districts, which were annexed to Bavaria. It 
since bears the title of a grand-duchy, and contains : ■^YvrLJikt its former capi- 
tal, and residence of the bishop, on the Fulda river, 62 miles south-south-east 
of Cassel, with various and numerous manufactures and 9,600 inhabitants, is 
noted for its magnificent palace and its cathedral containing the sepulchre of 
the holy Bonifacius. The neighboring village of Salxtehlierf (with 1,100 in- 
habitants) is a watering-place. Huxnfeld, a town on the high-road between 
Fulda and Eisenach, with noted linen manufifictures, and 2,150 inhabitants. 
Burgkaun^ a market-town, with 1,800 inhabitant& 2. The dominion of 
Schmalkalden (144 square miles, and 27,300 inhabitants), which partly 
was purchased, partly inherited by the house of Hesse-Oassel respectively 
in 1360 and 1583, contains: Sohmalkaldbw, a town at the Thi^ringer- 
wald Mountains, about half-way between Fulda and Weimar, with 5,500 in- 
habitants, is renowned for its cutlery, and also noted in the history of the 
Reformation, especially with reference to the years 1581 and 1587. The 
neighboring market-town of KleinrSckmalkaldm (Little Schmalkalden), part 
of which belongs to Saxe-Qotha, has 1,050 inhabitants, who carry on a con- 
aiderable trade in those articles fabricated at Schmalkalden. BaoTTERODE, a 
market-town, with manu&ctures of hardware and cutlery, and 2,400 inhabi- 
tants. The villages 0her9ehonau (with 960 inhabitants) and Seligenthal (with 
1,150 inhabitants), are noted for their iron- works. 8. The market-town of 
Philippsthal (on the Werra, 30 miles north-north-east of Fulda, with 900 
inhabitants) is the residence of a collateral line of the house of Hesse-CasseL 
Other market- towns are Niederatda (with 1,350 inhabitants), and Heringen 
(with 1,250 inhabitants). Hkesfsld, a town on the Fulda river, northward 
and 24 miles distant from Fulda, with manu&ctures of leather and woollen 
^oods, and 7,000 inhabitants. The market-town of BiiaoHrELD, with 1,600 
inhabitants, is the residence of a collateral line of the house of Hesse-CasseL 
JfriedewMt a market-town, with 1,550 inhabitants. 



874 EITROPE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germany .--Eleolorale of Hams. 

IV. The province of Hakau, comprises chiefij the andent earldom of 
Hanaa-MuDz^iberg (which in llZt was inherited by the house of Hease- 
Cassel), and containing: -j-Hanau, the capital of the province, on the 
right bank of the Mayne, eastward and 9 miles distant from Frankfort, with 
numerous and various nianufactures, considerable trade, and 15,800 inhabi- 
tants. Hanau is noted for the battle on the 80th Oct, 1818, in which the Ba- 
varian and Austrian troops were defeated by Napoleon, then retreating from 
Leipsic. Near Hanau is the electoral palace of Phflipparvhe, and the water- 
ing-place of Wilkdmifyad. On the left bank of the Mayne is situated the 
palace of RuKPENnEix, until 1887 the residence of the late landgrave Frede- 
ric, father of the duchess of Cambridge. The market-town of Naukefm (with 
1,460 inhabitants) is noted for its salt-springs. BocKZNHmc, a town on the 
Mayne and in the neighborhood of Frankfort, with 3,500 inhabitanta. In its 
vicinity is situated the market^town of Praunheim, with 700 inhabitams. 
The market-town of Beegen, not fSur from Frankfort, with 2,000 inhabitants, 
is remarkable for a victory obtained by the French in 1759. GBLSHAUsn, 
anciently an imperial city and frequei^tly the residence of Empercn* Frederic 
I. (see page 800), is situated on the Emzig, and the high-road between Hanan 
and Fulda, and has 4,060 inhabitants. Of the ancient imperial residence some 
remains are still extant Between here and Fulda is to be noticed Schutecb- 
TSRN, a town with 2,250 inhabitants. The town of Stbiwau, on the Kinaig 
river, has 2,660 inhabitants. To the former bishopric of Fulda (see above) 
once belonged the towns of SALMaENSTEB (with 1,650 inhabitants) and Sodet^ 
(with 1,100 inhabitants). The market-town of Bibstbiw (with a palace and 
1,100 inhabitants) belongs to the prince of Isenburg-Birstein (see page S55>. 
To other lines of the princely house of Isenbuig do belong : Wi 
a town in the neighborhood of Salmuoster, with 1,400 inhabitants, and 
HOLz, a market-town, noted for its quarries, has 900 inhabitanta. 



GERMANY. 876 



The Principality of Waldeck—lto Hlitoiy. 



XrV.— THE PRINCIPALITY OF WALDECK. 

Arka : 468 square miles. 
Population: 62,000 inhabitants. 

This principality, situated between Hesse-Cassel and West- 
phalia, consists of two detached sections about 30 miles from 
each other. The larger section (426 square miles, and 55,000 
inhabitants) comprises Waldeok proper ; and the by &r smaller 
section (32 square miles, and 7,000 inhabitants) consists of the 
earldom or principality of Pyrmont, and is situated on the We- 
ser. The inhabitants, being Evangdicah (see page 291), depend 
for subsistence chiefly on agriculture and other branches of hus- 
bandry. The government is a somewhat limited monarchy 
The public reveTme and expenditure amount to about 250,000 
Prussian dollars annually, and the piblic debt to 600,000 Prus- 
sian dollars. To the confederal army are to be furnished 519 
men. 

SUCory. — Waldeck was primitiyely an earldom, whose first historically 
known earl was Wittekind (not to be confounded with the famous Saxon 
duke of this name), who lived in the beginning of the llth century. His de- 
goendants formed several lines, most of -which became extinct in the course 
of time. In 1625 the reigning house of Waldeck inherited the earldom of 
JPyrmmit, and was respectively in 1692 and 1712 promoted to ihepHficely 
rank and dignity. In 1807 Waldeck became a member of the Rhenish, and 
in 1816 of the Qerman confederation. The reigning sovereign is prince 
Cfeorge, bom in 18S1. 

The principality of Waldeck is divided into 4 bailiwicks, one 
of which comprises the earldom of Pyrmont. We shall first de- 
scribe Waldeck proper, and next to it Pyrmont 



SKI EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germany.— Prlodpalily of Wakleek. 

1. WoUdeck proper (see p. 3*75) oontaios : Corbaoh, or Kcrbaeh, the capital 
of the whole principalit j (the princely residence ia in Arolaen), aa the litter 
river, 30 miles west-south-west of Oassel, with a remarkahla church, and 
2,500 inhabitants. Akolbsn, residence of the prince and seat of the govern- 
ment, on the little Aar river, 20 miles west-north-west of Cassel, with, 2,200 
inhalntants), various manufactures, and a remarkable and extensive prinodj 
palace, founded in 1716. Wildukgen (or Niederwildungen), a town soath- 
eastward and 14 miles distant from Corbach, with a remarkable dburdi, and 
1,860 inhabitants, is noted for its mineral waters. In the neighborhood of 
Corbach are the ruins of the castle of Sehwaienberg^ ancestral seat of the 
reigning princely house. The neighboring town of Saehsenhauaet^ with 1,200 
inhabitants, is noted for its breweries. Waldegx, a town 9 miles east-sooih- 
east of Corbach, with the ancient castle of the same name, and 800 inhabi- 
tants. Other towns are : Mengeringhauasn (with 1,760 inhabitants), &MA«ai- 
herg (with 1,150 inhabitants), Freienhagen (with 800 inhabitants), and Bhod/en 
(with 1,760 inhabitants). The market-town of Berohbuc, with 600 inhabi- 
tants, is the residence of the earl of Waldeck, who belongs to a collateral 
line of the princely house. 2. The earldom, or at present prindpaliUf ^ 
Pyrmont (see above), contams : Pyamomt, a town on the Weser, northward 
and 62 miles distant from Cassel, has a remarkable princely palace, and 
8,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its mineral waters, and annuaUy visited by 
many strangers. 



XV.— THE KINGDOM OF SAXONT. 

Arka : 6,798 square miles. 
Population: 1,809,000 inhabitants. 

The former electorate, bat since 1806 kingdom of Saxonj, is 
sitoaied towards the centre of Oermany, between Baymrui and 

Silesia, and between Bohemia and the Prassian proTinoe ai 

Saxony. 



GBRMAKT. m 



The Kingdom of Sutmy— its Natoral IVodaeto and Hurafketures. 

Most of the inhabitants are lAUhtrans^ though the royal family 
is Catholic since the days of Frederic Augustus I. (1694-1733). 
In 1843 the number of Catholics (chiefly in Lusatia) in the coun- 
try was 30,375, and that of Calvinisls was 2,074, while the num- 
ber of Jews (who are allowed only to live in Dresden and 
Leipsio) was restricted to 882. 

The surface is mostly hilly and mountainous, yet level in the 
northern part of the country. The principal mountain range 
here is the Erzgeblrge^ or Ore Mowntains (see page 7). The 
Highland of Meissen is usually called Saxon Switzerland, on 
aooount of its sublime natural scenery. The principal river 
is the Elbe, 

The soil is in the level and hilly parts of the country, both 
fertile and eminently cultivated ; nevertheless com is not suffi- 
ciently raised for home consumption. The vine is cultivated to a 
rather great extent, but the wines which are produced are not fit 
for being exported. Fruits of various kinds are produced in 
abundance. The rearing of cattle is very considerable, and vast 
flocks of sheep are raised, the wool of which, noted for its fine- 
ness, is largely exported. The greatestT part of German wool 
imported into England in 1828, amounting to more than 230,000 
quintals, was Saxon wool. In 1765 Spanish sheep were intro- 
duced for improving the native breed, and in 1829 Saxon sheep 
were introduced in Spain to improve the Spanish breed ! Sax- 
ony is moreover rich in metals and other minerals. In 1844 the 
nett produce of the Saxon mines had a value of 2,197^73 Prus- 
Rian dollars, and consisted chiefly of silver (74,272 marks), lead 
(8,940 quintals), tin (2,409 quintals), iron (at the value of more 
than 600,000 Prussian dollars), etc. 

Saxony is noted for its manufactures^ which consist chiefly of 
cotton and woollen goods, linen, lace, straw hats, etc., musical in- 
struments and porcelain. The iidand trade is very considerable, 



its EITROPIs PAST AND PRESKNT. 

G«niisn7. — ^Klsfdoni of Btaumj. 

and for several years the exports have surpassed the imports by 
about 3 million Prussian dollars in value. 

With regard to the means of education, Saxony ranks among the 
first countries of Germany in this point. Beside the university 
at Leipsic (see page 287), which in 1846 was frequented by 835 
students, there are 2 so-called princely schools (arranged in a 
similar manner, as for instance, the colleges at Eton and Win- 
chester in England), 9 gymnasia, 9 seminaries, the renowned 
mining academy at Freiberg, 2,155 common schools (beside nu- 
merous private schools), etc. 

The government is a limited monarchy like that of Wirtem- 
berg. In the budget for the period 1846-48, the public revenue 
was estimated at 5,798,648 Prussian dollars, and the expendiiure 
at 5,786,059 annually. The actual public debt amounted at the 
close of the year 1846, to 13,092,600 Prussian dollars. The 
regular army consists of 16,691 men. The troops for the con- 
federal army, 12,000 men. 

There are the following orders of honor: 1. The order of ikt 
Rue Croum, instituted in 1807, in one single class. 2. The 
military order of St. Henry, instituted in 1736, and renewed 
respectively in 1796, and 1829, in 4 classes. 3. The civil order 
of Merit, in 3 classes, instituted in 1815. 

Hittory. — ^The first hiBtorically known inhabitants of this coantry were the 
Hermunduri (a Germanic tribe) ; and at a later period and until the end of 
the 10th century, we find here the Sorbes and other Siavonie tribes predom- 
inant Thus, while Slavonic tribes occupied a country which at present b 
known only by the name of Saxony, the ancient and genuine Otrmanie tribe 
of the Saxonft lived at a rather great distance firom it in the north-western 
part of Germany, between the Rhine and Eider rivers (see page 298). In 
short, the ancient Saxons (whose principal seat is m common life still fine- 
quently called Lower S<UNmy) had nothing in common with the fore-mcntiooed 
country ; and the latter would, but for the political alterations the ancient 
duchy of Saxony underwent towards the end of the 12th century, perhaps 



GERMANY. 8*79 



The Ktsgdom of Saxony— its Htatorj. 



have retained its primitive poiiiictU name of Mkissen until the preeeDt day. 
This name was derived from that of the stronghold of Mauen, which Em- 
peror Henry I. erected in 980 on the Elbe, to protect the eastern frontier of 
Germany against the inroads on the part of the neighboring Slavonic tribes. 
He annexed a territory to that place, appointed a margrave to represent him 
here, and in this way the marffraviaie of MeUaen came to existence. In 
1046 Emperor Henry UL invested with the margraviate the earl Dedo IL 
of Wettin, who is the ancestor of the present reigning houses in the kingdom, 
as well as in the grand-duchy and duchies of Saxony. In the course of time 
the margraviate was gradually enlarged, especially by the ancient landgra- 
Tiate of lliuringen (see under the head of Saxe-Weimar), which was inher> 
ited in the ISth century. Meanwhile the powerful duchy of Saxony (L e. the 
present Hanover, Westphalia, etc, see page 299) had been dismembered 
since the year 1179 (when the Duke Henry, sumamed the Lion, was out- 
lawed on account of his felony), and with its north-eastern part and the elec- 
toral privileges (see page 298), the Duke Bernard of Ascania (see under the 
head of Anhalt) been invested. In 1422 the electoral line of the Ascanian 
house became extinct, and Emperor Sigismund now conferred that named 
part of the ancient duchy of Saxony and the electoral dignity upon the mar- 
grave Frederic of Meiuen^ and since that period the name of a margraviate 
of Meissen became (gradually obsolete, and was supplanted by the more illus- 
trious title of the electorate of Saxony, For the same reason that circle of 
the German Empire which chiefly embraced this electorate, was styled the 
Upper Saxon circle (see page 298). The Margrave Frederic, or Elector 
Frederic I., died in 1428, and was succeeded by his son Frederic II.y sur- 
named the Meek, who resided in Altenburg, and died in 1464, leaving be- 
hind two sons, Ernest and Albert EmeH succeeded his lather as elector, 
and the electoral residence was henceforth usually in Wittenberg. But he 
ceded the ancient margraviate of Meissen (comprising among others Dresden 
and Leipsic) and port of Thuringia, to his younger brother Albibt, who took 
his residence in Dresden, and with whom, and his descendants, we have only 
to do here. For Ernest's grandson, John Frederic, sumamed the Generous, 
having taken up arms against the emperor, and for this reason been deposed 
in 1647, Albert's grandson, MAuaioc, was invested with the electorate, how- 
ever at the same time obliged to cede to the deposed elector and his descen- 
dants, the dbtricts of Weimar, Jena, Msenaeh, Gotha, etc., to which in 1664 
was added that of Altenburg, In this way the Saxon grand-duchy and 



S80 BIJROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gcmrany.— •Kingdom of Saxouf, 

duchies, ruled by deeoendante of Ernest and respectivelj of John FrederiCi 
cune into existence. Elector Maurice died in 1658, and was sooeeeded by 
his brother, AtigusiuM Z, who died in 1686, and was sacoeeded by his son, 
ChrUHan /., eta The elector Frederic Augutiue I (1694-178S) aaoended 
the Polish throne sa King Augustus IL He died in 1738, and was suooeeded 
both in Saxony and Poland by his son Frednie Auguthu IZ (Augustus IILX 
who died in 1768. His grandson, Frederic Augustus (1768-1827), became 
in 1806, member of the Rhenish confederation (see page 294), as kinff of 
Saxony, and in the following year possessed of the duchy or grand-duchy of 
Warsaw, created by Napoleon. He continued to be the ally of Napoleon, 
eyen until the battle of Leipsic in 1818, and for this reason he was by the 
powers allied against the Frendi emperor, treated as prisoner, and in 1816 
deprived of the larger half (7,961 square miles, and in 1816, with 845,218 
inhabitants) of lus kingdom, in fiiTor of Prussia, to which this half was ceded. 
King Frederic Augustus L died in 1827, and was suooeeded by his brother, 
Anton, who died in 1886, and was succeeded by hia nephew, the at present 
reigning king, Frederic Avguttue 11^ bom in 1797. 

Until 1835 the kingdom was divided into 5 circles orproiiiices, 
wbioh since have been reduced to 4 (of Dresden, Leipsic, Zwickau 
and Bautzen), styled districts of circle directions (Kreisdirektions- 
Bezirke). Those of Dresden, Leipsic and Zwickau comprise the 
ancient margraviate of Meissen and part of Thuringia ; while that 
of Bautzen comprises the greater part of the Upper Lusatia, an- 
nexed to Saxony in 1635. For the sake of brevity, we shall use 
the term of provinces, whose capitals will be found marked with a 
cross (+). 

L The province of Dreeden contains: -("I^kxsden, the capital of the king- 
dom and royal residence, on bolh sides of the £lbe (crossed here by one of 
the finest bridges, built of freestone, 1,380 feet long and 42 feet broad), had, 
at the close of the year 1846, 8,706 houses and 85,707 inhabitants, ezdusiTe 
of the military and strangers. Dresden is noted for a great many magnifi* 
cent or at least remarkable public buildings ; as for instance, the Catholic 
church (reared in the period of 1789-1756), the church of Our Lady (with 
a fine cupok), the royal palace with a steeple of 858 feet in height^ the 



QBRMANY. 881 



The Kingdom of Baxony— ita Geographical Dlytaions. 



called Japanese palace eoDtainiiig the royal libraiy (see page 268), the new 
baflding for the highly renowned gallery of paiotings, the former palace of 
Maroolini (where Napoleon resided in 1818), etc Near Dresden is the beauti- 
ful valley called Flattenseher Grand, after the village of Plauen, where it 
ends, while it begins at the town of Thakaxd, with 1,800 inhabitants and an 
acad em y for forest^concems. The neighboring village of Kesadtdorf is 
noted for a battle between the Prussians and Austro-Saxons on the 15th Dec^ 
1*746. Meissen, once the capital of the ancient margraviate of Meissen, on 
the Elbe, 18 miles below Dresden, with 8,200 inhabitants, vine culture, and a 
college or so-called princely school (see above), instituted in 1643. Meissen 
is at present chiefly noted for its eminent porcelain-manufactory, which in 
1710 was established in the ancient and extensive castle, where the mar- 
graves had resided. Another remarkable edifice is the ancient Gothic cathe- 
dral ; for Meissen was until 1587 the seat of a Catholic bishop. The neigh- 
boring town of LommaUsch (with 2,800 inhabitants) is situated in a district 
of the same name that is highly renowned for the fertility of its well-cultivated 
soil. FaEiBEao, a city near the Freiberger Mulde river; Bouth- westward and 
18 miles distant from Dresden, is highly renowned both for its numerous 
mines and miniog academy, which was founded in 1766 and has ever since 
been much resorted to, even from foreign countries. The mines of Freiberg 
were for the first time wrought in the 12th century, and have since produced 
quantities of silver to the value of 240,000,000 Prussian dollars. Ifainichen, a 
town, north-westward and 9 miles distant from Freiberg, with numerous nuuiu- 
fiietures and 5,600 inhabitants, is remarkable as the Iwrth-place of the ^^^iflbW 
German poet Gellert Other more or less remarkable towns are : Wiladruf 
(with 2,160 inhabitants), RieM (with 2,300 inhabitants). Brand (with 2,400 
inhabitants), 8ayda (with 1,260 inhabitants), Frauerutein (with 1,160 inhabi- 
tants), Altenbeko (with important tin mines, and 2,100 inhabitants), OIcm- 
AiU/tf (with 1,100 inhabitants), 2^oAfta (with 1,200 inliabitants), IHppoldinoalde 
(with 2,660 inhabitants), OroMenJiain (with 6,500 inhabitants), JRadeburg 
(noted for its com and catUe-markets, has 2,100 inhabitants), and Radeberg 
(with linen manufactures and 2,300 inhabitants). The town of Liebstadt, in 
the neighborlvxKi of Pima, with 800 inhabitants, is noted for its ancient moun- 
tain-castle of Kukukstein, In its vicinity is situated the village of Jfaxen 
-where on the 2lBt Nov., 1759, the Prussian general Fink capitulated with 
16,000 men. Kreiseha, a market-town, between Dresden and Pima, with 
000 inhabitants, is noted as a watering-place, and situated in a district that 



MS EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Gennaay.— Kingdom of Saxonj. 



may be oonaiclered as the principal seat of the Saxon atraw-hat manafiutana 
Hoanmaao, a palace northvard and 7 milea distant from Dresden* and 
reared in 1642 by the elector Manrice, contains more than 220 rooms and 
apartments, and is noted as a royal hunting-seat Hie palace of PUlmiz, in 
the neighborhood of Dresden, and noted for its gardens and park, is the reai- 
denoe of the king in the summer season. Sohandau, a town on the right bank 
of the Elbe, and near the frontier of Bohemia, vith 1,650 inhabitants, may 
be considered as the principal place of the above-mentioned Saxon SwUxrland. 
Between Schandau and Dresden is situated, on the left bank of the Elbe, the 
town of Pduta, with 6,000 inhabitants, noted for its quarries, and fior its andeDt 
castle of SonnentUitij standing on a high rode and at present arranged for a 
mad-housa Opposite Pima, on the right bank of the Elbe, is sitoated the 
town oi EoNiosTxnr, with 2,060 inhabitants, and the renowned mountain-fcrt 
of the same name, which is as impregnable, for instance, as that of GKbraltar. 
The well of this fort is 1,172 feet deep. 

IL Hie province of LeipsUy comprising part of a district anciently well 
known by the iiame*of Osterlandy contains : -(-Leifsio (in German Leiptig), 
a city on the Pleisse, at its junction with the Elster river, 70 miles westnorth- 
west of Dresden, had, at the dose of the year 1846, 1,980 houses and 60,10S 
inhabitants. Leipsic may in some respects be considered as the centre of the 
inland trade of Oermany, and is noted not only for its great £ura, held 
thrice a year, but also for its highly important book-trade, and its muTer- 
sity (see page 287). The most remarkable public edifices here are: the 
Plei9$mburff (celebrated aa a stronghold in the thirty years' war, and erected 
in 1649), the so-called Paulinum (with a diurch inaugurated by Luther on 
the 12th Aug., 1546), St Nicholas' church, St ThAnas' dmrch, etc Hie en- 
Tirons of Leipsic were the scenes of important battles in 1631, 1642, and es- 
pedally on the 16th and 18th Oct, 1813. Gbimxa, a town on the Mulde 
river, south-eastward and 17 miles distant from Leipsic, has 6,200 inhabitants, 
and is noted for its manufiictures and its princely schoid or college (seeaboreX 
founded in 1543. WuazsN, a town on the rail-road between Leipsic and Dres- 
den, is noted for its andent cathedral (whose foundation was laid in 11 14), and 
has 4,200 inhabitants. Mutztehen, a town north-eastward and 7 miles dis- 
tant from Qrimma, with 1,660 inhabitanta In its neighborhood is sitoaled 
the palace of UvhertAurg^ formerly noted as a hunting-seat, and for tlw 
treaty of peace concluded here in 1763. The town of CoidUa (soath-eMt- 
ward nod 25 miles disUnt from Leipsic, with 3,000 inhabitants) is noCad for 



GERMANY. 888 



The KlDgdom of Saxony— iU GeogrBpUoal Diviaiona. 



its boefHtal, that of Roekliu (southwftrd and 82 miles distant from LeipsiGy 
with 4,200 inhabitaiitsX for its manufacture of woollen goods, and the town 
of Waidheim (between Leipsic and Freiberg, with 8,500 inhabitants), for its 
house of correction. Other more or less remarkable towns are : Taueha (wiUi 
2,100 inhabitants), Markranatadt (with 1,050 inhabitants), Pegau (with 8,600 
inhabitants), 2koenkau (with 2,650 inhabitants), JBoma (with 4,200 inhabitants), 
Geringnoalde (with 2,400 inhabitants), and LeUnig (with important manufno- 
tures and 5,200 inhabitants). Penio, a town on the Mulde rirer, between 
Leipsic and Chemnits, with 4,100 inhabitants, is noted for its cotton manufiio- 
tures, and belongs to a collateral line of the dependent princely house of Schon- 
burg (see under the head of the following province), together with the town 
of Weehtelhurg (with 1,200 inhabitants), and the village of RocJiaburg (with 
600 inhabitants, and a remarkable ancient castle or palace). 

IIL The province of Zwickau^ comprising among others the ancient Voigt- 
land (which name is derived from voigt or baili£^ because the district was in 
the middle ages under the sway of an imperial bailiff or governor), contains: 
-f-ZwicKAU, the capital of the province, in a romantic valley on the Zwickauer 
Mulde river, southward and 46 miles distant from Leipsic, has 9,000 inhabi- 
tants and several remarkable churches, and is noted for its coal mines. 
Zwickau carried on a very considerable trade in the middle ages, and was an 
imperial city until 1808. The towns of Crimmitzachau (with remarkable 
Gothic church and 5,800 inhabitants) and Werdau (with 6,800 inhabitants), 
are noted for their woollen manufactures. Sohxekbbro, a noted mining town 
In the Ersgebirge or Ore Mountains, southward and 12 miles distant from 
Zwickau, with various manufactures, especially of lace, and 7,800 inhabitants. 
Its silver mines wrought fbr the first time in 1471, were so productive, that 
"when in 1477 the margrave Frederic of Meissen dined in one of them, he sat 
at a table consisting of a piece oi ore, 80,000 marks of silver in value. An- 
KABKRo, a likewise noted n^ing town near tlie frontier of Bohemia, is more- 
over noted for its ribbon and lace manu&ctures, and has 7,850 inhabitants* 
Other more or less remarkable mining towns are : Scheibenberg (with 1,850 
inhabitants), Schtoanenberg (with 2,200 inhabitants), Aue (with 1,400 inhal»- 
tants), Jokanngeorgensiadi (John Qeorge's town, has 4,000 inhabitants), 
JBihengtoek (with 5,800 inhabitants), Getfer (with 8,600 inhabitants), Jdhatadt 
(with 2,000 inhabitants), ^/^;<nn(with 2,150 inhabitants), Wolkenstein (with 
1,950 inhabitants), and Marienberg (with 4,500 inhabitants). The most im- 
portant manufiicturing town is OHsmfm, south-eastward and 50 miles distant 



S84 EUROPE, PAST ANB PRESENT. 

Germany. — ^Kingdom of Saztmy. 

from Ldpsky with 28,660 inhabitants. Its manufiu*tures oooaist duedj of 
cotton goods. OxoEBAX, a town between Chemnitz and Freiberg, has 4,6S0 
inhabitants, and is noted for its manufinctures of doth, cassimere, flannel, etc: 
Fbankknbero, a town on the Zschopau riyer, north-eastward and 6 miles dis- 
tant from Chemnits, has 6,800 inhabitants, and is noted for its cotton mann* 
6u4ure& GauENHAiN, a town between Schneeberg and Annabei^g, is noted Ibr 
its laoe, and has 1,550 inhabitants. The above-mentioned Vaigtland contains : 
Plauxn, its ancient capital, on the EUster, westward and 23 miles distant from 
Zwickau, with important manu&ctures of maslin, and 11,050 inhalxtants. 
Rrichenbaoh, a town half-way between Plauen and Zwickau, has 6,800 inhab- 
itants, and is likewise noted Ibr its manufiictures of muslin and of doth, etc 
Other more or less important manufacturing towns are : OeUniU (with 4,250 
inhabitants), Neizaehkau (with 1,900 inhabitants), MyUtu (with 2,600 inhabi- 
tants), EUterherg (with 2,500 inhabitants), Lengenfeld (with 4,050 inhabi- 
tants), Tmien (with 4,500 inhabitants), Muhitroff (with 1,700 inhabitantsX 
and Pauaa (with 2,460 inhabitants). The towns of AdoTf{vnAk 2,700 inhab- 
itants) and MarkneuHtehen (with 2,750 inhabitants), are noted for their mo- 
aical instruments. Auebbaoh, a town on the Golzscfa river, with considerable 
corn-markets, manufustures of black lace and pins, and 3,700 inhabitants, 
who make mudi pitch and smoke-black in the neighboring pine forests. Wij^ 
DSNFKLs, a town between Zwickau and Sdineeberg, with 2,400 inhabitants^ 
and a palace, the residence of the earl of Solms-Wildenfels (belonging to the 
house of Solms, mentioned page 867). The dependent dominion* of the 
princes and earls of Schdnhurg (241 square miles, and 105,300 inhabitants), 
contain: Waldknburo, a town romantically situated on the Zwickauer Malde 
river, southward and 36 miles distant from Leipsic, has 2,400 inhabitants^ and 
is the residence of the prince of Schonburg-Waldenburg, to whom also do 
belong the towns of Liehtenitein (with 8,250 inhabitants), CcdUnberg (with 
2,250 inhabitants), Hartenttein (with 2,000 inhabitants), and LdssniU (with 
4,900 inhabitants). The towns of Homensi' juN (with 4,700 inhabitants and oon- 
siderable manufactures of cotton goods), and Mseranx (with wooUen manu- 
fiictures and 5,650 inhabitants), bdong to the earl of Schdnburg- Wecbsdbar^g. 
Glauohau, a town westward and 18 miles distant from Chemnitz, with 8,250 
inhabitants, is the residence of the earl of Schdnburg-Hinterglauchau, and at 
the same time the capital of the above-named dependent dominions. 

IV. The proving of Bautzen consists of ancient Upper Lusatia. Xtuo/ro, in 
general, was a margraviate, instituted in 931, and since the year 1870, bdoog^ 



GERMANY. 885 



Kingdom of Saxony— Its Geographical DlvMona. 



ing entirelj to Bohemia. In 1686, Emperor Ferdimmd IL ceded (in his quality 
as ]ang of Bohemia) Lusatia to the electorate of Saxony, of which it has since 
formed a constituent part. Yet in 1815 the king of Saxony was constrained to 
cede that part known by the name of Lower Lusatia, and also part of Upper 
Lusatia, to Prussia. The remainder of Upper Lutatia, or the present province 
of Bautzen (969 square miles, and 282,600 inhabitants), contains : -|-Bautzen 
(officially styled Bttdisnn)^ the ancient capital of Upper Lusatia, on the Spree 
river, eastward and 82 miles distant from Dresden, has 1 1,000 inhabitants and 
several remarkable public buildings, and is noted for its numerous maniifiactures, 
especially of linen, paper, and leather. Napoleon's victory on the 20th and 21st 
May, 1818. Zhtau, a highly renowned manufacturing city near the Neisse 
river and the frontier of Bohemia, south-eastward and 80 miles distant from 
Bautzen, with numerous manufi&ctures, linen and damask, and 9,350 inhabitants. 
To the city belong 36 villages, both industrious and populous, as, for instance, 
Scifhennersdorf, or ffennersdorf in Sei/en (^ith 6,600 inhabitants, and linen 
manufactures), and Oross-Sehbnau, with 4,800 inhabitants, fabricating damask 
of unparalleled beauty and fineness. A damask table-cloth, which was given 
to the duke of Wellington by King Frederic Augustus I., was made in Gross- 
Schonau. Oamenz, a city on the Black Elster, north-westward and 12 miles 
distant from Bautzen, has 4,450 inhabitants, and is noted for its gingerbread. 
LdBAU, a city south-eastward and 14 miles distant from Bautzen, with 2,800 
inhabitants, and considerable trade in linen and cloth. Konigsbbueck, a town 
on the Pulsnitz river, 14 miles north-north-east of Dresden, with a palace 
(residence of the count of Hohenthal) and 1,760 inhabitants, is noted for its 
potteries. Reihersdorf, a marketrtown in the neighborhood of Zittau, with a 
magnificent palace of the count of Einsiedeln, and 1,000 inhabiUiuts. Schir- 
ffiswaldc, a town on the Spree river, is noted for its fustian, and has 1,400 in- 
habitants. The village of Hochkirch, south-eastward and 6 miles distant 
from Bautzen, is noted in the history of the seven years* war, by the defeat 
of the Prussians in the night of the 14th Oct, 1758. HEB&Nmn, a town at 
the railroad between Lobau and Zittau, with 1,000 inhabitants, is remarkable 
as the original seat of the Moravian Brethren since 1722. Other places in- 
habited exclusively by Moravian Brethren are, GaossHBifNERSDoaF, or Markt- 
hennertdarf (with 2,000 inhabitants), BeriheUdarf (with 1,850 inhabitants), 
and Kleinwelka (with 600 inhabitants). StoLPEN, a town on the Wesenitz, 
eastward and 14 miles distant from Dresden, with a remarkable ancient 
mountain castle, and 1,300 inhabitants. 

17 



886 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germany.— Grand-Dachy of Bsxe-Wefroar. 



XVL— THE GRAND-DUCHY OF SAXE-WEIMAR. 

Ajlsa: 1,427 square miles. 
PoFULAnoN : 254,000 inhabitaiita. 

This state, officially styled Saxe- Weimar-Eisenach^ is situated 
in the centre of Germany, surrounded by other Saxon territories. 
The majority of the inhabitants consist of LtUherajiSy and the re- 
mainder of about 10.200 Catholics, tJid 1,450 Jews. The surface 
of the country is hilly ; timber and wood, iron and manganese, are 
the chief natural products. The manufactures consist, for the 
most part, of hardware, woollen goods and linen. Besides the 
university of Jena (see page 287), in 1846 frequented by 419 stu- 
dents, there are 2 gymnasia, 72 Latin schools, 445 common 
schools, etc. The government is a limited monarchy. Aooording 
to the budget for the period of 1845-47, the public revenme was 
estimated at 765,282, and the expenditure at 754,705 Pruasiau 
dollars annually. The revenues of the grand-ducal domains 
amount, upon an average, to 680,000 Prussian dollars per annnm. 
The piiblic debt amounts to about 3,750.000 Prussian doUan. To 
the confederal army are to be furnished 2,010 men. There is 
an order of honor, viz., the Falcon order ^ instituted in 1732 and 
renewed in 1815, in 3 classes. 

SUtory. — ^That all Saxon territories and reigtung houses have one and ihs 
same origin, has already been told, page 3*79. The electors Maorioe and An- 
gustua I. ceded to the deposed elector, John Frederic the (Jenerooa, the dis- 
tricts named in the history of Saxony. John Frederic kept them togcittier, 
but sooo after his death, 'which occurred in 1554, his three sons divided them ; 
which example was frequently followed by their descendants, so that in this 
way the other Saxr«i dudiies, Gotiia, Altenburg, etc., came into cxisteiioe. In 
Weimar sacoeeded duke John (grandsoo of the electee John Frederic), wbs 



GERMANY. Mt 



The Grand-Dnehy of Weimar— its History and Geographical Dlviaiona. 

died in 1605. In 1690 Jena with its dependencies, and in 1741 the dominioa 
or principality of Eisenach was inherited by the reigning dokes of Weimar. 
Id this way the duchy of Saze-Weimar enlarged gradually its limits to the 
extent of 766 square miles, and had in 1806 a population of 109,000 inhabi- 
tants. In the last-named year, and after the battle of Jena, the then reigning 
duke CharleB AuguHus, joined the Rhenish Confederation, but in 1818 the 
allied powers. According to the stipulations of the Congress of Vienna in 
1815, some districts of the kingdom of Saxony, of the electorate of Hesse, etc;, 
(together 661 square miles, with 77,000 inhabitants), were annexed to the 
duchy, which at the same time was raised to the dignity of a grandrduehy, 
Charles Augustus died in 1828, and was succeeded by his son, the stiU reign- 
ing grand-duke CharleB Frederic, bom in 178S. 

The grand-duchy is divided into two provinces, styled princi- 
palities, viz., the province or principality of Weimar, and the 
province or principality of Eisenach, and is subdivided into 25 
bailiwicks. 

I. Tlie province of Weimar contains : Weimab, capital of the grand-duchy 
and residence of the grand-duke, on the Ilm river, eastward and 14 miles dis- 
tant from Erfurt and south-westward and 60 miles distant from Leipsic, with 
a magnificently-furmshed grand-ducal palace, an admirably arranged public 
library of 180^00 volumes, and 12,000 inhabitants. Weimar has firequently 
been called German Athens on account of its having been the seat of eminent 
authors and poets, as Gothe, SchiUer, Herder, Wieland and Musaus. Jbna, 
a town romantically situated on the Saale, 12 miles east-south-east of 
Weimar, has 6,300 inhabitants, and is noted for its university (see page 
287), and for the battle gained by Napoleon over the Prussians on the 14th 
Oct, 1806. Buit9iadty a town north-eastward and 9 mQea distant from Wei- 
mar, has 2,800 inhabitants, and is noted for its horse-marta The town of 
ApoUa, with 4,600 inhabitants, is noted for its hosieries. Blankmhcufn, a 
town southward and 9 miles distant from Weimar, with various manufactures, 
considerable breweries, and 1,800 inhabitants. Stadtsulza, or SuUeiy a town 
near the Saale river, has 1,250 inhabitants, and derived its name from valu- 
able salt-Hprings, which were discovered in 966, but are at present the prop- 
erty of Saxe-Meiningen. Berka, a town on the Urn, with mineral waters, 
qoarriea. and 1,300 inhabitants. Bemda, a town with cotton and woollen 



888 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

G«raMaiy.-^i«iMl-Diich7 of fiuce-WalnMr. 



mamifiustureB, Inreweries, and 1,050 inbabitanta. AUttedt, a town narthvard 
and 82 nules distant from Weimar, ia noted for its emineot grand-ducal atod, 
and has 2,260 inhabitants. AUatedt is situated in a district that andentl j vai 
called the Saaeon PalatinaU, The town of Ilmbvau, at the foot of the Kick- 
elhabn (see page 7), south-westward and 82 miles distant from Weimar, with 
some manufiictares, breweries^ and 2,860 inhabitants, is situated on tfie terri- 
tory of the ancient earldom of HxHNEBKao (724 square miles, and in ISOS 
with 104,000 inhabitants), whose native earls became extinct in 1588, when h 
was inherited hj the different lines of the Saxon booses, bat espedall j bj the 
descendants of the elector John Frederic the Ghenerous. Hie easiem part of 
this province, forming at present the circle or district of Nenstadtt was m 
1816 ceded by the king of Saxony to Saxe- Weimar, and contains : NeiutoA 
an der OrUiy a town on the Oria river, south-eastward and 28 miles <&tBat 
from Weimar, with cloth and other manafinctnres, and 4,460 inhabitants. 
Weidot a town with 4,100 inhabitants, is noted for its potteries. Other toms 
are : TriptU (with 1,600 inhabitants), Aiuna (with 1,800 inhabitants), and 
Berga (with 660 inhabitants). 

IL The province of Eisenach contains : Exsxnacb, its capital, on the Ke59e 
and Hdrsel rivulets, about half*way between Weimar and Caasel, with 8e\*e> 
ral remarkable public edifices, various manufactures, and 10,000 inhabitant*. 
At a distance of 1^ mile from here b situated, on a high mountaia of th^ 
Forest of Thuringia (see page 7), the highly renowned ancient castle kiwvn 
by the name of WABTBinta, erected in 1067, and at present completely re> 
stored. Luther lived here incognito from the 4th May, 1521, to the 6tk 
March, 1622. As this castle was the residence of the landgraves of Tkurinpi 
until the beginnizig of the 16th century, we shall give an historical sketch of 
Thuringia in general her& The Thuringians themselves have already bem 
mentioned in the History of Germany (see page 298). They were primitiv^iT 
ruled by native kings, the first of whom was named Merwig and lived in dtf 
beginning of the 6th century. The last king, Hermannfried by naane, 
murdered by the Franks in 680« and since the kingdom of nmrio^m 
a prey of the Saxons, Sorbes and Franks. That port the latter took pci««^ 
aion of, is nntil the present day known by the name of Thuringia, and Erfcrt 
(already founded in the 6th century) was considered as its capital Tlie Ov- 
loviogians m France having been suppUnted by the Capetians in 987 (a«i 
page 82), the last descendant of the former, Xohu, took his refuge to Empe- 
ror Conrad IL (reigning in the period of 1024-103^, who i^»iK»inte<l Ina 



GERMANY. t8$ 



The Grand-Daebj of Saxe-Weimw^-Tbe Dndij of BB»-ll«lolB«an. 

tarl of Tkurin^fia. Louis was snooeeded by his son, Louis sunuunad the 
Jumper, who was raised to the dignify of a landgrave. The reigning land- 
graTesiDce the year 1190 was Hermann^ whose daughter was g^yen in mar- 
riage to the margraye Theodoric of Meissen, and who died in 1216, when he 
was Booceeded by his eldest son Louis IV., consort of the holy Elizabeth, and 
lather of the duchess Sophia of Brabant (see Hessian History, page 858). 
With his brother Henry Raspe, who died in 1247, the male line of the land- 
grayes of Thuringia became extinct, and the greatest pert of the landgrayiaie 
was now inherited by the house of Saxony (see page 879). Since the 16th 
century the descendants of the elector Ernest and respectively of John 
Frederic the Generous (see page 379) are possessed of Thuringia (and be- 
side them, since 1815, Prussia). That part belonging to Saxe-Weimar 
contains, beside Eisenach, the following places: Rvhla, a yiUage with 
1,650 inhabitants, is noted for its considerable manufacture of hardware and 
cutlery. CasuzBuao or Kre%txburg, a town on the Werra, with 2,250 in- 
habitants, is noted for its salt-springs. WUhdmtthaly a graud-ducal palace 
with a beautiful park. B«rha and Qershmgen, market-towns with respectively 
1,250 and 1,400 inhabitants. To the ancient earldom of Henneberg (see 
above) belonged the towns of Ottheim (southward and 45 miles distant 
from Eisenach, is noted for its cherries, and has 2,650 inhalxtants), Kalter^ 
nordheim (with manufactures of cutlery and linen, and 1,650 inhabitants), 
and Kaltefuundheim (with 900 inhabitants). Y acha, a town south-westward 
and Id miles distant from Eisenach, has 2,250 inhabitants, and did until 1816 
belong to Hesse-OaaseL The town of Gegsa, with 1,900 inhabitants, for- 
merly belonged to the bishopric of Fulda (see page 



XVn.— THE DUCHY OF SAXE-MEININGEN. 

Abea : 980 square miles. 
Population : 157,000 inhabitants. 

This daoby, since 1826 officially styled Saax-Mdningen-BUd- 
hurghau$en^ is situated attbe northern frontier of Bavaria, at and 



890 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

■ ■I »— ^^^^ .1.1 II ^^^^^_^^ 

The Dnchy of Saxe-Meinfiigeii'lto HMoiy. 

on the Thoringerwald (see page 7). separating Cobnrg from Qotha, 
and bordering upon Weimar and Altenbnrg likewise. The in- 
habitants are Lutherans^ with the exception of about 1,000 Co/A* 
clics^ and 1,550 Jews, On account of the thoroughly mountain- 
ous surfiioe of the country, the rearing of cattle is to be con- 
sidered as rather considerable. There are extensive forests, 
yielding valuable products for exportation. The manufMstures 
of linen and woollen goods, of hardware and wooden toys, are 
considerable, as is likewise the inland trade. The university 
at Jena is considered as possessed in common by Saxe- Weimar 
and> the Saxon duchies. In Saxe-Meiningen itself are 2 gymna- 
sia, 1 seminary, 212 common, and 20 other schools. The govern- 
ment is a limited monarchy. In the financial year, ending 1844, 
the public revenue and expenditure amounted to 1,475,746, 
and the public debt to 4,587,776 florins. To the confederal 
army are to be furnished 1,150 men. The Saxon dukes have in 
common the so-called House and Merit Order ^ in 4 classes, prim- 
itively instituted in 1690 by the duke Frederic of Ootha, and 
renewed in 1838. 

SiUory. — When Duke John, grandson of the elector John Frederic the 
Generous (see page 886), died in 1606, he left behind 11 sons, of whom JoIid 
Ernest succeeded in Weimar, while the other dominions were divided amoop 
the remaining 10 brothers. These died however one after the other, within 
a rather short period, with the exception of Erne^l^ sumamed the JH^ut, who 
died in 1676, leaving behind 7 sons, who divided again the dominions, irhidi 
their father had gradually inherited fk'om his deceased 9 brothers. By this 
arrangement duke Bernard (third son of Ernest) became possessed of Mnit- 
nroEN, or that part of the ancient earldamo f Henneberg (see back under 
the head of Jlmenau in Saxe- Weimar), which the ducal line of the Saxoa 
house had become possessed of in 1683. Bernard entailed upon his descend- 
ants in direct line, the subsequently styled duchy of Meimngen. Hie preseoi 
reigning duke, like his ancestor named Bernard, and bom in 1800, became 
in 1826 possessed of the former duchy of HUdburghmuen, the principality of 



GERMANY. 8»X 



The Dncliy of 8uce-MelniDg«a-4ti G«ognpblcal IMviaioDS. 

Saalfeld, uid aoaub other territories, in oomequence of the death of the duke 
Frederic IV. of Ootha, in 1825 ; for the Saxon line of Gotha having become 
eztinct» this dochj was inherited by the three other ducal lines, represented by 
the dukes of Coburg, EUldburghaosen, and Meiningea They agreed that the 
duke of Coburg should retain Gotha proper, and the duke of Hildburghau- 
een the other half of the inheritance, comprising Altenbuig ; while the duke 
of Meiningen should be indemnified by the annexation of Hildburghausen 
and Saalfeld to his duchy. 

Thus, the dachy of Saxe-Meiningen comprises, beside Mein- 
ingen proper (which, as we have seen, in reality but forms a 
part of the ancieDt earldom of Henneberg), since 1826 the 
former duchy of Hildburghausen (whose duke exchanged it 
at that period for Altenburg), and the former principality of 
Saalfeld (which until 1826 belonged to the duke of Coburg). 

MsimNGKN (anciently sometimes styled Meinungen), the capital of the 
duchy, and residence of the duke, on the Werra, southward and S4 miles difh 
tant from Eisenach, and eastward and 40 miles distant from Fulda, with a 
remarkable ducal palace (erected in 1681), various manufactures, and 6,800 
inhabitants. Not far from here are the rubs of the castle of Hennehergj once 
the ancestral seat of the ancient earls of this name. Wiuangen^ a town on 
the Werra, with maou&ctures of cutlery, and 2,600 inhabitants. Sieinbachf 
a market-town noted for its iron mines, has 1,600 inhabitants. Romhuj), a 
town on the MQz river, is noted for its leather manu&ctures, and has 1,750 
inhabitants. TrntMAR, a very ancient town on the Werra, south-eastward and 
18 miles distant from Meiningen, with paper manufiictures and 1,600 inhabi- 
tants. Salzungen, a town romantically situated on the Werra, is noted for 
its salt-springs, and has 3,100 inhabitants. Not far from here, and south- 
ward and 10 miles distant from Eisenach, is situated the village of Mohra, 
wbere LtUher'i father and mother lived in a house which still is extant. 
Luther, was, it is true, bom in Eisleben ; but it was only a short time before 
that his fiither had moved from Mohra to Eisleben. Sohweina, a market- 
tavm on the rivulet of the same name, has 1,600 inhabitants, and is noted for 
znaniifactures of carded woollen articles in the adjacent Oluekabrwin. The 
neighboring village of Zieberuiein is noted as a wateriug-plaoe, and romanti- 



8M EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gemuuiy.— Duobtos of Buce-MeiBing«n ■nd eaze-OobniipOoliMu 

GftUy situated in a vailey of the Thtkritigerwald. SoirNENBiEG, or SonmehfTf, 
on the toudieni dedivity of the Thdringerwald, eastward and 30 miles dii- 
tant from Hildburghaiiaen, has 8,800 inhabitantis, and is renowned for its chil- 
dren's toys, which are also made in the neighboring vilUges of SieinaA 
(with 2,100 inhabitants), Judmbaeh (with 900 inhabitants), and SieinheiSe 
(with 660 inhabitants). MeinerBdorf, a market-town, with breweries, and 
800 inhabitants, who carry on a considerable trade in timber. HnABcac- 
HACSXN, until 1826 the capital of a duchy of the same name (see haek\ oe 
the Werra, south-eastward and 20 mQes distant from Meirnqgen, with aereral 
literary institutions, and 4,400 inhabitants. SUfdd^ a town on the Werra, b 
noted for its fidrs, and has 8,000 inhabitants. Hddburg, a town with 1,800 
inhabitants. Saalfeld, until 1826 the capital of a principality of the same 
name (see back), on the Saale river, southward and 28 miles distant &oin 
Weimar, with a remarkable Gk>thic church, various manufiictures, and 4,500 
inhabitants. Near Saalfeld an action between the French and Prussians took 
place on the 10th of October, 1806 (four days before the battle of Jena), in 
which the prince Louis of Prussia was killed. PdMwdk, a town noted bt 
its manufiictures of doth, leather, and porcelain, has 8,800 inK«t»*^n** 
EmMtthalf a little village noted for its glass manufactory. 



-^ 



XVm.— THE DITOHY OF SAXE-OOBURGMKHSA. 

AsxA : 788 square miles. 
Population: 144,000 inhalntanta 

thte. 

arran|i8 daoby consists of two detached sections, Cobaii§^ and 

DTOKN, aseparated from each other by the duchy of Saxe-Meiniti* 

the head 'oburg^ situated on the south side of the ThOringerwald, 

house had v northern frontier of Bavaria, is mountainous and rich 

. . , . forests, with beautiful valleys and well-culUvated 

reigning dukt. . •' ^**" 

in 1826 possea^^' ^^^^^ted on the northern side of the ThQriog«r- 



GERKAKT. S9i 



The Duchy of 8u»<3obiii|[^Gothar~ito HJatory. 



wald, is a fertile hilly ooaotry, with likewise well-cnltiTated soil .♦ 
Most of the inhabitants are Lutherans, and the remainder of the 
population consists of about 2,300 Catholics, and 1,200 Jews. 
Grain, flax, and timber, are chief staples.. In the mountainous 
part of Gotha, great quantities of pitch, tar, and smoke-black, are 
made. The manufactures consist chiefly of linen, woollen goods, 
and cutlery. Gotha carries on a considerable trade. Beside 
the university at Jena (see Introduction of Saxe-Meiningen), 
there are 3 gymnasia, 2 seminaries, 35 Latin and 300 common 
schools. The goyernment is a limited monarchy. The amount 
of the public revenue and of the expenditure for several years, has 
been about 500,000 Prussian dollars. The public debt amounts 
to nearly 1,750,000 Prussian dollars. To the confederal army 
are to be furnished 1,116 men. For the order of honor, see 
under the head of Saxe-Meiningen. 

History. — When the seyen sons of Ernest the Pious divided the inherited 
dominions (see History of Saxe-Meiningen), the second son, Duke Albert^ 
became possessed of Coburgy and the youngest son, Duke John Ernest^ be- 
came possessed of Saal/eld, to which in 1699 (when the line of Albert be- 
came extinct), the principal part of Coburg was annexed John Ernest 
died in 1729, and was succeeded by his son Francis Jonas, who in 1*746 
transferred his residence from Saalfeld to Ooburg, and assumed the title of 
a duke of Ooburg-Saalfeld. The duke Ernest (1806-1844), having been in 
the active military service of Prussia, was deprived of his duchy by order of 
Napoleon, who however subsequently restored it to him in 1807. Accord- 
ing to the stipulations of the congress at Vienna, the principality of Licb- 
tcnberg, on the left bank of the Rhine, was annexed to the duchy, but in 
18S4 ceded to Prussia (see the note below). About his acquisition concern- 
ing Gk>tha, in 1826, see History of Saxe-Meiningen. He died in 1844, and 



* Since 1815 the duchy contained also a small district on the left bank of 
the Rhine, styled principality of lAchtenberg (284 square miles^ with 80,000 
inhabitants^ But in 1884, the duke of Saxe-Coborg-Gotha ceded it to 
Frnssia, for an annuity of 80.000 florins. 

17* 



tU EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germany.— 'Dncby of 8u»OobQig49oilia. 



mm Buooeeded by his boo, the presently rdgnmg duke jBme$t JL, bom in 
1818. (His brother is Prince Albert^ oonaort of the British queen, VicteriiL) 

The duoby is botb naturally and politically divided into the 
above-mentioned two sections, viz., the duchy or province of 
Coburgy and the duchy or province of Gotha. 

1. The dudiy or province of Ccburg (192 square miles, and 4S,000 inlMb- 
itants), contains : Oobuao, or Koburg, its capital, and usual residence of the 
duke (at least in the summer season), on the Itz river, 44 miles south-sooth- 
east of Gh>tha, with a stately ducal palace, several other remarkable public 
edifices, and 10,100 inhabitants. In the vicinity are the ducal palaces of 
Jto$enau and KaUenhergy noted for their parks and gardena Rodaeh^ a 
town with a ducal stud, and 1,700 inhabitanta. Neuttadt an der Beide, a 
town on the Rotha river, has 2,250 inhabitants, and is noted for its toys and 
hopa Kbnigtherg^ sumamed in Franken^ a town in a district whidi is en- 
tirely surrounded by Bavarian territory, with vine culture, and 1,100 iiihab- 
itanta 

2. The duchy or province of Oaiha (696 square miles, and 101,000 inhab- 
itants), contains : Ootha, its capital, at present frequently the residence of 
the duke of Coburg-Qotha, half-way between Eisenach and Erfurt, has 
14,800 iohabitants, and is noted for its remarkable pubUc edifices and liter- 
ary institutions, and for its various manufactures. On the neighboring hill - 
of Seeberg, stands a celebrated observatory. The village of Elgerskmrg 
(with 800 inhabitants) is noted as a watering-place, and for its poroeUun and 
manganese, the village of Manebaeh for its coal mines, and the village of 
Kramnkel (with 1,100 inhabitants) for its millstones and musical instra> 
menta Waltsbshausen, a town on the Horsel river, south-westward and 
*l miles distant from Gotha, with Unen and woollen manufactures, numerous 
breweries, and 8,800 inhabitanta. In its vicinity is the noted boarding-eciMxil 
of Schnepfentkal, founded in 1786. Jtkeinhardabrunnt anciently a Benedic- 
tine monastery, at present a ducal palace. Tambach, a market-town on the 
Thfb-ingerwald, has 2,100 inhabitants, and is noted for its linen manu&o 
tores and iron-works. Blarien-Zella^ or Zella^ a town at the Thdringerwalil, 
has 1,900 inhabitants, and is noted for its iron-works and manufactures of 
fire-arms. The town of Ohrdruf, with 4,400 inhabitants, belongs at 
to the house of Hohenlohe (see page 886). 



GERMANY. 396 



Tbe Duchy of Saxe-AUeDbaiv-UB BUUifUoi umI BistoiT. 



XIX.— THE DUCHY OF SAXE-ALTBNBURG. 

Area : 622 square miles. 
Population : 127,500 iiihalutant& 

It IB situated between the kingdom of Saxony and the grand- 
dnchj of Saxe- Weimar, and comprises that part of the ancient 
margraviate of Meissen, which in early times, was more nsoally 
called the Osterland (see page 382). The inhabitants are (with 
the exception of rather few Catholics) LtUherans. The soil is 
very fertile, and all branches of husbandry are in a highly pros- 
perous state. Of manufactures there are in general but few ; 
the trade however is very considerable. Besides the university 
at Jena, which is considered as possessed in common by the 
Saxon grand-duchy and duchies, there are 1 lyceum, I gymna- 
sium, 1 seminary, 6 Latin and numerous common schools. The 
government is a limited monarchy. To the confederal army are 
to be furnished 982 men. According to the budget for the 
period of 1845-48, the public r^mi^ was estimated at 631,940 
Prussian dollars annually, and the exptndUwre at about the same 
amount. The pvJblic debt was at that period 930,687 Prussian 
dollars. About the order cf k(mor, in common with the other 
Saxon duchies, see page 390. 

Hutory. — In the history of the kingdom of Saxony, It has already been 
told, that to the districts ceded by Maurice to the deposed elector, was in 
1654 added that of AHenhurg. Duke Ernest the Piom (see History of 
Saxe-Meiningon) inherited it in 1672, and when his 7 sons divided the do- 
minions, the eldest, Duke Frederic of Gotha, became possessed of Altenborg. 
Since, or in the whole period from 1680 to 1826, when the line of Frederic 
became extinct, Ootha and Altenbwrg were constantly united. By the ar- 
rangements agreed upon in 1826, on the part of the three reigning Saxon 



896 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

6erma]iy.r— Duchy of Baxe-Altenbiuv* 

dukes (see History of Saxe-Meiningen), the duke Frederic of HUdbvrghmir^ 
sen ceded this duchy to Saxe-Meiningeii, and acquired instead of it the 
wealthy duchy of Altenburg, whither he now transferred his residence. He 
died in 18S4, and was succeeded by his son, the still reigning duke, Jo9epk, 
born in 1789. 

The duoby of Saxe-Altenburg consists of two detached sec- 
tions; the eastern one (with the capital) bordering upon the 
kingdom of Saxony, and the western section (styled the Kahla- 
Eisenberg circle) bordering upon the grand*duchy of Saze* 
Weimar. 

ALTKNBnso, the capital of Uie duchy and residence of the duke, near the 
Pleisse river, southward and 28 miles distant from Leipsic, with considera* 
ble com trade and 16,800 inhabitants, is noted for its extensive, and in vari- 
ous other respects, remarkable castle or ducal palace, whence in the night 
of the 8th July, 1456, the princes Ernest and Albert, sons of FVederic the 
Meek (see History of the kingdom of Saxony), were kidnapped by the 
knight Kunz of Kaufimgen. Lucka, a town on the Schnauder river, north- 
ward and 10 miles distant from Altenburg, has 1,800 inhabitants, and is his- 
torically noted for a battle in 1807, between the emperor Albert L, and the 
margrave Frederic of Meissen. Ronneburg, a town south-eastward and 18 
miles distant from Altenburg, with considerable corn trade, and 6,400 inhab- 
itants. EisxNBERO, a town westward and 18 miles distant from Altenburg, 
with 4,900 inhabitants, considerable timber trade, and a ducal castle, in the 
period of 1680-1*707, the residence of Duke Christian of Eisenberg, fifth 
son of Duke Ernest the Pious (see History of Saxe-Meiningen). Roda^ a 
town on a river of the same name, with 2,700 inhabitants. Kahla, a town 
on the Saale, with a remarkable Gothic church, and 2,600 inhabitanta. 
OrUxmundef a town near the Saale, with 1,200 mhabitanta. 



GERMANY. M 



The PriocipaUtlM of Reou.— Statistics, etc 



XX.-XXL— THE PRINCIPALITIES OF REUSa 

Abba: 696 square milefl. 
Population: 108,800 inhabitants. 

Thet are situated at the north-eastern frontier of Bavaria, and 
at the Prankenwald (see page 7), and consist of two distinct sec- 
tions, separated but a short distance from each other, and be- 
longing the one to an Elder, the other to a Younger line of the 
princelj house of Beuss. The surface is partly mountainous, 
partly hilly, yet the soil is generally fertile. The chief natural 
products are like those of the neighboring countries, Altenburg 
and Meiningen. The manufactures consist in substance of wool'> 
len and cotton goods. There are 1 gymnasium, 3 seminaries, 2 
Latin, and numerous common schools. The inhabitants are Jjih 
theransy with the exception of about 400 Jews. The government 
is in both principalities a limited monarchy. There are but few 
states where the public finances are so well arranged and settled 
as in the principalities of Beuss. The taxes are at an extraordi- 
nary low standard, and in the dominion of G-era (belonging to the 
younger line) even lower than the above (see page 308) stated 
ratio indicates upon an average for the whole. Some years ago 
the public debt of the principalities amounted to 120,000 Prus- 
sian dollars, but has since been considerably reduced by paying 
o£f. The public expenditure is for a great part covered by the 
revenues of the princely domains, amounting to respectively 
133,400 and 140,000 Prussian dollars (Tounger line), and 
100,000 Prussian dollars annually (Elder line). To the confede- 
ral army are to be furnished 223 men by the elder, and 522 by 
th^ younger line. 



SOS EUROPE, PAST AKB PRESENT. 

Germany.— PrinoipallUM of ReoM. 

Hiaiory. — ^The ancestor of the house of Reuse is Earl Henry L of Glitz- 
berg or Qleitberg, descending from the house of Luxemburg, who had his 
estates in the present Hessian territories, and lived towards the end of the 
11th century. By his oonsort, a cotmtess of Schwarzenberg, he became pos- 
seBsed of considerable estates in the above (under the head of Saxony, page 
888) mentioned VoigUand, and his descendants were appointed imperial 
governors of it One of them, Henry, Earl of Plauen (ancient capital of 
the Yoigtland), was siimamed the Rusen, or Ruxso (an obsolete name), and 
thus sprung up the fifunily name of Reuw, The domestic dominions of this 
house were since the 16th century restricted to the present territories. The 
earls, since respectively 1778 and 1807 princes of Reuss, have for centuries 
borne the Christian name of Henry. 

There are at present only two reigniog princes, vis., the prinoe 
of Reuss-Greiz, representing the Elder line, and the prinee of 
Beuss-Schleiz representing the Younger line of the house of 
Benss. (Prior to 1848 the younger line was represented bj two 
princes.) 

1. "Hie principality of Redbs-Gbeiz (149 square miles, and 83,800 inhabi- 
tants), since 1886 governed by Henry XX. (bom in 1794), contains: G&ioz, 
its capital and princely residence, on the Elster, and near the frontier of 
Saxony, has 8 princely palaces, and 7,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its 
cotton and woollen manufactures. Zeulenroda, a town with a remarkable 
church, and 5,100 inhabitants, is noted for its hosieries 

2. The territoriet of the Younger line (447 square miles, and 75,000 in- 
habitants), which latter is represented by the prince Henry LXIL of Reuss- 
ScHLEiz (bom in 1786), comprise the principality of Reuss-Schleiz proper, 
the former sovereign principality of Reuss-Lobenstein-Ebersdorf, and the do- 
minion of Gera which was until 1848 possessed in common by both princes of 
this line. They contain : Sohlos, the capital and residence of the prinoe of 
ReussScfaleis, on the little Wiesenthal river, south-eastward and 42 miles 
distant from Weimar, with considerable trade, important cotton and wool- 
len manufactures, and 5,100 inhabitants. Ebebsdorf, imtil 1848 the ca[Htal 
and princely residence of Reuss-Lobenstein-Ebersdorf (160 square miles, and 
21,600 inhabitants), south-westward and 10 miles distant from Schleiz, with 
a stately palace, various manufactures, and 1,260 inhabitants. LoBSiranar, 



GERMANY. 809 



The PriocipalUlee of Reun and 8ohwB»biirg. 



a town not far from Eberadorf, haB considerable mannfMStaren, and 2,500 in- 
habitants, and vas until 1824 the residence of the princes of Reuss-Loben- 
Bitein, which line then became extinct The above-mentioned dominion of 
Gera (149 square miles, and 82,800 inhabitants) contains: Gera, a town ro- 
mantically situated on the Sister, 88 miles south-south-west of Leipsic, is 
one of the most industrious towns in this quarter, and has 10,000 inhabi- 
tants. The town of Saalhiwrg, on the Saale, with 1,200 inhabitants, is noted 
for its iron-works. Ed6Ta]T2,a village on the Sister, with 1,200 inhabitants, 
is the residence of a collateral line of the house of Reusa. 



XXn-XXm.— THE PRINCIPALrnES OF SCHWARZBURG. 

Area: 660 square miles. 
Population : 128,000 inhabitants. 

Both of these principalities, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and 
Schwarzbu/rg'Rudolsiadt^ consist of two detached sections abont 
25 miles from each other, and situated in the centre of Germany. 
One section, styled the Lower Dominion, is encircled by the ter- 
ritory of the Prussian province of Saxony ; and the other sec- 
tion, styled the Upper Dominion, is surrounded by the Saxon 
duchies, and situated at the Thuringerwald. The former is situ- 
ated in and near a district noted for its great fertility, and proba- 
bly for this reason, called the Galdene Atie (golden plain or field). 
Both principalities have a generally hilly but fertile soU. The 
natural productions are chiefly grain, flax, timher, freestone, 
cattle, sheep of improved breed, etc. In the forests much pitch 
and smoke-black is made ; moreover there are iron-works, and 
some woollen manufactures. The inhabitants are (with the ex- 
ception of about 300 Catholics and 400 Jews) Lutherans. Tlie 
gOTemment is in both principalities a limited monarchy. In the 



400 EUROPE, PAST AUTD PRESENT. 

Gennany. — Principalities of Sdnranburg. 

priDcipality of Sonderskausm the pnblio revenae is about 160,000 
Profisian dollars, and the expenditnre upon an average much 
less than this amount (The revenues of the princely do- 
mains are estimated at 230,000 Prussian dollars.) The public 
debt was some years ago 1 14,000 Prussian dollars. To the con- 
federal army are to be furnished 451 men. — In the principality 
of RudoUtadt the public revenue amounted to 268,000, and the 
expenditure to 248,541 florins in the year 1844 ; the public debt 
was 100,540 florins. (The revenue of the princely domains are 
estimated at 180,000 Prussian dollars.) To the confederal army 
are to be furnished 539 men. 

History, — ^Ilie former earls, at present princes of Sdiwarzhurg, are de- 
scendants of Sizzo^ earl of Schwarzhurg and K&femburg. Sizxo died in 
1195, and left behind two sons, Henry and Gunther, by whom the earldom 
was diTided. But in the beginning of the 14th century it was under the 
sway of one single line *, and to this belonged earl Ounther, who in 1S47 
was elected Roman emperor (see History of Qermany). Meanwhile the 
earldom had been aggrandized both in the Upper and Lower Dominioa 
Earl Gunther XL, who died in 1562, left behind two sons, John Gunlher 
and Albert Anton, who divided the earldom again, and are the ancestors of 
the present reigning lines of Sondershausen and Rudolstadt In 1697 and 
1710 the earls of Sdiwarzburg were raised to the dignity of prineeM, 



I SCHWARZBnRG-SONDERSHAUSEK. 

Tbis principality has an extent of 330 square miles, with 
58,000 iDhabitants, and its reigning sovereign is, since 1835^ 
prince Cruniher (Frederic Charles), born in 1801. It contains: 

1. In the Lower Dominion: Sondesshaubkn, the capital of the principal- 
ity and princely residence, on the Wipper river, south-eastward and 7 milea 
distant from Nordhausen, with an eztensiye palace and 5,000 inhabitantoL 
Ofwum and Khrig, towns with respectively 2,600 and 1,100 inhabitanta 



GBRMAKY. 401 



Tbe PrineipalltlM of Sehwarsbory. 



Clinffm (with 1,100 inhalHtiintsX EbeUben (with 1,000 inhabitants), Sehem^ 
berg (with 1,000 inhabitants), and Keula (with 1,050 inhabitants). 2. In the 
Upper Dominion : Arnotadt, a town on the Gera river, south eastward and 
16 miles distant from Goiha, with remarkable public edifices, considerable corn 
trade, and 6,000 inhabitants. Flaue, a little town with 860 inhabitants, is 
noted for its porcelain manufactory. Oehren^ a market-town with 1,800 in- 
habitants, and the neighboring ruins of the princely ancestral castle of 
JCa/emburff. 



n. SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT. 

This principality is exactly of tbe same extent as the former, 
but its population amounts to 70,000 inhabitants. The reigning 
sovereign since 1814, is prince GurUher (Frederic), born in 
1793. It contains: 

1. In the Upper Dominion : RuDOLgTADT, the capital of the principality 
and princely residence, on the Saale, southward and 20 miles distant from 
Weimar, with a celebrated palace, and 6,600 inhabitants. The neighbor- 
ing town of Blatikenburgj with 1,800 inhabitants, is remarkable for the ruins 
of an ancient castle, where Earl Gunther, who was elected German emperor, 
was born. PauHngeUef once a Cistercian monastery; its ruins are still 
notable; as is also the neighboring and well-preserved ancestral castle 
of Seliwarzburg, Kdnigtee, a town with 2,100 inhabitantib 8tat& llm^ an 
industrious town on the Hm river, north-westward and 10 miles distant 
from Rudolstadt, with 2,800 inhabitants. 2. In the Lower Dominion: 
Frankknhausen, a town on the Wipper river, eastward and 7 miles distant 
from Sondershausen, with considerable trade in wool, and 6,000 inhabitants, 
is noted for its salt- works. Near Frankenhausen, on the 16th May, 1626, 
the notorious Thomas Munzer, at the head of 8,000 rebellious peasants, was 
defeated and taken prisoner. Not far from here are the ruins of the 
anciently renowned castle of Kyffhaasen, where the emperors of the house 
of Hohenstaufen, especially Frederic L, frequently resided. 



40i EITBOPE, PAST AND PRESEirr. 

G«nBuy.~-Tlie DodkiM of Anhalt. 



XXIV.-XXV.— THE DUOHIES OF ANHALT. 

Area : 1,022 square xnilea 
Population : 168,000 inhabitants. 

The duohies (until 1806 prinoipaUties) of Anhalt, are situated 
along tbe Elhe^ between Wittenberg and Magdeburg, and are 
almost wboUj surrounded by the territory of the Prussian prov- 
ince of Saxony. Tbe inhabitants are (with tbe exception of 
about 1,350 Catholics, and 2,450 Jews) Protestanis, i. e. partly 
ZaUheraiis (prevailing in Anbalt-Bemburg), and partly Calvinisls 
(prevailing in Anbalt-Dessau and Anbalt-Gotben). Tbe duohies 
of Anbalt rank among the most fertile countries of Germany, 
and are especially noted for their fine breed of cattle and sheep. 
Tbe dairy produces excellent butter. Linen and woollen goods 
are the staple manufactures; near tbe Hartz are iron-works. 
The inland trade is very considerable. Beside numerous com- 
mon schools, there are 4 gymnasia. Tbe government is since 
1848 a limited monarchy. Until recently, Anbalt-Dessau had to 
furnish 529, Bernburg 370, and Cdtben 325 men, to tbe federal 
army. About tbe public finances, see below. In 1837 tbe dukes 
of Anbalt instituted in common the order of Albert the Bear^ in 
3 classes. 

ffUtary. — ^Tbe territories of the present duchies of Anhalt were formerly 
under the sway of the eastern margraves, who so early as in the lOth cen- 
tury, had become possessed of considerable dominions along the Saale and 
Elbe riyers. Ssico of Atcaniay nearly related \nth these margraves, and 
living at the end of the lOth century, is to be considered as the ancestor of 
the house of Anhalt; which latter name came into vogue towards the end 
of the 12th century. Esico's grandson Otto, surnamed the Rich, was mar- 
ried to Eilika, daughter of the duke Magnua of Sazony (L e^ of primitive 



GERMANT. 40t 



The DodilM of Aohalt— lh«ir HMoiy. 



Saxony, subeequently named Lower Saxony, see page 378), wbile her sister 
Wnlfhild was married to the duke Henry of Bavaria, grandfather of the 
renowned Duke Henry, sumamed the Lion. Thus, when the latter was 
outlawed in 1179, his cousin, the earl Bernard of Anhalt, was the nearest 
heir to the duchy of Saxony, and was indeed invested with it and the elec- 
toral dignity (see page 879). However his son and successor, Henry I^ 
oeded hoth to his younger brother Albert (ancestor of the electors of Sax- 
ony from the house of Ascania, and of the dukes of Lauenburg, who became 
extinct in 1689), while he himself was contented with his patrimonial domin- 
ions, and assumed the title of a prince of Anhalt After his death, which 
occurred in 1262, three lines of his house sprung up, two of which became 
extinct; but since the death of the prince Joachim Emeet of Anhalt-Zerbst 
(reigning from 1670 to 1686), four new lines were formed by his four sons» 
viz^ the lines, of De%um, Bemburg^ Cbthenj and Zerhvt, In 1793 the last- 
named line (to which belonged the empress Katharine IL, of Russia) be- 
came extinct, and its prindpality was divided among the three other lines, 
that respectively in 1806 and 1807, were raised to the dueal dignity. In 
1847 the line of Anhalt-Cotken became extinct, and since that period, its 
duchy devolved to the remaining two reigning lines, is previously adminis- 
tered on common account of them. 

We shall first describe the duchies of AnhaU-Bemburg and 
AnkaU'Dessav,^ as independent states, and lastly the former 
duchv of Anhalt-Cdthen in 1847 devolved to both in common. 



L THE DUOHT OF ANHALT-BERNBURG. 

It has an extent of 341 square miles, with 51,000 inhabitants, 
and consists of two detached sections, the one of which, styled 
the Ldcer Duchy^ is sitnated on the Saale and Elbe, and the 
other, styled Upper Duchyy at the Lower Hartz (see page 8). 
The public revenue (including the revenues of the domains) 
amounts to 450,000 florins, and much exceeds the expenditure. 
Some years ago there was, however, a puhlic debt to the amount 



4M EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Gccmaiqr.— Diudklet of Anhalfc-Bernbiug and AiUmU-Dmmui. 

of 600,000 florins. The nigher aDoestor of the line of Bernbnrg 
is Christian, son of the above-mentioned prinoe Joachim Ernest. 
The late prince Alexius, reigning since 1796, was still shortly 
before the dissolution of the German Empire in 1806 created 
duke by the emperor, and joined as such the Rhenish Confedera- 
tion. He died in 1834, and was succeeded by his son, the pres- 
ent reigning duke Alexander (Charles), born in 1805. The 
duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg contains : 

1. In the Lower Duchy : Beenburg, the cafntal of the duchy and Beat of • 
the government (but not of the duke, who uBually resides in Ballenstedt), 
on the Saale, southward and 28 miles distant from Magdeburg, withadncal 
castle, 8 remarkable churches, considerable trade, and 6,200 inh. Pl&Ukau^ 
a town noted for a castle with a remarkable steeple. Konrick, a town on the 
Elbe, with several public edifices, breweries, and 2,860 inhabitanta Muhltn- 
gen, a village with ancient ducal castle, and 1,060 inhabitants. 2. In the Upper 
Duchy : Ballenstedt, a town at the foot of the Harts, westward and 20 
miles distant from Bernburg, is the usual residence of the duke (his palace 
was primitively founded in 940), is noted for its breweries, and has 8,860 
inhabitants, ffarzgerode, a town south-westward and 7 miles distant from 
Ballenstedt^ with 2,460 inhabitants. In its neighborhood are the noted 
watering-place of AlexUbad^ the important iron-works of MAffdesprung, 
and a silver min& Near this are the ruins of the ancestral castle of Ankalt 
The town of Oemrode, with 2,200 inhabitants, is noted for its church and 
manufactures of fire-arms. The town of Hoyniy on the Selke river, north- 
ward and 6 miles distant from Ballenstedt, with a ducal palace, and 2,S00 
inhabitants, is noted for its flax, and was until 1812 the seat of a collateral 
line of the house of Anhalt Gunthertberge is one of the most andeiit 
towns in Germany, and has 860 inhabitants. 



n THE DUCHT OF ANHALT-DESSAU. 

It has an extent of 362 square miles, with 65,000 inhabitants, 
and is situated along the Elbe and Mulde (see page 16) rivers. 



GERMANY. 4M 



Germany.— DoehlM of Anhali-DMsaa and AnhaltrCSttien. 

The public revenue (including the considerable revenues firom the 
ducal domains) amounts to 600,000 florins, and exceeds by far 
the expenditure. Nevertheless there was some years ago a public 
debt of 1,500,000 florins, contracted for various purposes in pub- 
lic concerns. The nigher ancestor of the line of Dessau is John 
Greorgej eldest son of the above-mentioned prince Joachim Er- 
nest. His great-grandson, John George II., who died in 1693, 
was the father of the well-known rough swordsman, prince Leo- 
jpold, who was general in the Prussian service, and died in 1747. 
His grandson, Leopold Frederic Francis, joined in 1807 the Rhe- 
nish Confederation as duke. He died in 1817, and was suc- 
ceeded by his grandson, the present reigning duke LeopM Fred- 
eric, bom in 1794. The duchy of Anhalt-Dessau contains: 

Dbssau, the capital of the duchy and ducal residence, on the Mulde river, 
near its junction with the Elbe, with seyeral beautiful public edifices (the 
foundation of the ducal palace was laid in 1841), considerable com and 
wool trade, and 12,500 inhabitants. Oranienbawny a town eastward and 7 
miles distant from Dessau, with ducal palace, and 2,100 inhabitants. Half- 
way between Dessau and Wittenberg, is Worlitz, with 2,000 inhabitants, 
noted for its ducal gardens and park. Raguhn and Jesmittf industrious 
towns on the Mulde, with respectively 1,760 and 2,454 inhabitants. Zeebst, 
until 1798 the capital of a principality of the some name (see History of 
Anhalt), on the Nuthe river, north-westward and 18 miles distant from Des- 
sau, with several public edifices, manufactures, considerable trade, and 9,500 
inhabitants. 

III. The former duchy of AnhaU-Cdlhen (3\9 square miles, 
and 42,000 inhabitants), since 1847 administered on the com- 
mon account of the remaining two reigning lines of the house 
of Anhalt (see above), is situated chiefly between the Saale and 
Mulde rivers, and partly on the right bank of the Elbe. (Politi- 
cally annexed to Anhalt-Cdthen are the dependent principality 
of Fless in Silesia, to the extent of 383 square miles, with 54.000 



40« EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germany.— DuehiM of Anhatt. 



inhabitants, and the Ascanianavaj a tract of land 320 square mileB 
in extent, in the southern part of Russia). The nigher ancestor 
of the line of Gothen was Etnanud, grandson of the above-men- 
tioned prince Joachim Ernest The prince Augustus Christian 
Frederic (1789-1812) joined in 1807 the Rhenish Confedera- 
tion as duke. He was succeeded by his nephew Louis, who died 
in 1818 and was succeeded by his cousin duke F^^dinand of An- 
halt-Pless. who in 1825 turned a Roman Catholic, and died in 
1830. Ferdinand was succeeded by his brother Henry, who died 
on the 23d Nov., 1847, and with whom the line of Anhalt-G6then 
became extinct. The former duchy contains : 

OdTHEN or Kbthen^ formerly its capital and ducal reddenoe, about halP 
way between Bemburg and Dessau, with Tarious remarkable public edi- 
fioes, leather manufactures, considerable trade, and 6,800 inhabitaata. In 
its neighborhood is situated the village of Baasdorf, with only 400 inhalx- 
tants, but noted for the wealth of its peasantry. Nikkburo, sumamed cm 
der SaalSf a town on the Saale, with considerable trade, and 2,000 inhabi- 
tanta Roulau^ an industrious town near Dessau, with 1,600 inhabitants. The 
village of Jhrnburg is noted for its extensive ducal palace. 



XXVI^THE QRAND-DUOHY OF MECKLENBURG-SOHWERDT. 

Abka : 4^856 square miles. 
Population : 615,000 inhabitanta 

It is situated on the Baltic Sea, between Pomerania and Hol- 
stein, on the south separated from HanoYcr by the Elbe river. 
The inhabitants are (with the exception of few Galyinists and 
Catholics, and of about 3,350 Jews) Lutheraiu. 

The country forms part of the extensive plain mentioned 



GERMANY. 40^ 



The Gmid-Dacby d M eckleDbuiS'Scbweriii— Ita Geogrmpbj, etc 

page 4 ; thns its surface is generally level, and only bere and 
there intersected by ridges of low hills. A natural curiosity, 
somewhat similar to the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, is on the 
coast, the so-called Holy Causeway (Heiliger Bamm), rising from 
12 to 15 feet above the water, and of a length of nearly 2-|- miles, 
by about 100 feet broad. 

The soil is for the most part fertile and well cultivated, while 
other parts of the country are covered with extensive and valu- 
able forests. All branches of husbandry are in Mecklenburg 
managed with a skill unsurpassed in Germany. The country is 
especially noted for the fine breed of its horses (see page 285). 
The manufactures are rather insignificant ; but the more consid- 
erable is the trade and commerce^ which latter is carried on chiefly 
by Rostock and Wismar. The principal exports are grain, butter, 
cattle, horses, timber, and wool. 

There are, with regard to the means of education, besides a 
university at Rostock (see page 287), which in 1844 was fre- 
quented by 120 students, 5 gymnasiums, 2 seminaries, 43 Latin 
and 1,048 common schools. The government is a limited mon- 
archy. The amount of the public revenue and of the expenditure 
was, according to the budget for 1843-44, estimated at 3,162,751 
Prussian dollars. The public debt amounted in 1845 to 6,962,429 
Prussian dollars. To the confederal army are to be furnished 
3,580 men. 

Hiitory. — ^The grand-ducal fiunilies, both in Mecklenburg-Sdiweriii and 
Mecklenburg-Strelits, are descended in direct male line from the last king 
or prince of the ObotrtteSy PribislaT IL, who died in 11^1. The capital oC 
the Obotrites was named Mikelenborg (at present a viUage, and sitoated in 
the nei^borfaood of Wismar), hence the mime of Mecklenburg. The Obo- 
trites belonged to the great tribe of the SlavonianM (see pages 18 and 19), 
and had immigrated here since about the 6th ceutury. They were subdued 
by Oharlemagne, but became independent in the days of Louis the Pious, 



406 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Germaiiy. — Gnnd-Diieby of IfeeUenburg^Scbwerio. 



aad were nnce 820 ruled by a natiye prince, Ceodrag by name. In 1161 
the country was conquered by Henry, sumuned the lion, duke of Saxony 
and Bavaria, who however retained only a part of it, while he in 1166 
restored the remainder to the native prince, the above-mentioned PriMtUw 
IJ.f who embraced the Christian creed, and became in 1170 prince of the 
German empire The (German language began since to supplant gradually 
the Slavonic idiom. Pribislav died in 1181, and was succeeded by his son 
Borowin, whose four sons, by dividing the country, formed as many rdgning 
lines (of Mecklenburg, Rostock, Parchim, and Werle), which in the course 
of time became extinct, with the exception of the line of Mecklenburg, that 
in 1848 was raised to the ducal dignity by Emperor Charles FV. Subse- 
quently there sprung up new lines, but towards the end of the 17th century 
(in 1695), they were restricted to two, that of MeekUnburg-Sehuierin and 
MeckUinburg-Strelitz. The duke Frederic of Mecklenburg-Schwerin died in 
1786, and was succeeded by his nephew, Frederie FraneU, who in 1808 
bought bock at the price of 1,200,000 dollars, from Sweden, the city of 
Wimnar (which Mecklenburg had been obliged to cede to that power in 
1648), joined in 1807 the Rhenish, and in 1816 the German confederation, 
as grand duke. He died in 1887, and was succeeded by his grandson, Paul 
Frederic, who died so early as in the year 1842, and was succeeded by his 
son, the present reigning grand duke, Prederie Francis, bom in 1828. 

The andent oonBtituent parts of tbe present grand-duchy are: 
the duchies of Schwerin and Gostrow, the principality or former 
bishopric of Schwerin, and the dominions of Bostock and Wis- 
mar. ' The country is still divided into these parts, and subdi- 
vided into 45 bailiwicks. In the following topography the for- 
mer will be found separated from each other by dashes. The 
first period embraces the ancient duchy and earldom of Schwerin 

(2,598 square miles, and 268,000 inhabitants), containing : 
• 

SoBWSBiN, the ca]Htal of the whole country and grand-ducal residence, on 
the lake of the same name, eastward and 60 miles distant fi*om Hamburg, 
and south-eastward and 84 mQes distant from Lubec, has seyeral remarkable 
public edifices (among them the cathedral founded fai 1170), and 17,500 
inhaUtants. Boiu&ow (with 1,250 inhabitants), Oiwite (with 2.800 inhabi- 



GERMANY. 409 



The Giaod-DttGhy of Meckl6abui;§r-8ohweriii— its Geofpraphlcal DiriBtons. 

taDts), Bagenow (with 2,100 inhabitants), Wtttenburg (with 2,200 inhabi- 
tants), and Lubthem (with 2,800 inhabitants), towns. The town of Neuttadt 
(on the ELde, a little tributary of the Elbe), with 1,900 inhabitants, is 
remarkable for two palaces, the older of which was the residence of a col- 
lateral line of the house of Mecklenburg from 1726 to 1735. Pabghim, a 
privileged dtj, on the Elde (tributary of the Elbe), south-eastward and 18 
miles distant from Schwerin, carries on a rather considerable trade, has 
6,500 inhabitaiits, and was, until 1840, the seat of the supreme tribunal of 
Mecklenburg. BoizsNBUao, one of the most industrious towns of the coun- 
try, on the Elbe, south-eastward and 40 miles distant from Hamburg, with 
considerable trade and 8,600 inhabitants. Grevismuhlen, a town situated 
between two lakes, 12 miles west-south-west of Wismar, with 2,660 inhabi- 
tants. Klutz, a market-town with 2,200 inhabitants, lies in a district of 
nearly the same name, noted for its fertility. Oadebvuch^ a town on the 
Radegast river, north-westward and 12 miles distant from Schwerin, has 
2,400 inhabitants, and is noted for a battle between the Swedes and Danes, 
on the 20th December, 1712. Behna, a town in the neighborhood of Gade- 
busch, with woollen manufactures, and 2,260 inhabitants. Boberan, a mar- 
ket-town near the Baltic Sea and Rostock, has 2,200 inhabitants, a graud- 
ducal palace, and a remarkable Gothic church, and is much resorted to for 
sea-bathing. Sternberg, a town on a lake of the same name, north-eastward 
and 16 miles distant from Schwerin, has 2,300 inhabitants. Here, alter- 
nately with Malchin, the diets of Mecklenburg are held. The town of Ota- 
how (on the Elde, tributary of the Elbe, with 8,860 inhabitants) is noted for 
its butter-markets. Ludwigslust, a market-town on the Hamburg-Berlin 
railroad, has 4,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its grand-ducal palace, until 
1887 the residence of the grand duke. Dbmitz, a somewhat fortified town 
on the Elbe, at its junction with the Elde, with 2,260 inhabitants. — Bubtzow, 
anciently the capital of the independent bishopric of Schwerin (instituted in 
1171, and secularized in 1648), with an extensive castle or palace, manufioc- 
turee, and 4,060 inhabitants. In 1760 a universify was founded here, which 
however in 1789 was united with that of Rostock. — Gukstbow, a privileged 
city on the Nebel (see page 17), southward and 18 miles distant from Roft> 
tock, with several public edifices, important trade, and 9,100 inhabitants. Tete- 
row (with 4,000 inhabitants), Stavenhagen (with 2,260 inhabitants), WaireK 
(with 6,200 inhabitants), Pemlin (with 2,400 mhabitants), and PUm (with 
8»100 inbafaitants), more or less remarkable towns. The town of Malchin 

18 



410 EUROPE. PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germany.— Onad-Duchlefl of Meeklenbarg-aehwariD and Stralttau 

(on the Peene and near the frontier of Pomerania), with linen and woollen 
xnanufocturea, and 4,000 inhabitants. Here, alternately with Sternberg, the 
diets of Mecklenburg are held. DobberHn, anciently a Benedictine nnnnery, 
bnt since the Reformation an establishment for ladies of rank, to which 
belong 81 Tillages, is situated in the neighborhood of Ocldberg (a town on a 
lake, eastward and 27 miles distant from Scfawerin, with 2,900 inhabitant8)L 
The towns of Malchow (on a lake of the same name, eastward and 27 miles 
distant from Parchim, with doth manufactures, and 2,900 inhabltanks) and 
Eibniiz (on the Baltic Sea, north-eastward and 14 miles distant fitim Ros- 
tock, with fishery, and 8,360 inhabitants), are likewise noted for ancient 
wealthy nunneries, at present establishments for ladies of rank. — RoerocK, 
a commercial city on the Wamow (see page 17), about 10 miles from the 
Baltic Sea, north-eastward and 48 miles distant from Schwerln, has 20,500 
inhabitants, several celebrateid churches and other public edifices, and is 
noted for its university (see above and page 287), its manufactures, oonsider- 
able shipping, and other similar business. The seaport of Rostock is War- 
nem&nde^ a market-town at the mouth of the Warnow, with 1,700 inhabi- 
tants. — WisMAR, a commercial city on the Baltic Sea, south-westward and 
82 miles distant from Rostock, and northward and 18 miles distant from 
8chwerin, with considerable shipping and commerce, and 11,600 inhabitanta 
It has already been noticed, that Wismar belonged to Sweden in the period 
from 1648 to 1808 (see above). Neuklottett a village with 1,400 inhabitanta 



XXVn.— THE ORAND-DUOHT OF MECEXENBURG-STRSLITZ. 

Abxa : 1,107 square miles. 
PopULAnoN: 96,000 inhabitanta 

It Ib ritnated between Meoklenburg-Sobwerin and the Pms- 
aian proyinoeB of Pomerania and Brandenburg, nowhere border- 
ing upon the sea, with the exception of a section, styled the prin- 
dpality of Ratsebnrg (144 square mUes, and 16,000 inhabitaats), 



OBRMANT. 411 



Tlie Gniid-Daofay of Meeklenbarg-aUreUt»-ito Hlitory. 

which lies at the north-western frontier of Meoklenborg-Sohwerin, 
in the neighborhood of Lubec. About the snrfaoe, soil, natural 
productions, etc., almost the same may be said as has been stated 
under the head of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The inhabitants are 
(with the exception of a few Catholics and about 900 Jews) Lu- 
therans. There are 3 gymnasittms, 221 common, and several 
other schools. The government is a limited monarchy. The 
amount of the public ret>enuej and of the expenditure for several 
years, has been about 388,500 Prussian dollars. ' The ptAblic debt 
amounted, some years ago, to 1,200,000 Prussian dollars. To 
the confederal army are to be furnished 718 men. 

HUtory. — ^That thifl graQd-duchy and its reigning fiunily have had the 
same origin as Mecklenburg-Schwerin, is already noticed in the history of 
the hitter. When since the death of the duke John Albert I. of Giistrow 
(in 1695), the lines of the house of Mecklenburg were restricted to two, of 
Schwerin and Strelitz, the dukes Frederic William and Adolphus Frederic, 
then representing these lines, made in 1701 an arrangement, according to 
which Adolphus Frederic became possessed of the duchy of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz and the principality of Ratzeburg. The successors of Adolphus 
Frederic, who died in 1708, were : Adolphus Frederic IL (-(-in 1721), Adol- 
phus Frederic IH (+1752), and Adolphus Frederic lY. (+1794). The 
last-named duke was succeeded by his brother Charlea (the fiither of the 
queen Louisa of Prussia, who died in 1810), who in 1808 entered the Rhe- 
nuh, and subsequently the German Confederation as ffrand duke. He died 
in 1816, and was succeeded by his son, the present reigning grand duke 
George, bom in 1779. 

The grand-duchy of Meoklenburg-Strelitz thus consists of two 
detached sections, the one or Mecklenburg-Strelitz proper, offi- 
cially styled the dominion of Stargard, having an area of 963 
square miles, with 80,000 inhabitants, and the other smaller one 
(see back), styled the principality of Ratzeburg. The former 
contains : 

Nxw-Stbxutz (in German Neu-8trelitz\ the capital of the g^rand-dudiy 



412 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESElTr. 

Germany.— Orand-Dacby of MeeUaaburg^trelltz, and Daehj it Holateln. 

and grand-d''jcal retidenoe, oq a lake, south-eastward and 66 miles distant 
from Scbwerin, and northward and 62 miles distant firom Berlin, is well-built, 
and has 7,500 inhabitanta About 2 miles from here is Old StrdiU (Alt- 
StreUtz), or simply BtrelUz, a town noted for its horse-martB, with 3,800 
inhabitanta New BaAMDENsnao (in (German Neyhrandenburg\ a pririleged 
city near a lake, 16 miles north-north-east of New StreUtz, is Tory regularly 
built, and noted for wool-markets, cloth and linen manufactures, hope, etc:, 
and has 7,000 inhabitanta John L, margrave of Brandenburg, laid the 
foundation of this city in 1248, hence its name. STAnoAaD, an anciently 
noted town, eastward and 6 miles distant from Neubrandenburg, with 1,600 
inhabitanta Friedtand^ a town, founded in 1244 by the margraves John 
and Otto IIL of Brandenburg, with cloth and linen manufactures, and 4,700 
inhabitahta FuEBSTENBaao, a town on the HaTel, is noted for its butter, 
and has 2,800 inhabitanta The so-called principality of EaUebwy (which 
has but very little, or nearly nothing in oonunon with the town of this name, 
capital of the duchy of Lauenburg), which primitively was an independent 
bishopric, instituted in 1068 and secularized in 1648, contains: SoHdiiBKEG, a 
town near the Baltic Sea, 12 miles east-south-east of Lubec, with a palace 
(once the resid^ice of the bishops of Ratzeburg), linen manufactures, and 1,650 
inliabitanta The so-called Domhof and Paltnherg are to be considered as a 
suburb of the town of Batzeburg, with 860 inhabitanta subjected to the 
grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 



XXVnL— THE DUOHT OP HOLSTEIN, TOGETHER WITH THE 

DXTGHY OF LAUENBURa. 

Abka : 8,788 square miles. 
PoruLATiON: 624,000 inhabitanta 

Holstein is the most northern state of Germany, on the west 
washed by the North Sea, and on the east by the Baltic. On the 
south-west and sonth it is by the Elbe separated from the kingdom 



GERMANY. 4Jf 



The Dneby of Hotalein— Its Statistloa. 



of Hanover, and its sonth-eastem frontier is formed bj the duchy 
(f Lauenbu/rg. The latter has an area of 404-}- square miles, and 
a population of 47,000 inhabitants ; while Holstein has an area 
of 3,333i square miles, and a population of 477,000 inhabitants. 
The population in both duchies consists of Lutherans (with the 
exception of about 650 Galvinists, 850 Catholics, 200 Mennon- 
ites, and 3,500 Jews). — We shall first describe Holstein, and 
after this Lauenburg. 

About the rivers and lakes in Holstein see pages 11, 14 and 
17. The surface and soil of the country is much the same as in 
the neighboring Mecklenburg. The various branches of hus- 
bandry form the chief source for sustenance in Holstein as well 
as in Mecklenburg; and previous to the unreasonable war against 
Denmark so wantonly contrived and prosecuted since 1848, Hol- 
stein was unrivalled in its wealth and prosperity. There was 
scarcely a beggar to be found there, and even thefts very seldom 
occurred. Agriculture was on a high scale of improvement, as 
the rearing of cattle and horses. The latter are of the first breed, 
and many of them were annually exported to France, for the 
French cavalry. The butter of Holstein is renowned for its ex- 
cellency throughout Germany, England, and other countries. 
The fisheries, the commerce and the manufactures, all formerly 
important, have been seriously reduced by the recent war with 
Denmark. The university at Kiel (see page 288 ; in 1 846 it was 
frequented by 207 students), 6 gymnasiums, (in Altona, Kiel, 
Gltlokstadt, Meldorf,Pldn and Rendsburg), 1 seminary for school- 
teachers, and 1,051 common schools were in the best order. The 
govemmeTit since 1834 is a limited monarchy, the sovereign power 
being vested in the king of Denmark as duke of Holstein, and in 
a provincial assembly. To the German confederal army were 
to be furnished 3,600 men (i. e. both from Holstein and Lauen- 
borg). 



4U EUBOPE, PAST AlH) PRESENl 

Germuiy.— Dachy of Hotatein. 

HUtory, — ^The preflent duchy of HoUtein embraoes the aneieiit ooonirieB of 
SoUtein proper (contaiiung among others the towns of Rendsborg, Kiel, 
Itsehoe, Wilster, etc.), of Stormam (with Gluckstadt, Krempe, Wandsbeck, 
et4x), of Dithmartchen (with Meldorf, Brunsbuttel, Lunden), of Wagrien 
(with Pl5n, Oldesloe, Segeberg, Heiligenhafen, Aldenburg, Neustadt), and 
the former dominion of Pinneberg (with Altona, Ottensen, Pinneberg). la 
the early times of the middle ages the whole was known by the name of 
North AlHngia, or Saxony beyond the Elbe, because it was chiefly inhabited 
by Saxons (see page 298). Charlemagne conquered it* and since the trea^ 
concluded at Verdun in 843 (see page 81), it formed a constituent part of 
the ancient duchy of Saxony (see page 299). With this duchy Emperor 
Henry V. invested in 1106 the earl Lothar of Supplinburg (subsequently 
Emperor Lothar H ; see page 300). The latter now again inyested the 
earl Adolphus of Sehamnbwrg (belonging to that house, mentioned page 
871) with Holstein as a fief ; according to the general custom in the middle 
ages (see pages 85 and 86). At a later period Holstein became an actual 
independent member of the German empire, and the earls of Schaumborg 
remained in possession of it until 1469, when the last male descendant. Earl 
Adolphus XIL, died childlesa Hit only heiress vxu his sistert the countess 
Hedwig of Oldenburg, whose eldest son, ChriBtian, had ascended the throne 
of Denimairh in 1448, and who now, after the death of Earl Adolphus XH, 
in 1459, also inherited ffolstein. In this way Holstein (in 1474 raised to 
the dignity of a duehy by Emperor Frederic UI.) came into cooneetioQ with 
Denmark. Unfortunately, the succeeding Danish kings did not oontixiually 
exercise the governmental power in Holstein directly, but by v€U9als (see 
page 86), L e. by younger princes of the royal family, who were invested 
with the duchy as a fief. In the course of time the dukes of Holstein acted 
almost as independent sovereigns, though their feudal dependent upon the 
Danish crown remained unaltered. Several collateral lines originated, and 
firequeatly divisions of the dndiy took place, till at length all the parte were 
reunited as a whole under the duke Frederic IV. of ffoUtein-GoUrop, who 
died in 1702. He was succeeded by his son, Charles Frederic, who in 1725 
entered into matrimony with the grand duchess Ann, eldest daughter of Pe- 
ter L of Russia. Their son, Duke Peter, who succeeded his fiither in 1739, 
ascended the Russian throne in 1762, and bequeathed his patrimonial dudiy 
of Holstein to his son Paul (subsequently emperor of Russia). Paul, aa 
heir of the most powerful empire in Europe, not liking to be at the 



aSRMANY. 415 



HoMeia— its History. 



time yaaaal of a foreign kingdom, loosened the ties of his vassalage by re- 
storing the duchy of Holstein to its feudal lord, the king of Denmark, in 
1773. Since that period the duchy has been again ruled directly hj the 
kings of Denmark, without prejudice to its political connection first with the 
Qerman Empire, and then with the German Confederation. In short» Hol- 
stein was in the same political condition as, for instance, Hanover was from 
1714 (when Oeorge L ascended the British throne ; see page 28S) until 1887 
(when Ernest Augustus ascended the Hanoverian throne), during which pe- 
riod this Electorate (since 1814 a kingdom) formed part of the Glerman em- 
pire, although its rulers sat on the BritLah throne and resided in London. 
Likewise the ruler of Holstein resided, as king of Denmark, in Copenhagen ; 
J>ut as duke of Holstein, he was a member of the Qerman Empire and Con- 
federation. No alteration in the political condition of Holstein had been 
proposed or thought of previous to 1880. Moreover, the people of this 
duchy did not in the least wish for it ; and indeed the prosperity of Holstein 
was the most striking evidence of the liberal administration of the Damsh 
government The natural and intellectual resources of ihe country had 
been freely allowed to improve, and no attempt had ever been made to 
infringe upon the liberties of the people, or to supplant the German lan- 
guage by the Danish. But there were in Holstein and Sleswick some 
lawyertj almost dientless, who beiog unable to subsist by their profession, 
for this reason had long desired to make a living in some other way. Af* 
ter the revolution of July, 1830, in France, they became intimate with the 
revolutionary party in Germany, who received secret instructions from the 
revolutionary central-union in France ; and now it was resolved upon to 
transform both Holstein and Sleswick gradually into the head-quarters of 
revolutionary operations in the northern states of Germany. It would lead 
us too for, were we to describe all the intrigues and machinations employed 
by the lawyers and their friends to instigate the quiet and happy people 
in the duchies to sever the ties connecting them with Denmark. All their 
exertions, however, would have been frustrated by the sound sense of the 
people, had not the revolutions in Germany in 1848 come to their assistance. 
Of course, they had been in the moral necessity to allege an ostensibU mo- 
tive of their exertions ; and for this purpose they brought upon the tapis 
the fact^ that the presumptive heir of the Danish crown, present (since the 
20th of January, 1848) reigning king, Frederic VIT^ has hitherto been with- 
out children, and the posnbility that he may die without any. In this case 



41« EUROPE, PAST AND PRESEFT. 

Gennttiy.— Badiy of Hotatein. 

the Daniflh throne would be inherited hy a femaU line ; and now thoee in- 
Btagators pretend that not a female, but a male line of succeasiixi, and there- 
fore especially the grand duke of Oldenburg, is entitled to the inheritance of 
fiolstein. (The daims of the dukes of Sonderbuig-Augustenburg and of 
Glucksburg have in substance only reference to Sleswick.) The futility of 
tbb pretension is evinced first by the fiust that King Christian I, in 1459, in- 
herited Holstein not by the right of his father, but by the right of his 
mother ; and secondly by the fact, that Holstein was from the years 14^1 
and 1688 until 17*78 not an independent hereditary duchy, but a fee of the 
Danish crown, and eteheated to it in the last-named year. The losses which 
both Holstein and Sleswick have sustained since the commencement of the 
insensate war with Denmark (in 1846), are immense. That all their pubtie 
resources have been ruined, their trade and commercial intercourse inter- 
rupted, their ports blockaded, the exportation of cattle, horses and other 
productions reduced to nothing, and their agricultural enterprises in general 
paralyzed, has already been alluded to abore. In the second place, the 
people in the duchies have sustained incalculable direct losses, by fieeding 
the German troops and a host of adventurers^ by paying war-taxes, and by 
ravages and devastations of foreigners The resources of the duchies have 
until the commencement of the war been almost inexhaustible ; but if these 
disasters continue, there will at last remain nothing more to be lost For 
what, then, will all these losses hare been sustained f Why has a flourish- 
ing coimtry been transformed into a wilderness t For what has a happy, 
indnntrious, wealthy people been reduced to beggary t For nothing but to 
gratify the ambition of some German lawyers, — to realize the idle dreams 
of some book-learned fancy-mongers, and to furnish the means of temporary 
existence to sluggards and adventurers. (The historical and other particu- 
lars about Sleswick wiU be found under the head of Denmark.) 

The duchy of Holstein is in snbstanoe dirided into its andent 
above-mentioned constituent parte, which are subdivided into 
towns, bailiwicks, and various other districts. The duchy of 
Holstein contains : 

Glceokstadt, a commercial town on the Elbe, 30 miles below Hamburg, 
is the seat of several provincial magistrates, and may for this reason be 
considered as the capital of Holstein, though it is officially not styled so ; 



GEBMAlfT. 411 



The Duchy of Hotalsin'-its TcqM)gn4>fa7. 



hitherto it carried on a amsiderable commerce and whale-fiahery, and haa 
6»000 inhabitants. Wandabeekt a market-town north-eaatward and 2| milei 
distant from Hamburg, vafl» until the conmienoement of the war against 
Denmark, noted for its cotton and other manufactures, and has 8,100 inhabi- 
tants. Rncnssuao, a town on the Eider, and exactly on the frontier of Ger- 
many and Denmark, 50 miles north-north-west of Hamburg, is noted for 
its fortifications, and has 10,600 inhabitants. Kiel^ a town on the bay of the 
same name, forming an excellent harbor, northward and 60 miles distant 
from Hamburg, is noted for its university (see above and page 288) and 
annual iSairs, and has 18,000 inhabitants. Ituhoe, a town on the Stoer, 
north-westward and 88 miles distant from Hamburg, with various mannfae 
tures, trade in cattle, and 6,800 inhabitants. WiUtert a town on a little 
river of the same name, northward and 12 miles distant from Oldckstadt, is 
noted for its fine church, and has 8,000 inhabitants. KeUinghtuenif a market^ 
town on the Stoer, north-eastward and 10 miles distant from Itaehoe, with 
timber trade, and 1,100 inhalntants. Neumuntter, a market-town at the 
Kiel and Altona railroad, 18 miles south-south-west of £iel, with noted 
manufiictures, and 4,200 inhabitants. PreetsL, a market-town on the Schwen- 
tine river, 22 miles south-south-east of Kiel, with manufactures, and 4,700 
inhabitants. Plokn, a town romantically situated on the lake of the same 
name, south-eastward and 15 miles distant from Kiel, with a stately palace, 
once the residence of a colUiteral line of the dukes of Holstein, and 8,000 
inhabitants. Oldenburg (not to be confomided with the capital of the grand- 
duchy of Oldenburg), a town near the Baltic Sea, north-eastward and 28 
miles distant from Ploen, and 88 miles north-north-east of Lubeck, with 
2,500 inhabitants, ffeiligenhafenf a town on the Baltic Sea, opposite the 
isle of Femem, with 2,000 inhabitants. NewstaM, a town on the Baltic Sea 
northward and 12 miles distant from Travemilnde (the sea-port of Lubeck), 
-with considerable corn-trade, and 2,700 inhabitants. Lutjenburgj a town 
near the Baltic Sea, eastward and 22 miles distant from Kiel, with 2,1 OG 
inhabitants. Oldedoe^ a town romantically situated on the Trave, south- 
D^estward and 14 miles distant from Lubeck, is noted for its salt-springs, and 
has 2,800 inhabitants. Segeberg, a town near the Trave, northward and SO 
miles distant from Hamburg, is noted for its gypsum, and has 8,300 inhabi- 
tants. Northward and 9 miles distant from here, is situated the village of 
Bomhifved, noted in history for three battles, in the years 1227, 1819, and 
1918. BrmntUdty a market-town near the head of the Alater river, west* 

1?* 



il8 EtJROPS» PAST AND PBESEFT. 

Germaoy.— Dnditet of Hiristetn and Lanenbniv. 

ward and 16 miles distant from Segeberg, witii 1,600 inhabSAantfli Hie pat 
aoe of Thtvendahlj on the Trave riyer, was once frequently the resideBee of 
the dnkes of Hblatein-PIoen, and is noted for a treafy of peace ffwidndad 
here between Sweden and Denmark, on the I'Zth August, 1700. The ooan- 
try or prorinoe of JHthfnaraohm (514 square miles, and 62,000 mhabitantsX 
along and towards the month of the Elbe, was, in the middle ages, an inde- 
pendent state, but in 1659 conquered by the dukes of Holstein and Sleswick. 
It contains: MsLDoar, formerly the capital of all Dithmaradien, 26 miles 
northHAorth-west of GlAckstadt, with corn trade, and 8,150 inhabttanta 
Brunslntttelf a market-town on the Elbe, opposite Ouzhafen, with 1,250 in- 
habitants Mmme, a market-town, with considerable trade hi com and cattle, 
and 1,260 inhabitants. Heidb, the capital of the northern district of Dith- 
marschen, northward and 7 miles distant from Meldor^ is noted for its hand- 
some market-place, and has 5,600 inhabitants. Xwndim, a town with 1,500 
inhabitants. The ancient dominion of Pinfi^)«rg (188 square milee^ and 
40,000 inhabitants), of which in 1640 the crown of Denmark became 
possessed, contains : PnnnmiBo, a markettown, north-westward and 9 miles 
distant from Altona, with 1,100 inhabitants. OtUnueK, a YiUage near Altona, 
is the burial-place of the German poet, Klopstock, and has 2,400 inhabit 
tants. Blankenew, a Tillage on the Elbe, is noted for its considerable river- 
navigation, and has 8,000 inhabitants, among whom are many pilots. Floti- 
heek, a village between Ottensen and Blankenese, is noted for its botanic and 
nursery-gardena Wedel (with 1,900 inhabitants) and Ueterten (with 8,400 
inhabitants), market-towns. Axtona, a very important commercial city, on 
the Elbe, only 1 mile below Hamburg, is not only noted for its commerce!, 
but alao for its manufactures, and has 82,000 inhabitants. Altona was still, 
in the 16th century a litUe village, but since the middle of the 17th century, 
it became gradually an important dty. The markettowns of BarmtUdi 
(with 1,700 inhabitants) and Mm$ham (with 6,400 inhabitants), belong to 
the ancient earldom of Ranzau, of which the Danish crown became pos- 
sessed in 1781. 

The DtTCHT OF Lauenburg (404^ square miles, and 47,000 
inhabitants) is on the north-west bordering upon Holstein, on 
the south separated from the kingdom of Hanover by the Elbe, 
and for the rest bound by Mecklenburg. Soil, natural prodal^ 
iions, etc., are almost the same as in Holstein and idei^lenboTg. 



QERMAKT. 410 



The Duchy of Lauenboig— Ita HIstoor. 



The coantrj was, togeUier with Mecklenburg (see page 408), 
conquered by Henry, samamed the Lion, and annexed to his 
duchy of Saxony. After he had been outkwed in 1180, and the 
earl Bernard of Anhalt invested with the duchy (see page 403), 
Bernard's second son Albert became possessed of this Saxon 
domiDion, which subsequently was styled the duchy of Lauen- 
burg. Puke Erich, of Saxe-Lauenburg, entered into a heredi- 
tary alliance with the house of Brunswick, in 1369; and as in 
1689 his line became extinct, the Brunswick line, subsequently 
represented by the electors and kings of Hanover, inherited the 
duchy of Lauenburg. It continued to form a constituent part 
of Hanover for 120 years, when in 1814 it was ceded to Prussia. 
Meanwhile Denmark had been deprived of Norway (with about 
1,000,000 inhabitants), and poorly indemnified for this loss by 
Swedish Pomerania (with about 150,000 inhabitants). But 
Prussia desired to annex this latter country to the remainder of 
Pomerania, and, of course, Denmark was compelled to yield to 
this desire, by ceding Swedish Pomerania, and contenting itself 
with the duchy of Lauenburg (whose population then fell short 
of 40,000 inhabitants), which Prussia coded to it in 1815. At 
present Denmark is about to be deprived of this last poor indem- 
nification likewise, though the duchy of Lauenburg has never had 
anything at all in common, either with Holstein or Sleswick. 
But the German contrivers of the war with Denmark, on account 
of Holstein and Sleswick, are of the opinion that one act of in- 
justice, more or less, makes no difference. The duchy of Lau- 
enburg contains : 

/■ 
Ratzebubo, its capital, on a lake of the Bame name, Dorthward and 25 

miles distant from lauenburg, with considerable inland trade and 2,400 

inhabitants. (About the principality of Ratzeburg, see under the head 

Mecklenbuig-Strelitz.) LawnbHtg, once the residence of the dukes of Lau- 

enborg, on the Elbe, 82 miles above Hamburg, with considerable trade, and 



420 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germany.— Gnnd-Doehy of OMenborff. 



3,500 iiihabitant& MdUn, a town on the SteckeniU, with breweries, and 
1,800 nhabitanta. BuekeUf A^waraenbek, and AumuhU, are more or kes 
remarlEable yiUagea. 



XXIX— THE GRAND-DUCHY OF OLDENBURG. 

Akba: 2,471 square miles. 
Population : 274,050 inhabitants. 

This grand-duobj consists of three distinct territories, vis. : 
Oldenburg proper, styled the diichy of Oldenburg (on the North 
Sea, and surrounded bj the kingdom of Hanover), the prtJicipal' 
ity of lAubec (which has nothing in common with the city of La- 
bec, though it is situated in its neighborhood), and the princi- 
polity of Birkenfeld (on the lefl bank of the Rhine, and in the 
neighborhood of Treves). They being at rather great distance 
from each other, they must be described separately. 

Oldenburg proper forms part of the extensive plain mentioned 
page 4 ; thus its surface is generally level, and the coast as well 
as the bank along the Weser, is sheltered against inundations by 
vast dikes, having an aggregate length of 152 miles. The Weser 
separates the country on the east from Hanover, and is joined 
here by the Hunie (see page 17). The most remarkable of the 
lakes here is the lake of Zwischenahn. Some parts of the coun- 
try, especially along the Weser and towards the North Sea, are 
noted for their fertility, but in the interior there is generally but 
a poor soil. Yet, upon the whole, Oldenburg rears both cattle 
and horses of a very fine breed, and raises amply grain^ rape-sa^i 
(lamp-oil made of it, is commonly used both in Germany and 



GERMANT. 421 



Tbe Grand-Ducby of Oldenburg— Its Statistics and History. 

other European countries, in place of train-oil), ^fo^r, and hemp. 
There are many peat bogs which supply fuel, the more valuable 
as wood and coal are scarce. In tbe sandy and heathy parts of 
the country, the rearing of bees affords a productive source for 
sustenance. The irdand trade is rather considerable, but there 
are but few manufactures. 

Most of the inhabitants of the grand-duchy are iMherans^ 
yet in the southern part of Oldenburg proper, and in the princi- 
pality of Birkenfeld, there are numerous Roman Catholics (their 
total number being about 74,800) ; the remainder of the popula- 
tion consists of somewhat more than 2,300 Calvinvtts, and of 
about 1,400 Jews. There are beside numerous common schools, 
4 gymnasia, 2 seminaries, 1 military, and 3 Latin schools. 

The government was until the commotions in 1848, an unlim- 
ited monarchy. The amount of the public revenue and of the 
expenditure for several years, has been about 900.000 Prussian 
dollars annually. There is no public debt. Tbe troops to be fur- 
nished to the confederal army : 3,030 men, with 4 pieces of ord- 
nance. — In iSSS B,u order (^ honor was instituted, by the name 
of '^ House and Merit order of Duke Peter," etc., in 4 classes. 

Hutory. — The primitive ancestor of the reigning hooBe of Oldenburg, was 
the celebrated duke or king Wittekindt who led the valiant Saxons in the 
wars with Charlemagne. One of Wittekind's descendants was earl E^lmat 
//, of Rusiringen and Ammerland, who hved in the period from 1062 to 
1110, and whose dominions comprised in substance what at present is called 
Oldenburg proper. Egilmar's son, Christian I., reared in 1155 the castle of 
Oldenburg, and since, the earls of Rustringen and Ammerland named them- 
selves earU of Oldeuburg. In 1232 they became actual members of the 
German empire. In 1247 the dominion of Delmenhorst was acquired, and 
finally annexed to Oldenburg in 1436, by the earl Theodoric, sumamed the 
FvrtunaU, It was this sovereign whose eldest son mounted in 1448 the 
Danith throne, by the name of Ohriatian /., and inherited the earldom (sub- 
sequently duchy) of Jifoletein in 1459 (see above under the head of Holstein) ; 



422 EUROPE, PAST AND THESENT. 



Germany. — Grand-Duchy of Oldenbunr. 



while his younger son Gerardf propagated the reigning line of 01denbis)g; 
Gerard acquired the districts of Varel and Neuenburg, and his great-grand- 
son, John VL, the dominions ot Jever and Flniphausen. But in 1667, when 
Earl Anton Guother of Oldenburg died, this line became extinct, and now the 
collateral line of Denmark succeeded, and acquired the earldom of Olden- 
burg by way of inheritance. Anton Gt^ther's natural son Anton, earl of 
AJdenburg, became however possessed of the lordship of Knipkavuten ; and 
his nephew, a prince of Anhalt^Zerbst^ became possessed of the dominion of 
Jever. The main body of the earldom of Oldenbujg continued to be in posr 
sessum of Denmark until 17 7 S, when this crown ceded the earldom to the 
Russian grand duke Paul^ in exchange for the duchy of Holstein (see His- 
tory of Holstein). Yet the grand duke ceded it again, in the same year, to 
his cousin the Inshop sovereign of Lubec, Frederic Augutitu^ belonging to a 
younger line of the house of Holstein- Gottor p. At the same time the 
emperor Joseph IL raised the earldom of Oldenburg to the dignity of a 
duchy. Duke Frederic Augustas died in 1786, and as his only son and legiti- 
mate heir, Peter Frederic William, was perturbated in mind, his brother 
Peter (Frederic Louis) took the reins of government with sovereign power. 
In 1803 the former sovereign bishopric of Lubec was transformed into a 
principality and annexed to the duchy, which at the same time acquired 
several districts of the former independent bishopric of Mtknster. In Novem- 
ber, 1806, Oldenburg was occupied by French troops, but in the following 
year restored to the duke, who in 1808 joined the Rhenish CoofederatioD. 
Napoleon had meanwhile established the continental system, and as Olden- 
burg appeared to him as affording too many opportunities for smuggling to 
the English, he incorporated the whole country with the French empire, in 
February, 1811. He offered the dominion of Erfurt as an indemnifkation to 
the duke, who however refused it and went to Russia, where his second sod, 
George, was married to the grand duchess Catharine, in 1809. Towards the 
end of the year 1818 he returned to Oldenburg, and entered upon its reiga 
again. By the stipulations of the Congress at Vienna, he acquired a district 
on the left bank of the Rhine^ by the name of a principality of BirkenfUd^ 
and the title of a ffrand duke, of which title, however, he himself made no 
ose. He died in 1829, and was succeeded by his son, the present reigning 
grand duke, Atiguatu$ Foul Frederic, bom in 1788. 

For the reason mentioiied above, we muit desoribe the tlmo 



GBRKANY. 4SS 



The Grand-Dndiy of OklenbarB— !!■ Geogrmphieai Df vliriont. 

diitiiiot territories of the grand-duchy separately. We begin 
with the deseription of 

1 THE DUCHY OF OLDENBURG. 

It has an area of 2,119|> sqnare miles, and a population of 
223,000 inhabitants (among whom are 69,300 Koman Catholics 
and 720 Jews), comprises the ancient earldoms of Oldenburg 
and Delmenhorst, former districts of the ancient bishopric of 
Manster, the dominion of Jever, and the lordship of Kniphaa- 
sen, and contains : 

Oldbnbukq, the capital of the grand-duchy and grand-daeal residence, 
OD the Himte, westward and 28 miles distant from Bremen, is well-built and 
noted for its handsome grand-ducal palace and other remarkable public edi- 
fices) and has 8,100 inhabitants. EUfleth, a town on the Weeer, at its juno- 
tkn with the Hunte, with a landing-place for smaller Teasels, and 1,600 in- 
habitants. In the period from 1628 to 1820 Oldenburg was entitled to levy 
a toll here, which all ships trading to Bremen were obliged to pay. Some- 
times it amounted to 60,000 Prussian dollars annually. Neuenburg^ a mar- 
ket-town anciently noted fix its fortress, has at present only 600 inhabitantsi 
The Tillage of RaaUde is noted for its grand-ducal palace and gardens. 
Ovelg^net a market-town near the Weser, with 1,000 inhabitants. Brake, 
a market-town on the Weser, with a landing-place for sea-ships, and 1,800 
inhabitants. Blexen or Blexwn, a Tillage on the Weser, opposite Bremer- 
haTen, with 400 inhabitantsL Brake and Blezum are sittuited in a district, 
styled Butjadingerland, and noted for the fertility of its soiL Dauf knhobst, 
a town on the little Delme rlTcr, half-way between Oldenburg and Bremen, 
with noted horae-mart% and 1,900 inhabitants. — WiLDxsHAUsxir, a town on the 
Honte and near the frontier of HanoTer (which ceded it to Oldenburg in 
1808), with cutlery manufincturee, and 2,100 inhabitants. — ^Kloppenbiteo, a 
town the Soeste riTer, westward and 14 miles distant from Wildeshausen, 
with 960 inhabitants. This town and the towns of FrietoyU (with 1,100 in* 
habitants), of Veehta (with 2,800 inhabitanto), of Dinklagt (with 1,400 in- 
halMtants), and LAmngen (with 1,200 inhabitants), belonged untU 1808 to the 



i24 EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Germaoy. — ^The Gnnd'Dacby of Oldenburg. 



then secularized bishopric of Munster. The donUnum of Jever (188 aqnare 
miles, and 20,800 inhabitants), forming the most northerly province of the 
grand-duchj and situated on the North Sea, is noted both for the fertility 
of its soil, and the excellent breed of its cattle and horses. In the middle 
ages it was ruled by native chieftains or Barony and in 1678 inherited by 
the reigning house of Oldenburg. In the History of Oldenburg it has 
abready been noticed, that Earl Anton Gunther, who died in 1667, be- 
queathed the dominion of Jever to his nephew, Prince John of AidmU- 
Zerbtt, who entailed it upon his descendants. When, in 1793, the male line 
of Anhalt-Zerbst became extinct (see History of Anhalt), the Russian em- 
press Katharine IL, belonging to this lino, inherited the dominion of Jever 
and entailed it upon her son and grand-children. But the emperor Alexan- 
der ceded it in 1818 to Oldenburg, which in 1823 took formal posseesion of 
it It contains : Jkvee, formerly its capital, near a bay of the North Sea, 
north-westward and 84 miles distant from the city of Oldenburg, with some 
manufactures, considerable trade, and even commerce, and 4,200 inhahi- 
tanta. The seaport of Jever is at ffookaislj a village with 760 inhabitantsL 
Near the coast lies the isle of Wangeroofft with 400 inhabitants, and much 
resorted to for sea-bathing. The Lordship of Knifhausen, belonging to the 
carl of Bentink under the supremacy of the g^and duke of Oldenburg, has 
an area of only 21 square miles, and a population of 8,100 inhabitants. Li 
the history of Oldenburg we have seen, that Earl Anton Gfinther, who died 
in 1667, bequeathed this lordship to his natural son, Anton earl of Alden- 
burg, together with the dominion of Varel, politically conneoted with it By 
way of marriage the earl William of Bentink became possessed of these 
two dominions in 1788, and entailed them upon his descendants When in 
1806 the German empire was solved, the earl of Bentink attained to politi- 
cal independency, but in 1807 he was by Napoleon subordinated to the 
kingdom of Holland, and in 1810 to the Frendi empire. In 1814 he re- 
quired in vain to be admitted as actual and independent member of the 
German Confederation, and was subordinated to the supremacy of the duke 
or grand duke of Oldenburg, yet allowed to retain some special privileges. 
The lordship contains, beside 3 villages (with noted horso-marts), the castle 
of Knipkauaen, seat of the dependent government The above-mentioned 
dominion of Varel (48 square miles, and 6,000 inhabitants), belonging likewise 
to the earl of Bentink, contains : Yard, its capital and residence of the earl, 
northward and 16 miles distant (rata Oldenburg, with noted horse-mart^ 



GERMANY. 425 



The GraiKl-Ducby of Oldenburg^lts Geogmphteal DlTiBioiii. 

and 8,5